Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Characteristics of Water Resources Utilization and Virtual Water Trade in Hebei Province

H.Z. Zhang and B.R. Huang
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Water resource is one of the main factors limiting the development of water-deficient areas. Virtual water theory and virtual water trade model were used to analyze the characteristics of water resources utilization in Hebei Province. Based on an input-output model, water resource consumptions in different sectors of the economy and virtual water in domestic and international trade in Hebei Province were analyzed. Results indicated that natural resource exploitation and processing sectors topped the list of water consumption intensity which including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, nonmetal minerals and other minerals mining and dressing industries and electric power, steam and hot water producing industry. Hebei Province was the net input area in the domestic trade while the net output area in the foreign trade in 2007. The later was far more than the former which finally made Hebei Province the net output area of virtual water. The net output of virtual water was 10.521 billion m3 in 2007, almost 52.13% of total water consumption in Hebei Province. Massive exportation of high-water-consumption products which were mainly produced by agriculture, food manufacturing industry, tobacco processing industry and metals smelting and pressing industry, intensified the pressure of water resource in Hebei Province. Thus, the exportation of high-water-consumption products should be controlled to relieve the regional contradiction between the supply and requirement of water resources.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

H.Z. Zhang and B.R. Huang , 2013. Characteristics of Water Resources Utilization and Virtual Water Trade in Hebei Province. Journal of Applied Sciences, 13: 3470-3474.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2013.3470.3474


1:  Allan, J.A., 1998. Virtual water: A strategic resource global solutions to regional deficits. Ground Water, 36: 545-546.
CrossRef  |  

2:  Dietzenbacher, E. and E. Velazquez, 2007. Analysing andalusian virtual water trade in an input-output framework. Reg. Stud., 41: 185-196.
CrossRef  |  

3:  Guan, D. and K. Hubacek, 2007. Assessment of regional trade and virtual water flows in China. Ecol. Econ., 61: 159-170.
CrossRef  |  

4:  Liu, Z. and B.L. Li, 2010. Reviews of virtual water trade theory and its related policies. China Popul. Resour. Environ., 20: 134-138.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Ma, J., D.X. Wang and A.Y. Hoekstra, 2006. Application of the virtual water trade to China's grain security. Adv. Water Sci., 17: 102-107.

6:  Velazquez, E., 2007. Water trade in Andalusia. Virtual water: An alternative way to manage water use. Ecol. Econ., 63: 201-208.
CrossRef  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved