MIH: State of Art and a Proposed Future Direction in the Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Yass K. Salih,
Ong Hang See
The handover between different access technologies is considered
as one of the most challenging tasks in wireless networks. Vertical handover
can achieve the concept of next generation networks in terms of the wireless
networking environment, where any service can be optimized and apparently delivered
at any time. To achieve seamless handover between heterogeneous wireless networks
a new mechanism is needed to work in parallel with IEEE 802.21 standard. The
current solution is suitable for wired networks. However, it has a limitation
in fourth generation wireless networks like: WiMAX and LTE. The development
of these networks will provide more services to the user. On the other hand,
new parameters must be considered in the handover process. This paper discusses
solutions for achieving seamless vertical handover between different mobile
technologies. This review investigated various enhancement of Media Independent
Handover (MIH). The results of this investigation can be used in new researches
in mobility management protocols and cross-layer techniques. The new research
will provide effectual collaboration among assorted wireless networks and therefore
enables optimized seamless service mobility to the end-users.
Received: March 22, 2012;
Accepted: May 07, 2012;
Published: July 28, 2012
Since the past decade, the mobile technologies have become an essential constituent
of our day to day life. The business and technological word has seen enormous
growth in the domain of wireless communication due to the escalating demand
from all the quarters. Wireless communication technologies have evolved from
the first generation to the fourth generation (4G) (Li et
al., 2009). Each generation offers different technologies, representative
standards, radio frequencies, bandwidths, multi-address techniques, core networks
and service types. The development of advanced wireless access technologies
such as LTE and WiMAX delivers more sophisticated services for customers. The
deployments will be able to provide connectivity between heterogeneous networks
in a number of specific locations to fulfill the expectation of users (Corici
et al., 2010; Gunasundari and Shanmugavel, 2007).
The emergence of IEEE standards (WiMAX, Wi-Fi) and the potential capacity of
fourth generation (4G) networks such as Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) or Long
Term Evolution (LTE) assure to provide improved bandwidth and coverage (Rouil
et al., 2010).
Handover is an event or process of transferring an ongoing call or data of
a mobile user who moves from one wireless base station to another (Savitha
and Chandrasekar, 2011a). The handover falls into two categories such as:
horizontal and vertical. The former associated with the handover within the
same wireless access technology whereas the later is associated with the handover
between heterogeneous wireless accesses technologies. However, the 4G wireless
networks are likely to help mechanisms to achieve seamless vertical handover.
For this to be achieved, suitable integrations of multiple architectures is
needed, which sometimes is referred to as networking solution (Yussof
and Hang, 2009; Yussof and Ong, 2010; Rahmati
and Farhadnia, 2011), mobility handling, integrated Quality of Service support
and a unified AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) handling which
are the most crucial elements of networking solution (Ei
and Furong, 2008; Eshanta et al., 2009).
Supporting multi-technologies mobile devices to have the capability of seamless
switching between various wireless access networks like WiMAX and LTE is an
important research topic in wireless communications networks.
The IEEE 802.21 working group defines the Media Independent Handover (MIH)
to provide information of network environment, cross layer control and services
to optimize the vertical handover process (Cicconetti et
al., 2010; Neves, 2009). This standard supports
the increasing user and service demand of full mobility and seamless handover
of heterogamous mobile networks. The IEEE 802.21 developed MIH framework, which
depicts the mechanism to optimize and assist the handovers in the same and varied
technologies, regardless of the nature of the network (Neves
et al., 2011). Nevertheless, the MIH framework is capable of enhancing
the handover process in the heterogeneous network using if there is no timely
information, the Mobile Node (MN) would disconnected before carrying out all
the essential signaling (Kim et al., 2011). The
present solutions employ the protocols that are created for wired networks,
such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP),
which have restrictions in a portable and wireless environment (Leni
and Srivatsa, 2008). In order to make sure flawless handover and proficient
utilization of resource in different networks, a new mechanism needs to be used
extensively. This study focuses on this problem and discusses proposed solutions
that are used in parallel with Media Independent Handovers (MIH) scheme to provide
flawless mobility with minimized latency and avoiding packet loss.
MEDIA INDEPENDENT HANDOVER (MIH)
In order to optimize the handover process among assorted networks, the IEEE
802.21 standard (Khan et al., 2010) has defined
a middleware architecture including a cross layer communication protocol and
three services as shown in Fig. 1 that helps handovers transversely
in assorted networks. These services are administered and organized by a 4th
service known as management service. Through the service management primitives,
the MIH function is capable of discovering other MIHF entities (Rouil
et al., 2010). The detail of the three services that were mentioned
is listed as follow:
Media independent event services (MIES): This tracks the events and
extradites triggers from both the local and remote interfaces. However the events
can specify the modification in the state and the transmission behavior, like
suggesting a related node modification in link quality, data rate or other alterations
associated to Access Point (AP) have occurred.
Media independent command services (MICS): This constitutes a set of instructions that might be transmitted from the higher layers to the lower layers in the protocol stack or reference model, like instructions transmitted from higher layer to MIH function and instructions transmitted from MIH function to lower layers. Commands can be both local and remote.
Media independent information service (MIIS): This service offers a set of information aspects, such as: query/response structure to permit nodes to find out and acquire the information of networks. The information for example the existing network in a neighborhood, capabilities, services provided by a node, network point of attachment, IP version, network operator cost and other network information.
The users of get the services via the Service Access Point (SAP) and the services
are provided by MIH. The higher layers (L-3 and above) and lower layers (L-2
and below) respectively (Khan et al., 2010; Marques
et al., 2010) have the MIHF interfaces served by MIH-SAP and MIH-LINK-SAP.
IEEE 802.21 provides a clear interface that:
||Furnishes concurrent link state event reporting (Event Service)
||Enables user to control link state of handover (Command Service)
||Offers automatic or on demand intersystem information (Information Service)
The scope of IEEE 802.21 standard is to establish mechanisms that facilitate
seamless connectivity among heterogeneous networks such as IEEE 802 and cellular
VERTICAL HANDOVER (VHO)
The handover process comprises at least two infrastructure nodes and one client
node. The client node is required to be attached to one of the infrastructure
nodes. When the condition of the connectivity parameters of a link is dropped
below a threshold value, the handover process will begin. This process can be
divided into steps in a number of ways. Some research works carry out the division
based on classification of phases such as Vulpehe one proposed by Velayos
and Karlsson (2003), where handover consists of three phases (Detection,
Discovery, Execution). Other research works (Savitha and Chandrasekar,
2011b) use the division where handover consists of the following phases
as shown in Fig. 2.
Handover initiation phase: Dynamic checking of network parameters such
as signal strength and link quality of available networks are carried out constantly.
Handover process begins whenever there is a better signal strength or link quality.
System discovery phase: In this phase the mobile user discovers its neighbor network and exchanges information about quality of service (QoS).
Handover decision phase: This phase compares the Mobile users QoS and the neighbor network QoS and makes the decision to which network the mobile user has to initiate the connection.
Handoff execution phase: This phase establishes the new connection and releasing the old connection. If the MN decides to implement Vertical Handover (VHO), it executes the VHO procedure that is required to be associated with the new mobile network.
Most researchers have focused mainly in the VHO decision phase, which describes the handover decision and how the decision makers choose the best from available networks. Also, there are many researchers who are trying to find the optimum mobility management solution in the handover execution.
|| Handover process
|| Challenges in vertical handover
CHALLENGES IN VERTICAL HANDOVER
Researchers have faced a lot of challenges in order to provide handover in heterogeneous networks. These challenges are derived from previous works together with proposed solutions based on MIH are described in Table 1.
The essence of this table is identification of the challenges faced by the vertical handover and how to use MIH to find an optimum solution for these challenges.
ENHANCEMENT ON MEDIA INDEPENDENT HANDOVER FRAMEWORK
Swapping of connectivity among various wireless technologies is called vertical handover. It constitutes four phases: handover initiation, network discovery, handover decision and handover execution. The MN acquires the neighbor networks information like: available bandwidth, monetary cost, security of the network, delay and packet loss in the network discovery phase. During the decision phase, by using the information obtained from neighboring networks, the MN decides which network it will be connected. After that in the handover execution stage, the MN carries out handover to the target network. MIH can be used in both the network discovery and handover decision phases. Hence, research works on MIH can be classified into two categories: (1) how to choose a suitable target network? and (2) how to decrease the delay in the handover process?
A number of network selection methods with QoS provision were introduced. An
intelligent network selection method based on multi-homed session initiation
protocol (SIP)-based network mobility (NEMO) setting was proposed by Huang
et al. (2009). Furthermore a new network-initiated handover scheme
that constitutes QoS measurement setup, passive reservation and activation steps
to aid the stability of QoS between the UMTS and Wimax 802.16e networks was
introduced by Baek et al. (2008). Kim
and Lee (2009) suggested a load balancing networks. In contrast, to minimize
the handover delay by using MIH, Huang et al. (2008)
proposed a pre-binding update scheme, which uses the information of the network
that obtained from the IS. Magagula and Chan (2008)
analyzed the lessening of handover delay in the network-based localized mobility
management structure which is helped by MIH services. The Enhanced Information
Server (EIS) was introduced by Kim et al. (2011)
to speed up vertical handover process. Nevertheless, these works have not focused
much in terms of the design of the IS architecture and the development of appropriate
algorithms for seamless vertical handover. Therefore, these issues open up opportunities
for future research work.
Many researchers have proposed new methods to enhance MIH for achieving seamless
mobility requirements. Neves (2009) had proposed a method
called EMIHF. The proposed framework expands MIH by offering the ability to
equip QoS resources in the target network while preparing for handover. Neves
et al., (2011) also investigated a new concept in Media Independent
Handover (MIH). This novel idea employs a context-aware information server,
which is capable of storing, managing and delivering concurrent dynamic information
entities recovered from the network and the terminal. Examples of objects are
available network resources, user preferences, mobile nodes characteristics
and running services. Lampropoulos et al. (2008)
identified the seamless mobility principles and employed this principle as the
base for evaluation of MIH to satisfy the necessities by mobile applications
on minimum obstruction during an inter-technology handover. Cicconetti
et al. (2010) proposed novel principles and technical solutions to
enable network-assisted handover in the heterogeneous wireless networks by exploiting
the MIIS concept of IEEE 802.21. The other researches that have proposed Enhancements
to Media Independent Handover can be categorized according to the following
Enhancement in the vertical handover prediction: Many studies have adopted
Received Signal Strength (RSS) as a key indicator of network availability. In
wireless networks, although a rapidly deteriorating value of RSS can indicate
that the MN is approaching the coverage boundary and may soon perform an imminent
handover (horizontal or vertical); in heterogeneous networking the metric alone
cannot be considered as a reliable trigger. Therefore a more robust and proactive
metric is needed that not only gives the current status of network coverage
availability but it can also predict during of the coverage and availability
of the probable network services. This knowledge is important in the handover
initiation process during vertical handover, as it can at a very early stage
allow the mobile node (MN) to take important decisions on matters of resource
allocation and QoS management. The researchers who discuses the prediction mechanism
can be summarized as follows. Joe and Shin (2010) proposed
a mobility based prediction algorithm with dynamic Link Going Down (LGD) triggering
for VHO by applying the IS of MIH. Jung et al. (2010)
proposed an efficient VHO scheme to allow the MN to handover between mobile
WiMAX and WLAN networks. Yoo et al. (2010) discussed
Timely effective handover mechanism using MIH primitives in heterogeneous wireless
networks. Yoo et al. (2009) proposed a new predictive
link trigger mechanism using a Least Mean Square (LMS) linear prediction for
seamless VHO networks. With assist of the neighbor network information that
obtained from MIH IS. Yousaf et al. (2009) presented
an intelligent model for generating MIH LGD trigger reliably. Liu
et al. (2008a) proposed a new method to estimate when a device needs
to take practical actions and prepare handovers. Liu et
al. (2008b) introduced a novel proficient triggering scheme to predict
when a device requires to carry out proactive actions and prepare for handovers.
With the smart triggering, events such as LGD might be predicted more than 1
second ahead of time. Popovici et al. (2011)
presented a new predictive mechanism to describe video streaming application
build to evaluate our prototype system. Liang et al.
(2011) presented an auto- retreating RSS prediction with hysteresis for
a mobile node (MN) to implement a predictive vertical handover. Fallon
et al. (2010) presented a Service Oriented Link Triggering Algorithm
(SOLTA) which triggers the Link Going Down (LGD) and Link Down (LD) events based
on link layer metrics but subject to the performance characteristics of the
supported class of service. Salih et al. (2012)
proposed a fuzzy based prediction algorithm with dynamic of links triggering
for vertical handover by applying the Information Server (IS) of IEEE 802.21.
The proposed solution can minimize unnecessary handover.
Enhancement in the vertical handover decisions: The process employed
by the mobile terminal to choose the best from a set of available networks is
called as handover decision. Consequently, this is the most significant step
that influences the normal operation of mobile communication. Particularly this
is true when the mobile terminals make a VHO decision, where there is availability
of a lot of access networks with diverse characteristics (Parameters) (Dhar
et al., 2011; Ei and Furong, 2010). The VHO
decision is one of the critical issues in the environment of heterogeneous networks.
MIH framework is introduced to enhance the user experience of mobile devices
by helping handover in the heterogeneous wireless networks. However, the information
obtained from MIH is very important in the VHO decision process. Figure.3
shows the vertical handover decision framework by using MIH with decision algorithm.
Andersson (2010) has presented a new control plane,
named Mobile Mediator Control Function, which offers a set of events
and commands through an additional service access point. Monger
et al. (2008) have proposed the Generic Metering Infrastructure (GMI),
an information distribution system that might be useful for handover in the
heterogeneous network environment. Ramachandran and Haiharan
(2008) have presented an algorithm to improve congestion control in MIH
There are four main directions in the research of VHO decision algorithms based
on. Policy, fuzzy logic and Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) and rank
aggregation approaches. In the policy based approach, a cost function is defined
and the users are permitted to design rules for selecting the best wireless
network. Here, the features of various networks are considered to determine
the best trade-off.
|| Vertical handover decisions making
|| Decision matrix
The cost of using a particular network is a function of many factors namely,
the available bandwidth, the monetary cost of using the network, power consumption
of mobile devices and delay. These parameters are shown in Table
2. An example of policy-based approach is the Always Best Connected (ABC)
method that selects the best from available networks (Gazis
et al., 2005).
Dimitriou et al. (2011) discussed the need of
facilitating architecture for distributed VHO decision making. The main problem
of this method is difficult to evaluate the dynamically changing parameters
such as network load, Table 2.
The fuzzy logic inference system based on fuzzy logic-based approaches is employed
as follows: Each decision factor, which is a particular network parameter, is
associated with a rule or the member function. The level of truth generated
by each rule that was pre-proposed is then obtained and calculated. The sum
of these truth values will be used as a handover decision indicator for each
base station. Jun et al. (2009) proposed a VHO
decision algorithm depending on fuzzy inference system for handover decision
between Wi-Fi and WiMAX.
In MADM-based approach, network selection is devised as a multiple attribute
fuzzy decision-making problem. The fuzzy logic is employed to correspond with
the vague information of some features of the mobile networks and the user preferences.
There are two steps in fuzzy MADM method: The first step changes the fuzzy data
into a real number. The second step employs the classical MADM methods to establish
the level of the candidate networks. Wu et al. (2009)
proposed a MADM-based terminal-controlled VHO decision scheme using MIH services
in integrated Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks environment to offer connectivity with
QoS services. Khan et al. (2010) proposed the
user-centric interface selection decision, where negotiation among users and
network operators is carried out using multi-attribute auctioning mechanism.
Jiadi et al. (2009) introduced a user-adaptive
VHO scheme depending on MIH in the integration of UMTS, Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks.
The scheme uses a decision making method based on classical fuzzy MADM method
and chooses the most suitable network for users. Rehan et
al. (2009) developed an inclusive cross-layer solution, called Vertical
Handover Decision (VHOD) approach. Tawil et al. (2008)
introduced a novel Distributed Vertical Handoff Decision (DVHD) scheme using
the MIH Function as an intermediate for message transportation between the MN
and the heterogeneous Target Visited Networks (TVNs). The classical MADM methods
that are most commonly used are listed as:
The approach based on rank aggregation has enormous prospect to handle this
issue. Here, the problem of network selection is illustrated as a rank aggregation
problem. Consequently the multiple ranks are acquired on a set of networks based
on various decision factors. A single rank for each bases station is then acquired
by aggregating the decision factors and the top ranked network is chosen as
the preferred network. Two weighted Markov chain (WMC) based methods have been
introduced. Wang et al. (2010) proposed an Enhanced
MIH framework by using rank aggregation method. Wang et
al. (2009) elucidated, two decision factors dependent problems. There
are: (1) Imprecise dimension on decision factors and (2) Various networks have
identical decision factor values.
