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Research Article
 

Customer Satisfaction of Quality in a Malaysian Mobile Phone Manufacturing Company: An Employees’ Perception



J. Sreenivasan and S. Bains
 
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ABSTRACT

Quality can never be achieved without commitment, competence and communication. Companies should understand that quality is doing a few things very well over a long period which when done properly can improve profit and ensure the long term survival of the company. Unsatisfied customers not only stop acquiring services from a particular organization but also can quickly damage the organization’s image. Dealing effectively with customers can actually boost satisfaction, loyalty, retention and the organization’s image as well. This study aims at studying the employee’s perception of customer satisfaction and quality. It is highly essential for the employees to be aware of the importance of customer satisfaction which can be an excellent means and ways to improve the organization. Hence, the main objective is focused on “Employees’ perception of the importance of customer satisfaction with mobile manufacturers in Malaysia.” However, the specific objective is to assess the awareness of the importance of customer satisfaction and to study the practices followed in order to improve customer satisfaction. As quality is an important sphere of customer satisfaction, from the results it can be said that the manufacturer provides quality products to its customers in the race of pursuing a long term relationship with these customers. Attaining high levels of customer satisfaction ultimately encourages customer loyalty which leads to growth and profitability for the manufacturer.

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  How to cite this article:

J. Sreenivasan and S. Bains, 2011. Customer Satisfaction of Quality in a Malaysian Mobile Phone Manufacturing Company: An Employees’ Perception. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11: 3688-3697.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2011.3688.3697

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2011.3688.3697
 
Received: August 16, 2011; Accepted: November 14, 2011; Published: December 29, 2011



INTRODUCTION

Today with the advent of globalization, quality has become a buzzword in most of the organizations worldwide and it is an elusive goal beginning with awareness. Quality can never be achieved without commitment, competence and communication. Companies should understand that quality is doing a few things very well over a long period which when done properly can improve profit and ensure the long term survival of the company. Juran defines quality as “Fitness for use which encompasses freedom from defects as well as the multiple elements required to meet the total needs of a customer (Tony and John, 1993). Today, Total Quality Management is the single most important management methodology available today to achieve and maintain a competitive edge against the world wide competition. In short in TQM there is a quest for self improvement. The concept of never having time to do something properly but always having time to do it twice is challenged. It puts the customer absolutely first. It seeks to improve product and service quality and increase customer satisfaction by restructuring traditional management practices. Quality has taken the prime place today to win over international customer’s confidence by providing goods and services of consistent quality. Customers have become much more knowledgeable and selective while making their purchasing decisions.

For decades, businesses and organizations all over the world recognize phrases such as “the customer is king” and “the customers are always right”. It is true since customers and organizations are interdependent (Kotler and Armstrong, 2001). Globalization has taken over the economy of every nation and local organizations need to survive in a very competitive arena which is further possible through the implementation of strategies that will provide them with a competitive advantage. Success can only be achieved with the assistance of the employees who play a major role in ensuring that customer satisfaction is achieved. In fact TQM revolutionizes the way an organization thinks or behaves through a complete transformation. Unsatisfied customers not only stop acquiring services from a particular organization but also can quickly damage the organization’s image. Dealing effectively with customers can actually boost satisfaction, loyalty, retention and the organization’s image as well (Kotler and Armstrong, 2001; Ranaweera and Prabhu, 2003; Lovelock, 2001).

TQM has taught how to achieve complete quality transformation through its long term planning perspective. This is evident from the recently conducted customer satisfaction survey which highlighted the fact that customers were extremely satisfied with the quality of service that they had received from the company. Customers further noted that the level of service received was packed with basic human emotions that inspire an attachment between the customers and the mobile phone manufacturers. McAtarsney (1999) on the other hand concluded that Britain based entities have for years ignored their customers although it is essential for these entities to improve their quality specifications based on their customer perception.

