Since 1990, the growth of information technology and the revolution of Internet
have significantly changed the world. The technological advancements have changed
the features of the world and have made human life much easier. A lot of sectors
have been benefited by the technological revolution including, economic, business
and communication sectors. One of these sectors is the banking sector. Of late
these sectors use technology to improve their services and extend their business
operations 24 h a day, 7 days a week (AbuShanab et al.,
According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) report, the users
of Internet have increased more than three times, within the past ten years,
based on the indicator, the percentage will be further increased in 2012 (ITU,
2011). However, the degree of the increase differs among developed countries
and developing countries. This has lead us to explore the gap between developed
countries and developing countries in terms of technology adoption (ITU,
The developing countries face a lot of challenges, even at the initial stages
of introducing new technologies, such as the limited availability of fixed broadband
access (ITU, 2010a), influence the differences of demographic
factors (age, gender, education and income) (Burke, 2002),
trusting beliefs (Zhang et al., 2008), perceived
usefulness, perceived ease of use, consumer awareness and perceived risk (Safeena,
As discussed earlier, the development in information systems and Internet usage
has created a lot of opportunities for the organizations, to provide more enhanced
products and services. The technological developments have made our lives easy
and have removed the constraints of time and place or cost.
As mentioned above a lot fields use Information Technologies (IT) and mobiles,
to provide enhanced products and services. IT has been used in health, economics,
services, financial and education sectors. This study will highlight the usage
of IT in the financial sector especially the banking services.
This study has reviewed the literature in two main areas such as, the impact
of demographic factors on the adoption of mobile banking services and discovering
their relationship with user interface. The second area reviewed the other factors
that influence the adoption level.
This study focuses on Jordan, as an example of developing countries, to depict
the impact of the factors. Jordan has been selected as sample because of its
distinctive location in the Middle East, noteworthy cultural differences from
Western cultures and the recent commitment in developing its information technology
infrastructure (Al-Sukkar and Hasan, 2005; Akour
et al., 2006).
DEVELOPMENT USING IT IN BANKING SECTOR
According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) report, the last
decade has witnessed a huge revolution in terms of technological advancement,
The Internet users have increased more than three times within the past ten
years, as shown in Fig. 1. However, the degree of the increase
differs among developed countries and developing countries. This has lead us
to explore the gap between developed countries and developing countries in terms
of technology adoption (ITU, 2011).
It is evident that the developing countries have a low penetration rate of
information technology and Internet services. However, the penetration in developed
countries, is increasing at a very fast pace. Figure 2 illustrates
the rate of information technology and the Internet penetration that exceeds
more than 100% (ITU, 2011).
For example, Haque et al. (2009) have stated
that due to the significant and consistent economical growth, Malaysia will
soon become a developed Nation. Despite this constructive growth, the rate of
adopting Internet banking is relatively low in Malaysia and it lacks research
in terms of identifying the factors that influence the adoption of Internet
banking. It is noteworthy, that in spite of the availability of technological
facilities Internet banking is still in infancy stage in Malaysia. Hence, it
has become hard for the banking industry to design new applications and features
that would enhance the dissemination of Internet banking (Haque
et al., 2009).
According to a report by ITU, the rate of mobile penetration is increasing
rapidly, it has been reported that 90% of the world population had been covered
in 2010. However, now the percentage of this penetration is different than the
previous years, the report has further stated that the cellular-mobile subscriptions
were very high in Europe and the America and at a good rate within the Arabic
states, nevertheless the lowest percentage was in Africa as illustrated in the
Fig. 3 (ITU, 2011).