Mobility management enhancement: Seamless mobility is acquired by utilizing
an appropriate mobility management scheme that is at the network layers. There
are suggestion on new layers for dealing mobility and novel ideas for handling
mobility in the network. When a MN moves a user's session between networks,
the IP address will be modified to permit work (Awan et
al., 2008). When a MN moves a user's session between networks, the IP
address will be modified to permit the Corresponding Node (CN) to connect to
the MN and enable the user to continue. Therefore, mobility management needs
to be used. The mobility management problem has been resolved in various layers
(Kusin and Zakaria, 2011; Abed et
al., 2011). These include the network, transport and application layers.
|| Mobility management enhancement
The most common methods used are Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6), Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Table
3 shows the proposed solutions that are based on the combination of mobility
management protocols with MIH for achieving enhancement in the handover process.
The table also includes the limitation of the research work.
RIWCoS is a project that aims to integrate different wireless communications
technologies into a common hybrid communication infrastructure. The main objective
is to develop, demonstrate an open, secure, fast-reconfigurable content delivery
platform based on MIH framework. This platform is for high quality services
(transport and distribution) by using different wireless access networks for
mobile and residential end users. Consequently, the platform provides service
continuity to the mobile users while they are crossing multiple access networks
based on different mobile technologies. This includes Cellular Mobile Telecommunication
Networks (LTE and UMTS) and IP-based Wireless Networks (WLAN and WMAN) (Obreja
et al., 2010).
As far as this study is concerned, all RIWCoS related publications are virtual
implementations based on simulation package such as QualNet and SDL. The RIWCoS
simulation model consists of two main entities, a basic simulation scenario
created in QualNet and RIWCoS protocol prototype developed in Specification
and Description Language (SDL). Both components are necessarily interconnected
through a specially developed interface. The overall RIWCoS architecture consists
of an Interoperability Manager module for each wireless communication system
for the purpose of mobility management. In a MIH enabled network, this module
should interoperate with the MIH function (Fig. 4) to ensure
the cooperation between the different technologies. It has the following functionalities:
provision of information to the mobile terminal about the neighbor networks,
requirement of link state information and MIH messages handler. Link Interoperability
Modules (one for each of the link layer technologies) ensure cooperation between
technology specific link layers and the Interoperability Manager they are used
to add MIH functionalities to each type of MAC layer. There is also a Resource
Manager (RM) entity whose main function is to collect information and perform
handover decisions based on a certain algorithm. The information is based on
parameter monitoring performed by the Link Interoperability Modules and the
selection process which takes into account the user profile, link quality parameters,
network load and quality of service (Vulpe and Obreja, 2011).
Latkoski et al. (2009, 2010a)
have provided a unique combination of protocol development and network simulation
method by merging the SDL developer and QualNet simulator. Also, Latkoski
et al. (2010b) has introduced an approach of developing prototypes
and optimizing reconfigurable mobile multi-interface terminal. Fratu
et al. (2011) have described the roadmap of RIWCoS design for recognizable
interoperability and stability of service in wireless hybrid communications:
This includes the MIH standard, generic modules design and specification and
incorporation. Ognenoski et al. (2009) have elaborated
the design of RIWCoS. Whereas, Gavrilovska et al.
(2008) have elaborated the interoperability issue towards 4G development
(Atanasovski et al., 2010; Latkoski
et al., 2011). The summarized the RIWCoS development procedure of
a novel architecture for organizing the resources in heterogeneous wireless
networks. The researchers of RIWCoS project claimed the capability of integration
between different networks and provide a solution for mobility management. Nevertheless,
the RIWCoS project did not provide anything substantially different from MIH.
No mention of enhancement on mobility management and handover decision.
The convergence of mobile networks and services poses a serious challenge for network engineers. At the core level, the convergence will lead to an all IP network. At the access level, the coexistence of various technologies will offer excellent opportunities for services availability and quality. To take advantage of these opportunities a common mobility management framework is required. It should be able to provide service continuity, to optimally manage the network resources for the purpose of improving the performance and capacity of system and to complete the service quality offered to the users.
Most functionality that requires supporting session continuity is depending on the intricate interactions that are precise to each and every technology. IEEE 802.21 standard offers a cross layer solution that enables higher layers to communicate with lower layers to offer constant session without focusing the details of each technology. It provides the missing, technology-independent abstraction layer. This concept can be subjugated by the IP stack or any upper layer to enhance the interaction with the fundamental technologies and eventually lead towards an enhanced handover performance. With multiple networks that support vertical handover, terminals can move between these networks without losing connectivity or interrupting active services. Not only this allows users to move freely but also release them the burden of network selection or other related activities.