Vuppalapati et al. (1994) further asserted that “Top management act as a driver of TQM implementation by creating values, goals and systems to satisfy customers’ needs and improve organization performance.” This is tandem with the saying “charity begins at home”. Before the management can expect its employees to embrace new quality process, it must first adopt these changes in a positive manner by promoting team work to great lengths. In addition, employees are internal customers of the entity. If they are not provided with satisfaction they will not be able to perform and provide satisfaction to external customers of the entity. According to Tersine (2004) customers are insisting that they receive “customized products, smaller orders, shorter lead times and extended services at lower prices”. Not only are the organizations faced with demanding customers but are also pressured in dealing with the ever changing sophisticated technology.

Customers are the centre of most organizations in an increasingly competitive arena. This is especially so in a typical TQM-led environment where achieving customer satisfaction has become an important task. Crosby et al. (2003) on the contrary believe that customers’ expectations can be managed by an organization providing either the goods or services to them. Wright and Snell (2002) took a different approach an organization and its customers and emphasized on a long term relationship management concept which studied the pattern of relationship the organizations have with their customers. Today, most of the organizations all over the world are focusing more and more on their customers. Studies indicate that highly satisfied customers spread positive words-of-mouth and also becoming more forgiving upon minor mistakes in future (Lovelock et al., 1998). Satisfied customers tend to request more services in future and thus bring more revenue to organizations (Oliver, 1996).

It is evident that in a tough competition with the advent of globalization, where trade transactions are made much easier across boundaries, the organizations should try to retain their customers if they want to survive in a long run. This is very true with mobile industries which are facing rivalry to a larger extent. This study aims at studying the employee’s perception of customer satisfaction and quality. It is highly essential for the employees to be aware of the importance of customer satisfaction which can be an excellent means and ways to improve the organization. Hence, the main objective is focused on “Employees’ perception of the importance of Customer Satisfaction with mobile manufacturers in Malaysia.” However, the specific objective is to assess the awareness of the importance of customer satisfaction and to study the practices followed in order to improve customer satisfaction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Source of data and data collection: A comprehensive literature review and self administered questionnaires were used to provide an insight into the study. The literature reviews from various sources like journals, articles and books were used to identify the problems underlining the factors that affect the success of TQM in an organization. The structured or self administered questionnaires on the other hand were designed on the basis of the issues that arose when reviewing the literature available and also through daily observations. These questions were all close ended questions, giving respondents choices from a set of alternatives available. This assisted the respondents in making quicker decisions and also to ease data analysis. In addition, response rate will be higher as respondents usually are not willing to fill open ended questionnaires as it is time consuming. The self administered questionnaires were sent to online respondents as well as to those that were met face to face. The sole research instrument utilized in this study was the self-administered questionnaire. A set of questionnaire was developed for the employees of working in theses companies. The questionnaire developed comprised of two sections i.e., Individual profile and Customer Satisfaction. The workers perspective on the customer satisfaction was measured with the help of Likert Scale. The sole purpose of data collection through the survey was to establish research evidence in regards to the respondents in various areas like and their background and their knowledge on the general level of customer satisfaction.

Sample size: A total of 200 employees were randomly selected by the simple random sampling method. Each employee had a 1:200 chance of being selected. This was to deter any sample biasness that could have distorted the results. The respondent samples of employees were surveyed in the central Kuala Lumpur area. The employees who responded were from various hierarchy levels of the company.

Tools of analysis: Through-out the study, simple frequencies and cross tabulations were used to under stand the relationship among variables. One sample t test has been used to test the framed hypothesis.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Demographic and social economic profile of respondents: The frequency of age distribution for employees is depicted in Table 1. It can be seen that majority of the respondents fall in the 20-30 years of age category and make up to 52% of the entire sample size. This is followed by employees belonging to other age groups with 28% falling in the 31-40 years age group and 8.5% belonging to the 41-50 years age group. Six percent of the respondents are more than 50 years in age while 5.5% of the respondents belong to the less than 20 years age group.

The gender distribution of sample respondents is as shown in Table 2 of this study. As can be seen, 59% of the respondents fall in the female category while 41% of the employees surveyed are male.