Recently mobile phones are rapidly becoming the primary personal gateway to
access information (Hicks and Adler, 2006). Different
types of mobile phone devices, smart phones and PDA can access the Internet
to get the information or services (Guirguis and Hassan,
2010). Low fees, time saving and freedom from time and place are the main
advantages of handheld devices (Karjaluoto et al.,
2002). Traditionally, the distribution of services in the retail banking
industry largely meant customers having to visit a physical branch (Bricks
and Mortar) to access any financial services(Smith,
2006). Now-a-days, there is a tremendous progress on distributing banking
services particularly using mobile devices.
|| Global number of internet users from 2001-2011 (ITU,
|| Global internet users by level of development (ITU,
|| Global mobile penetration in 2011 (ITU,
Electronic banking is considered as one of the most successful business-to-consumer
applications in electronic commerce (Pousttchi and Schurig,
2004). Ahmed et al. (2011a) have mentioned
that the adoption of electronic commerce could; enhance productivity, reduce
cost, increase profit and enable mass customization and convenient participation
of customer in different sectors. The Electronic bank comprises various types
of services and transactions that are conducted via Internet, especially the
E-banking: In Internet banking, the online banking activities are carried
out with the help of the official website of the banks, the online banking services
have simplified the transactions. According to Harma and
Dubey (2009), Lee and Chung (2009) and Hamadi
(2010), the simplest definition for Internet banking or online banking is:
enabling customers to check their account balance and transfer money between
accounts and can even perform online purchases while sitting in the comforts
of their homes.
The shift from traditional banking methods to Internet banking has created
a lot of challenges to the banking sectors. This shift has changed the ways
of distributing services which consequently forced them to change their plan.
It has also changed the way of attracting clients to use this new and improved
method called E-banking and to retain the current clients (Hamadi,
The main benefit of using Internet banking for financial institutions is increasing
the profit through cost savings by utilizing the Internet (AbuShanab
and Pearson, 2007). A typical Internet-based banking transaction averages
about $.01 in cost, while transactions at a physical bank location or through
an ATM costs $1.07 and $.27, respectively (Giglio, 2002).
Additionally, the use of online banking reduces the time necessary for customer
transactions to occur (Karjaluoto et al., 2003).
It is evident that, E-baking facilitates the banking sector to offer an economical
and undeviating means of sending information and to sell or buy products and
services. As most of the banks in developed nations have recognized the significances
of E-banking, they have totally focused on providing E-banking services (Sarlak
et al., 2009).
The use of Internet banking, especially in developed countries, has grown rapidly
over the past couple of years. The low fees, time saving and mobility are considered
as most important elements of Internet banking (Karjaluoto
et al., 2002). But there are some inhibitors to internet banking
such as, complexity (Black et al., 2002), the
cost of a product or service (Black et al., 2002),
ignorance of electronic services and Internet (Sathye, 1999)
and security risk (Sathye, 1999; Black
et al., 2002). However, in contrast to previous studies, Karjaluoto
has found that factors such as security is not considered as obstacle for the
adoption of Internet banking (Karjaluoto et al.,
Mobile banking: m-commerce is considered as the next big phase in technological
advancement, following the e-commerce era (Chew, 2006).
Mobile commerce, is the process of using a mobile phones or Personal Digital
Assistants (PDAs) or any handheld devices to sell or buy products, goods and
services from anywhere at any time. In other words, it is the ability to conduct
commerce through a mobile device; any transaction that involves a transfer of
ownership to use goods and services and done through any mobile device or personal
phone is called as mobile commerce. Following the e-commerce era, the mobile
commerce is thought to be the next big trend in technological evolvement, due
to the changing needs of consumers (Barnes, 2002). This
new trend is spreading very rapidly throughout the world, as it is one of the
most convenient ways to sell or buy products and does not consume much time.
Few indicators about the penetration of mobile commerce were presented in one
of the studies by ITU World Telecommunications, such as: the growth of
cellular mobile is slowing worldwide. In developed countries, the mobile market
has reached saturation levels with on average 116 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants
at the end of 2010 and a marginal growth of 1.6% from 2009-2010 (ITU,
However, the developing countries have increased their shares of mobile subscriptions
from 53-73% between 2005 and 2010 (ITU, 2010a), furthermore
the rate of Internet users had grown rapidly in last five years.
According to Alqatan et al. (2011), the mobile
technology is evolving very rapidly and offer a lot of features including creating
new job opportunities and revenues for the organizations such as, personalization,
localization, ubiquity, instant connectivity, time and place convenience. In
short it has been accepted as part of peoples daily life (Lee
and Chung, 2009). Many of researchers have defined mobile banking as an
application of m-commerce which enables customers to access bank accounts through
mobile devices to conduct transactions such as, checking account status, transferring
money, payments and selling stocks etc. (Amin et al.,
2007; Harma and Dubey, 2009; Lee
and Chung, 2009; Li and Zhang, 2010; Masinge,
2010; Khraim et al., 2011).
MOBILE BANKING TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS
Despite the previous indicators, there are still some weakness in adopting
and using mobile devices in financial services, despite the existence of different
mobile banking technologies. The disadvantages of the adoption of mobile commerce
are: (1) small screen size of mobile devices (2) limited screen resolution and
difficult keypad and (3) vulnerability of information and security risk (Siau
and Shen, 2003).
The evolution of mobile banking began with the use of the Interactive Voice
Response (IVR) calls which is an automated telephony system that interacts with
callers and gathers relevant information and routes calls to the appropriate
destinations (Patel and Marwala, 2008). Later lot of
other technologies emerged especially in the domain of mobile commerce. The
most popular Mobile Banking technology solutions are: (1) browser-based applications
or WAP-banking (2) client-based applications or Mobile banking with PDA and
(3) messaging-based applications or SMS-banking (Pousttchi
and Schurig, 2004; Kim et al., 2009).
Browser-based applications or WAP-banking applications use Internet protocol
to access the banking portal and conduct several transactions; these types of
applications require a mobile service provider with a wireless access protocol
(Kim et al., 2009; Masinge,
2010). Similar to the Internet banking method, the clients send a request
for special services (client account balance, latest transactions, transfer
money among accounts users, make buy and sell orders or goods online and stock
exchange) through their mobiles and then they will receive the responses from
the banking data base through the page. This solution is considered the most
widespread solution for mobile banking (Pousttchi and Schurig,
The second application is client-based applications or mobile banking with
smart phones; mobile banking applications were designed for the mobile phones,
however, some applications enable mobile banking through PDAs and this could
eliminate the technical restrictions of mobile phones (Pousttchi
and Schurig, 2004). The applications installed in the smart phones will
enable the connectivity and helps to conduct the transactions much easier and
The third solution is messaging-based applications or SMS-banking: The client
creates a short message and sends it to the authority concerned such as, a network
operator. The network operator then sends this message to the bank, then the
bank can generate a SMS from current bank data like account balance or account
movements and send them back to the mobile device of the customer (Pousttchi
and Schurig, 2004; Laukkanen, 2007a).
The diversity in using technology for different financial solutions creates
major opportunities for banks, to take advantage of these services. Some of
these advantages are: decreases the cost of delivery services, resolves the
issues of access to finance, 24 h service availability to clients (Coelho
and Easingwood, 2003) access to the service regardless of time and place
and provide privacy and savings in time and effort for clients (Suoranta,
Even though no one can deny that, mobile bank has a huge market potential,
its situation in reality is disappointing (Min and Fei,
2009). Because innovations like mobile banking face different types of barriers
such as usage barrier, value barrier, risk barrier, tradition barrier
and image barrier (Harma and Dubey, 2009).
Previous studies have indicated that different clients have several reasons
for resisting mobile banking. One of these reasons is the social system influence.
The older and less educated people are more opposed to the adoption banking
innovations. Moreover, youths, males with high level education and good income
are more amenable to adopt the innovations (Baker et
al., 2007; Sulaiman et al., 2007; Harma
and Dubey, 2009). The fear of sharing personal information is also considered
as a significant barrier for some clients (Harma and Dubey,
CURRENT SITUATION OF MOBILE BANKING SERVICES
Some indicators and international results, discussed in the previous sections
have revealed that, there is a gap between developed countries and developing
countries, due to the high levels of illiteracy; low levels of income and different
cultural levels (Alafeef et al., 2011).
For instance in Libya, a previous research conducted by Ahmed
et al. (2011a) and they found that there are some barriers that hinder
the adoption of electronic commerce such as: payment method, insecure credit
cards billing and insufficient knowledge of the service cost contends with the
technological advances in e-commerce adoption (Ahmed et
Some of the countries have achieved tangible results such as, China, Brazil
and Kenya, where the number of new users of mobile banking increased over 100%
in one year (Khraim et al., 2011). The percentage
of mobile banking users was also high in the UK, USA, Singapore, South Korea
and Sweden, because the banks provide their clients with new services via their
mobile handsets. The Middle East is considered to be the second fastest growing
region after US and Canada in adoption of mobile and telecommunication. Saudi
Arabia and Iran are considered as the biggest mobile market in the area (Al-Hosni
et al., 2010).
The Middle East countries are considered to be developing countries; these
countries have the desire to catch up with the developed countries in the usage
of technology, through developments in the infrastructure and plans that are
set for future and raising the awareness amongst the people about the need to
using these services.
Jordan is amongst one of the developing countries in the Middle East that has
been witnessing a rapid growth in terms of Internet banking. According to (AbuShanab
et al., 2010), the Internet banking has rapidly grown since 2001
and many of the Jordanian banks have started offering the financial services
Previously, all banks from all around the world have developed different ways
to provide financial services to their clients, such as ATM (Automated Teller
Machine) or telephone banking and SMS; however after realizing the significance
of cost savings by utilizing the Internet services most of the banks now offer
Internet banking and mobile banking.
According to Eid (2004), Jordan has first witnessed
the dawn of Internet in the year 1996. Based on the report from Department of
Statistics in the year 2010, ninety eight percent of families in the Hashemite
Kingdom of Jordan have mobile devices. The report also indicates that 27% of
Internet users are aged 5 years and above during 2010. Using Internet through
personal computer was more than 97% in 2010, also the percentage of users using
Internet through mobile handheld WAP or GPRS has increased from
7.2-12.1% between 2009 and 2010 (DOS, 2010).
Based on our investigation in terms of using Internet by the Jordanians, we
have found that most people are using the Internet for fun, listening to music,
downloading movies or software and to access social networks such as Facebook
and Twitter (DOS, 2010). However, the percentage of using
Internet for banking services was only 3.6% in 2009 and 5% in 2010 (DOS,
Based on the report from the Central Bank of Jordan, there are 13 Commercial
Banks, 9 Foreign Branches, 3 Jordanian Islamic Banks and 1 Foreign Islamic Branches
in Jordan (http://www.cbj.gov.jo/pages.php?menu_id=34).
Table 1 shows the directory of banks operating in Jordan
until 2012, with their online services.
||Directory of banks working in Jordan until 2012 with their
online services provided
Provide, X: Not provide
Based on the Table 1, we have understood that there is a
need to investigate and discover the reasons behind the reluctance of local
commercial banks, to provide financial services through mobiles and to study
the relationship among this reluctance and percentages of adopting mobile banking
between members of the Jordanian society.
It is believed that, reluctance is one of reasons behind this low level adoption,
moreover, the clients and demographic factors have big influence of on adoption
level. From this point we must study and understand the relationship between
the demographic factors and adoption level.
IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN ADOPTION OF MOBILE BANKING
The core area that will be covered in this review understanding the demographic
factors that can have a big influence on the adoption of IT, especially in the
mobile banking services; In addition, we will evaluate and measure their influence.
This study has investigated the four demographic factors such as: Age, Gender,
Education and Income. Many previous researchers have selected these factors
as main demographic factors (Baker et al., 2007;
Sulaiman et al., 2007; Harma
and Dubey, 2009; Alafeef et al., 2011).
Previous studies have evaluated and measured the impact of these factors, by
using different type of adoption theories and models. However, most of these
studies had been conducted in developed countries (AbuShanab
et al., 2010), without evaluating or studying the situation in developing
countries, where low level of education and income with different culture exists,
for example the social and culture characteristics are different between Arab
countries and Western countries (Baker et al., 2007).
According to Rogers (1995), youngsters with high level
of education and income are the early adopters of innovations. Another study
in US has found that, the education and income level have positive impact on
adoption level and age has negative impact on adoption of phone banking, furthermore,
gender has significant influence in phone banking (Kolodinsky
et al., 2004). Similarly, Lee et al. (2003)
have reported about the influence of age, education and income level in computer
Mattila (2003) has analyzed the Internet banking behavior
of mature customers; she has found that, having a good level of education and
household have significant effect on adoption level (Karjaluoto
et al., 2003). In terms of the factors affecting the adoption of
mobile banking services, she has indicated that all demographic factors have
significant effect (Mattila, 2003).
Mirza et al. (2009a, b)
have also contacted few more important studies in Iran in terms of discussing
the roles of demographic features in adopting internet banking, these studies
have revealed that, the demographic features effectively influence the adoption
of internet banking services.
As a foundation for this study Alafeef et al. (2011)
carried out some online surveys, to reflect the current situation in Jordan.
The main purpose of this survey was to evaluate and investigate the role of
age, gender, education and income in the adoption of mobile banking in Jordan.
The results of survey was compatible with what we have mentioned earlier.
Age: The influence of age is noticeable in various earlier researches.
For example, Wood (2002) has identified that younger
adults less than 25 years old are interested in adopting any new technology,
more than older customers. Venkatesh and Morris (2000)
have also suggested that, it is extremely important to understand the age differences,
particularly in adoption study of any new technology. Mattila
et al. (2003), have studied the internet banking behavior mature
customers, she has reported that the majority of Internet banking users
are middle aged (Karjaluoto et al., 2003).
Sulaiman et al. (2007) have conducted a study
in Malaysia, to investigate the consumers behavior and motivation towards
this innovation (mobile banking). They have found that mobile banking is more
popular among younger consumers (Sulaiman et al.,
2007). They have returned this result for penetration of mobile devices
such as, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or smart phone between younger clients.
One of the most important studies indicates that the younger people who
are working in a good, well-paid profession do not perceive mobile banking to
be as risky as other online customers(Harma and Dubey,
2009). Laukkanen (2007b) has argued that the high
levels of education, income, long Internet banking usage experience and high
Internet banking usage frequency are some of the reasons that influence the
adoption mobile banking (Laukkanen, 2007a).
Mirza et al. (2009b) have stated that age does
not have prominent influence of in the adoption of online banking services.
Hence, age is not considered as a critical variable for banks that plan to offer
Internet banking services.
To study or evaluate the impact of age, the researcher must divide the users
age into groups; some researchers such as Mattila have divided them into 4 groups.
Mattila (2003) has argued that the users of mobile banking
are often from the age group of 25-34 years old, whereas non-users were relatively
older compared to other groups. Every third of non-users (31.7%) belong to age
group of 35-49 years old and 25.9% to 50 to 64 years old (Mattila,
However, the situation in Middle East is different, for example in Saudi Arabia
the factor of age was important in influencing differences in IT adoption,
because the population Saudi Arabia is relatively young. The percentage of those
aged less than 45 is very high, also the percentage of those aged 65 or above
was just less than 3% (Baker et al., 2007). Another
study has indicated about the impact of younger people within the Arabic world,
it has showed that the younger people in the Arabic world helped the Arabic
organizations to bring through and adopt the technological change (Hill
et al., 1998).
In the other countries in Middle East such as Jordan, we have identified that
the majority of potential users of mobile banking services are between 17 and
35 years old (Alafeef et al., 2011). Because
this category have unique features compared with other categories such as familiarity
with the latest mobile technologies (Mattila, 2003),
high level of education and experience (Alafeef et al.,
The previous positive indicators have encouraged the banking sector to target
this category, in marketing and strategic planning to increase the adoption
level, by encouraging the younger cohorts to adopt the application. This will
make them as a potential group of users for mobile banking application in Jordan
(Alafeef et al., 2011).
Education: The education level plays important role in consumers
attitude towards online shopping (Monsuwe et al.,
2004). The previous studies have indicated that the customers, are more
familiar in using nontraditional means such as online shopping (Burke,
2002). Li et al. (1999) have mentioned that
the main reason for this is the education which is positively correlated with
an individuals level of Internet literacy.
According to Hill et al. (1998) education is
one of the social factors that have motivated the Arab individuals towards adopting
IT. They have also found that, the education level is an important factor that
has impact on organizational behavior, especially in terms of adopting new technology.