The seamless vertical handover performance among different wireless networks
by the minimization of the vertical handover latency is the primary driving
force of researchers in the wireless heterogeneous networks. Most researchers
attempt to find a mechanism for reducing the handover latency at authentication
and message exchange amid different access networks that facilitates IEEE 802.21.
|| Proposed methods for enhancement in MIH
The MIH provides an interface between layer (3) and layer (2) with Information
Server (IS) that only manages static network information on the access technologies
but has a limitation in the exchange of parameters between different technologies.
The proposed solutions combine MIH with another protocol in the network layer
and above that have the facilities to change IP between different technologies
at the link layer, the network layer (IPv4, MIPv4, FMIPv4, IPv6, MIPv6, FMIPv6),
the transport layer (TCP, SCTP), or the application layer (SIP). The most effective
solution is to use either FMIPv6 or SCTP. The use of any one of the above mentioned
technologies depends on their support for the protocol.
A network selection mechanism must take into account a wide variety of information including user objectives, application requirements, network conditions, device position, mobility patterns, coverage availability and geographical context before bundling the traffic streams on to available wireless channels. Intelligent resource management and call admission control mechanisms that proactively negotiate resources with the network in order to minimize the occurrence of unnecessary vertical handovers have been introduced. The main problem in the VHO decision is how to evaluate the dynamically changing parameters. Many vertical handover algorithms are proposed to solve the handover decision problems but until now there is no ideal solution. An efficient assessment system is essential for appropriate network selection. How VHO decision is made by choosing the most excellent from the multiple candidate networks? Here, the various issues must be investigated as follows: (1) it is not required to measure all decision factors, hence it becomes crucial to use partial knowledge. (2) The measurements can be imprecise for some decision factors, such cases, the network selection process should be powerful. Various decision factors should be built into a hierarchical structure. Therefore, a novel method should be introduced for selecting network in heterogeneous wireless environment.
The QoS-based algorithm had shortcomings in handling multiple constraint resources
as it is mainly based on the perceptions of the designer. It could not reach
an optimum solution in all cases. This is due to the inefficiency of the QoS-based
algorithm. Furthermore, the needs of network operators and subscribers must
also be fulfilled by cooperative uses of both network infrastructure and MN.
Consequently, more rational handover decision needs to be developed. There is
need of enhancing the experience of mobile devices users. Most MIH related studies
were focused on seamless mobility service and combined MIH with vertical handoff
decision algorithm. In contrast, there are other areas of research that could
benefit from MIH. These areas provide a lot of opportunity to allow convergence
between different technologies. Figure, 5 shows the proposed
areas for enhancement in MIH.
MIH protocol does not provide security mechanisms. An effective mechanism is needed to interconnect a wide variety of heterogeneous wireless networks for the purpose of providing users with secure connectivity.
MIH discovery process always scans for candidate networks. This process increases the power usage of mobile device. Therefore, new techniques are needed to reduce power consumption by minimizing unnecessary handover.
MIH function can be used with an ad-hoc routing protocol to improve performance in the ad-hoc mobile networks. However, the integration of MIH function with an ad-hoc routing protocol can help to promptly detect node mobility and significantly reduce the duration of routing convergence. The MIH can provide an interface between layer 2 and layer 3 by obtaining the necessary information that help ad-hoc routing protocols that are based on the polling trigger mechanism to detect node mobility and to invoke route convergence.
The MIH framework can support terminal mobility scenarios as well as Femtocells RAT or Picocells RAT frequency selection. The compatibility between MIH and these base stations can solve the indoor and outdoor problem.
TCP is a reliable protocol that is connection oriented, responsible for an
end- to-end communication. The TCP is designed for wired networks and it possible
to apply TCP for an end-to-end connectivity between different wireless technologies
if they are carried out under the MIH framework.
This study has investigated various enhancements on the Media Independent Handover protocol for providing seamless vertical handover between different mobile technologies. We had discussed the mechanisms that are integrated with MIH to achieve seamless handover between different wireless networks. The continuous development of MIH enabled network depends on two factors. First, the end users can benefit from services provided by different technologies. Second, the effective parameters from different technologies can be identified. The convergence between different wireless technologies can be achieved by using MIH as the key missing technology for achieving the next generation networks (NGNs).
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