Wind power is an important component of renewable energy, It will to bear the
burden of energy saving and emission reduction and optimization energy structure.
Grid-connected wind turbine is developing rapidly in our country. The most basic
components of the wind turbine is blade, the good design, reliable quality and
superior performance of the blade is the keypoint of the normal and stable operation.
This year China is on track to pass the United States as the worlds largest
market for wind turbines,but the design techniques also rely on foreign sources
(BP Group, 2012).
In practical working conditions, the wind flow past wind turbine blade with
wind shear and instantaneous changes (Burton et al.,
2001). By this the load of blade is ever-changing also. For safety, all
factors were considered at loads calculate include wind shear, centrifugal force,
pitch control delay (Lesihman, 2002; Jie
et al., 2011). The variation features of blade loads were discussed
based on strip theory. The effects of gravity, wind shear and pitch control
delaying were analyzed. A method of the equivalent coefficient for wind rotor
loads considered turbine practical efficiency was present. The results showed
the calculation precision was high enough to meet the demand of project design.
The objective of this study is having a detailed understanding of turbine blade
state of stress and strain. The load is firstly calculated by a method proposed
by authors, then get the information by full-scale blade experiment.
MODEL OF LOAD CALCULATION
Strip theory: Strip theory starts with the four equations derived from
momentum and blade element theories. In this analysis, it is assumed that the
chord and twist distributions of the blade are known. The angle of attack is
not known, but additional relationships can be used to solve for the angle of
attack and performance of the blade. The forces and moments derived from momentum
theory and blade element theory must be equal. Equating these, one can derive
the flow conditions for a turbine design (Jonkman and Butterfield,
2009; Spera, 2009).
From axial momentum:
From angular momentum:
From blade element theory:
where, the thrust, dT, is the same force as the normal force, dFN.
Thus, equation from blade element theory can be written as:
The force of blade at different wind speed can be calculate by this theory.
On the other hand, combine with the equivalent coefficient method, we determine
the scheme of loading at the test (Jie et al., 2013).
FULL-SCALE BLADE TEST
Loading modes: In the test, there are five loading point, 15 m (F1),
21 m (F2), 25.5 m (F3), 30 m (F4) and 34.4 m (F5) distance from blade root.
Direction of loading is Flap edge of the blade. The method of loading is multi-stage
loading from 30, 60, 80, 100, 106 and 110% of limit load. Figure
1 depicts the distribution of loading point.
Figure 2 is the photo of experimental field. In the photo,
the tested equipment is full-scale wind turbine blade. The total length of blade
is 37.5 m, the power of turbine is 1.5 MW.
Location of detecting: In order to effectively observation the blade
structural behavior with loading, chose 22 point to set up observation point
at five different sections (0.8, 12, 23, 28 and 32 m). The specific situation
see Fig. 3.
Tsections strain of wielding positive under different loads:
When the load is up to 110%, the strain diagram of the position measuring point
on the both sides of the main beam of three directions (-45, 0, +45°) is
|| Sketch of loading point
It can be obviously observed from the Fig. 4 and 5
that the strain of the blade under the condition of wielding forward in the
direction of a 0° angle (along the direction of main beam) is larger. Due
to the change in angle of the ply, the strain of other two directions is relatively
slightly smaller. On the whole, we can find that SS surface is under tension
strain and PS surface is under compressive strain when leaves waving the positive.
Test sections principal strain of wielding positive under different
loads: The principal strain of each measuring point on main beam SS surface
under load at all level is shown in Fig. 6.
It can be shown in Fig. 6 the SS surfaces main strain
of the main beam on the blade under the condition of wielding positive concentrate
on the place at the range of 7 and 28 M. In the place of 7 M, the pressure strain
at maximum is - 3163.80 με when the tensile strain at maximum is 3359.51με
at 18 M. The strain of two places grows linearly.
|| Photo of experimental field
|| Sketch of observation position
||Strain distribute of blades SS surface at full loading
||Strain distribute of blades PS surface at full loading
||Main strains of blades SS surface at different loading
It is mean that the increase ratio of strain and the reapportion of growth
under the external load are basically the same. It shows that all test points
of the SS surface are within the range of linear elastic.
||Main strains of blades PS surface at different loading
|| Blade displacements at different loads
All measuring points principal strain of the main beams PS surface
at all levels of load is shown in Fig. 7.
It can be shown in Fig. 7 that PS surfaces strain of
the main beam concentrate on the place at the range of 7 and 28 M when leaves
is on the static load experiment of wielding positive. Among them, the compressive
strain at maximum is -5737.35με at 12 M and the tensile strain at
maximum is 2169.80με at 7 M. And the strain at 12 M increases linearly.
Due to Leaves are shell structure, when leaf surface appeared buckling phenomenon
in the previous experiments, so the leading edge of blade section and the trailing
edge of the two test interface (at 7 and at 18 M) of the blade section of larger
are also monitored on this test.
All load points displacement under different loads of Waving positive.
All load sections when leaves is in waving a positive conditions appear the
phenomenon which the displacement of the leaves roots is smaller and the
end is larger. Based on field observations and the actual measurement, it can
be known that the displacement of all sections is nearly linear, shown on Fig.
8. The displacement at maximum at the end of blade is 4.03 M when the section
of 33.8 M is at full load.
This study examined the importance of load on structure damage. This experiment
which loads be applied include different value and distance. It can draw conclusions
based on the calculation and analysis of the experimental data:
||The strain of the blade under the condition of wielding forward
in the direction of a 0° angle is larger than the direction of a 45°
angle. The strain is smaller at the range of 0 M (root) and 7 M. It increased
at the range of 7 and 28 M. And then it gradually return to the smaller.
On the whole, we can find that SS surface is under tension strain and PS
surface is under compressive strain when leaves waving the positive
||The SS surfaces strain of the main beam on the blade
under the condition of wielding positive at the range of 0 and 12 M is mainly
compressive strain and the pressure strain at maximum is -3163.80με
at 7 M, when the strain at the range of 12 and 32 M is mainly tensile strain
and the tensile strain at maximum is 3359.51με at 18 M
||The PS surfaces strain of the main beam on the blade
under the condition of wielding positive is mainly compressive strain as
a whole. The strain at the range of 0.8 and 12 M gradually increases and
the strain at maximum is - 5737.35με at 12 M when the strain at
the range of 12 and 32 M gradually decreases and the strain return to minimum
is -1249.62με at 32 M
||All load sections when leaves is in waving a positive conditions
appear that its displacement gradually increases from the root to the tip.
The displacement at maximum is 4.03 at 33.8 M