Another study has found that the education level is the most important avenue
to improve social standing in Arab society (Baker et
Harma and Dubey (2009) have reported that the clients
who are less educated and old, are significantly more opposed to banking innovations,
than the other members of a social system. Another important study conducted
by Sulaiman et al. (2007) in Malaysia has revealed
that only 2.9% of the respondents who have secondary education and below are
adopters. But 75% of the adopters have high level of education (university level).
When it comes to discuss the current situation of education and its influence
within developing countries, we have found many differences between countries
in same area. For example, the education level in Yemen is much different than
the level in Gulf Countries. Another research by Ahmed et
al. (2011b), has indicated that the high rate of illiteracy has heavily
hindered the implementation of e-commerce in Libya (Ahmed
et al., 2011a).
Many researchers have classified the education level of respondents into 4
groups: (1) University degree or above (2) Diploma/Higher Diploma degree (3)
Secondary school education and (4) Primary school. Thus, in our previous research
we have found that, there is a significant relationship between the level of
education and the percentage of adopting mobile banking. The potential users
of mobile banking will have secondary school education and above (Alafeef
et al., 2011).
Income: Mobile banking service providers must be able to understand
the influence of demographic factors on the adoption level, by segmenting the
clients into groups, according to their education level, language, age, gender
and income level. When the bank understands the relationship it will guide the
marketing plan to specific groups. By encouraging them to adopt these services
they can maintain existing customers and acquire new customers.
In as the case of online shopping, income level influences the usage of online
shopping (Monsuwe et al., 2004). A lot of researchers
have stated that, income level is an extremely important factor that has a strong
influence on the adoption level (Masinge, 2010).
Sulaiman et al. (2007) has highlighted relationship
of income on the adoption level in Malaysia. He has stated that none of the
respondents, who earned below RM1500/500$ monthly were using mobile banking
but 89.7% of the respondent who earned between RM5000/1650$ to RM7000/2300$
monthly were using the mobile banking (Sulaiman et al.,
2007). According to Mirza et al. (2009b)
the demographic features such as, the gender and the job designation are two
significant factors that influence the adoption of internet banking in Iran.
This result was consistent with our previous research which has indicated that,
there is a negative impact of income amongst Jordanians compared to other developing
neighboring countries in the Arabic region. This is the main reason for the
Jordanians to avoid the using mobile banking. According to World Bank, Jordan
is an upper middle-income country with a per-capita GNI (Gross national income)
of $4,390. This is considered to be an obstacle of the adoption level (Alafeef
et al., 2011). This result is consistent with other results from
other researches which were conducted by Ahmed et al.
(2011a). And they have found that the low income per capita is the main
barrier that affects the adoption e-commerce in general (Ahmed
et al., 2011b).
Depending on all of the previous researches the adoption of mobile banking
is widespread amongst high-income earners which is consistent with (Karjaluoto
et al., 2003; Sulaiman et al., 2007;
Alafeef et al., 2011). Reason for this
is that higher household incomes are often positively correlated with possession
of computers, Internet access and higher education levels of consumers
(Lohse et al., 2000).
This issue guides us to consider how to attract people, who have low level
income to adopt mobile banking, by designing of application to make it in small
size, compatible with different types of phones not just smart phones and ability
to work within different infrastructure such as low speed of connection.
Gender: According to Laforet and Li (2005) masculine
gender are more interested in using various types of technologies. Venkatesh
and Morris (2000) have investigated the relationship between gender differences
and the percentage of adoption. They have identified that the gender is an important
determinant of technology adoption and usage. Venkatesh
and Moris (2000) mentioned that the two different studies conducted in Germany
and UK have indicated that the percentage of men is more than women.
Men express a greater interest in using various types of technology, because
they have positive features. As example, Monsuwe et al.
(2004) has studied the relationship between the gender differences and online
shopping and has found that the men are more positive in using online shopping
than women, whereas females prefer traditional way of shopping or by catalog.
Straub et al. (1997) have found that men are
more likely to adopt specific computer technologies. Furthermore, Mirza
et al. (2009a) have also indicated that in Iran, Internet banking
services are heavily used by masculine gender as compared against the feminine
Almost most of previous studies have obtained same results about the relation
or influence of gender on IT using or adoption. In Malaysia, Ainin Sulaiman
has conducted a research to explore the differences between males and females
in adoption of mobile banking. He has revealed that approximately 70% of males
use mobile banking, as against 34.4% of the females (Sulaiman
et al., 2007). In contrast, DeBaillon and Rockwell
(2005) on has found that the influence of gender differences on adoption
level of Internet banking is not significant.
In other areas, Arabian region has a long-standing cultural tradition
and entrenched social norms that distinctly define the gender roles (Hu
et al., 2010). For example, In Saudi Arabia, as in other Arab
states, there is a sharp division of labor between men and women (Baker
et al., 2007). So there are weaknesses in adopting or using different
types of IT solutions among females. This situation exists, because traditionally,
women have not adequately participated in the Saudi workforce (Haddad,
1998). Al-Gahtani et al. (2007) has same
opinion about that, where, women constitute a minority of the work force in
this region and the women do not use or adopt any new technology. Women account
for almost two thirds of the population in the Arabian region but unfortunately
only represent 4% of its Internet users (Al-Gahtani et
However, in Jordan, we have conducted survey to evaluate the relationship between
gender and Internet usage. The result has indicated that the percentage of male
Jordanian Internet users is higher than females (Alafeef
et al., 2011). This is due to the fact that men are willing to take
risks and are anxious to try out any new technological products more than women.
Besides this, men also read more technological magazines and have a greater
involvement with technological products (Sulaiman
et al., 2007). And in Arabic state the men have willingness to use
or try any new technology more than women. The following table (Table
2) summarizes the related studies in the field of demographic factors and
Other factors: Many of other factors which are related to the characteristics
of people, have a great influence on the adoption of the innovation or technologies,
for example culture is considered to be a significant factor that has a strong
influence on adopting technology. Especially, social and cultural characteristics
of Arabic and Islamic societies are very different from those of the West. Several
authors have explored that the weak adoption of any new technology could be
related to differences in culture within the specific countries (Al-Sukkar
and Hasan, 2005; Akour et al., 2006).
Empirical investigation was conducted by Srite (2006)
to examine the issue of the acceptance of technology across two cultures such
as China and the US. In general, this study has shown that national culture
affects the acceptance and use of information technologies. Bandyopadhyay
and Fraccastoro (2007) have used Hofstedes dimensions of culture to
compare India as developing country and the U.S. as developed country, they
have found that culture did impact behavioral intention through perceptions
of social influence (i.e., individuals in different cultures react differently
based on what significant others think).
Language is the other that influences technology adoption, for example in countries
where English is not the official language, such as Arabian States or African
states, the language plays an important role in the adoption of various types
of Information Technology (Baker et al., 2007).
Sometimes the language of application is considered as an obstacle. For example,
some of banks depend on the outsource firms to develop the application or purchase
application and mostly these applications do not support multiple languages.
This is considered as an obstacle of the applications.
IMPACT OF USER INTERFACE ON ADOPTION LEVEL
The previous sections have demonstrated that there is a relationship between
age, education, income and gender with the rate of adoption of any innovation.
|| Summary of related studies in field of impact the demographic
Was covered, X: Wasnt covered
But logically, the solution to these problems is through the governmental
plans at the country level.
For example, the government must attempt to improve the learning process to
raise the educational levels and to eradicate illiteracy. Raising the level
of personal income by providing employment opportunities to offer a decent life
style for people, instill computer culture amongst females in general and amongst
individuals, who are over 40 years old, to adopt technology to saving time,
effort and money.
It was noted that the users in some developing countries such as Jordan with
current conditions do not care much about security issues or website encryption,
because until now most of individuals do not use the service (Alafeef
et al., 2011).
In general, the use of mobile devices and PDA is becoming increasingly popular,
this penetration of mobile devices and wireless networks have made the use of
mobiles become an integral part of our lives. But there are problems with using
mobile devices to navigate the websites on the Internet. The majority of web
content are tailored for desktop computers which have a large display area and
high connection speed, compared with mobile devices which have smaller display
area and limited connection bandwidth (Phatak and Mulvaney,
2002; Shrestha, 2007; Guirguis
and Hassan, 2010).
The user interface is the medium of communication between the user and computer
by using a particular software application. Beside that it is the physical means
of communication between a person and a software program or operating system
(Bajwa and Chaudhary, 2006). In the due course of evolution
of user interface has witnessed the inclusion of the cognitive and emotional
aspects of the user's experience (Laurel and Mountford, 1990).
So the user interface is considered to be a part of the mobile banking application,
therefore, it is an important factor that determines preference level. Furthermore,
it is important to focus on the quality of interface design and how the information
is displayed (Bharati and Chaudhury, 2004). Previous
research, have revealed that the user interface design is crucial in attracting
customers. Several studies have looked into the impact of website design upon
e-service performance and revealed that website design plays a major role in
customer satisfaction (Ayyash et al., 2011).
In mobile banking, the user interface is considered as the first point of contact
between clients and bank system. Therefore, it is important that a good
image is presented, as users will form their impressions based on this initial
information (Everard and Galletta, 2006).
While implementing E-banking, the human must not be considered as a non-living
thing on whom we have supremacy and their actions can be affected by constituting
physical rules. It is important for the banks to be conscious of human aspects
as they are imperative in the implementation of E-banking. A user-friendly web-interface
is considered as significant feature that affects the adoption internet banking
among Iranian clients according (Sarlak et al., 2009).
Numerous studies have explored that the influence of user interface elements
such as display formats, colors and graphs versus tables and how these factors
affect customer satisfaction (Everard and Galletta, 2006).
Oppermann (2002) has stated that there are four dimensions
to structure the user interface depending on user interface reference
model which it developed by Dzida, (1) The input/output dimension (the
look), (2) the dialogue dimension (the feel), (3) the technical or functional
dimension (the access to tools and services) and (4) the organizational dimension
(the communication and co-operation support).
Awad (2000) has proposed 13 criteria to evaluate electronic
banking web site such as color scheme type and shape of icons, page
content, service offer, primary offer, ancillaries, category site in relation
to bank size, professionalism, speed, consistency, personalization, security
|| Review of recent empirical studies
So, we must take these criteria into consideration, when planning to design
the user interface.
If the banking sector wants to develop a mobile banking system, it must consider
the extent of customer trust and satisfaction (Lee and Chung,
2009). Because, when the customers use the service or application, they
must be confident and must believe that there is a return on their investments
by saving money, time and effort.
However, now we have important questions: (1) what is the relationship between
user interface and adoption of mobile banking and (2) what is the relationship
with demographic factors? The user interface plays an important role in the
customers' confidence and satisfaction. Everard and Galletta
(2006) have argued that good interface design quality such as presentation,
format and processing efficiency enhance the formation of trust and trust
is important factor in adoption level.
According to Koukia et al. (2006) the main stimulus
in the interface design of mobile commerce applications should decrease the
unwillingness of consumers in adopting m-commerce. One of inhibitors is
the existing intimidating m-commerce interface which was developed on the foundation
of e-commerce designs. However, we cannot ignore many other significant
factors that influence the adoption of m-commerce. The Table 3
summarizes these factors from the recent empirical studies on adoption of Internet
banking or mobile banking.
Table 3 illustrates that a lot of studies that have focused
on the measures that have influenced the different variables in adopting Internet
banks and mobile banking. The table gives indicators about the most significant
factors like ease of use, usefulness, trust and security or risk issues.
The aim of our study was to highlight the influence of demographic factors
and user interface on adoption of Mobil Banking. The main strengths of this
research are, deriving its variables from previous conceptual and empirical
researches. Based on this review we had noted some of important issues which
were related with adoption studies. The first one is reluctance of local commercial
banks to provide financial services through mobiles especially in developing
countries. Secondly, in some cases the influence of demographic factors was
more significant than other factors. Most of previous studies had been conducted
in developed countries, without evaluating or studying the situation in developing
countries, where the situation is different. This study had also linked the
impact of demographic factors and user interface in adoption of new technologies.
Having good interface design such as presentation, format and processing efficiency
will enhance the formation of trust, where, trust is an important factor in
influencing the adoption level.