Table 3 illustrates the qualification level attained by each respondent. The qualification level of the respondents has been divided into 6 categories: secondary level, diploma level, higher diploma level, degree level, postgraduate level and others. From the table it is evident that 44% of the respondents are degree holders. This is followed very closely by higher diploma holders who represent 31% of the sample respondents. 15.5% of the employees surveyed had diploma. The employees with a postgraduate degree make up to 7% of the employees. Finally, 2.5% of the respondents have a secondary level education.

Table 4 represents the respective job function of all the respondents. Twenty five percent of the respondents represent the management team, 30% of the respondents are from the operations department while 20% are representing the administration department. The customer service division is represented by 20% of the respondents while 5% of the respondents belong to other divisions not mentioned in the questionnaire.

Table 1: Employees’ age distribution
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Table 2: Employees’ gender distribution
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Table 3: Employees’ qualifications
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Table 4: Employees’ job function
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Table 5: Importance of customers
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Respondent’s awareness on customer satisfaction: Table 5 illustrate the importance of customers from an employee point of view. 1% of the total respondents strongly disagree to the notion that customers are an asset to the company. This is followed closely by 2.5% of the respondents who disagree with this idea and another 2.5% who are neutral towards it. 23.5% of the respondents agree that customers are an asset to the company and finally a majority of 71% strongly agree with the perception that customers are an asset to the company, indicating their importance.

Table 6 on the other hand is tabulated with data pertaining to the importance of receiving excellent service in determining customer satisfaction and customer loyalty from the respondents’ perspective.

Table 6: Importance of receiving excellent service
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Table 7: Level of customer satisfaction
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Table 8: Role of employees in customer satisfaction
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Table 9: Importance of employee attitude and job satisfaction
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Table 10: Importance of appraisal systems to employees
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A minority of 2% strongly disagree that service plays an important role in customer satisfaction and customer loyalty to the company. This is followed by 6.5% of the respondents who disagree with the idea and a subsequent 8.5% who are neutral towards it. 23% of the employees agree that service plays an integral role in customer satisfaction and loyalty. A final 60% of the respondents are in consensus and strongly agree that receiving excellent service plays an important role in determining the level of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.

Table 7 indicates the respondents’ perspective on the level of customer satisfaction in relation to the service that they receive from the manufacturers. From the indication provided, it is apparent that 3% of the respondents feel that customers were dissatisfied while 12% of them indicated that the customers were less satisfied with the level of service that they have received. 6.5% of the respondents choose a neutral ground in regards to the level of customer satisfaction with the service received from the company. Twenty three percent of the respondents on the other hand felt that customers were satisfied with the service they had received and finally a majority of 55.5% believe that customers were more satisfied with the level of service they have attained.

Table 8 illustrates the level of importance placed by respondents of their contribution as employees in ensuring that customer satisfaction is achieved through the service provided by them to these customers. It appears that 3% of the respondents feel that they were not important while another 6% feel that they are less important in providing service to customers and achieving customer satisfaction. 7.5% of the respondents of the other hand were neutral towards this view while 25% of them felt that they were important in ensuring that customers receive the level of satisfaction they pursue. A majority of 58.5% of the respondents felt that they play a very important role in ensuring great customer satisfaction through the level of service that they provide.

Table 9 tabulates data pertaining to the thoughts of respondents with regards to a positive attitude as well as job satisfaction in providing service in a positive manner. It is evident that 1.5% of the respondents feel that a positive attitude and job satisfaction is not important when providing service in a positive manner is concerned. The other 1.5% feels that these elements are less important when providing customers with the service they require. 6.5% of the respondents are neutral. Twenty seven percent of them feel that a positive attitude and job satisfaction is important in order to assist customers in a positive manner. The final 63.5% are in agreement that a positive attitude and job satisfaction is very important in order to offer services to customers in a positive manner.

Table 10 includes data pertaining to the importance of appraisal system to employees in improving the quality of service rendered to customers. 5% of the respondents strongly disagree with the idea that appraisal systems motivate them in improving the quality of service rendered to customers. 13.5% of the respondents merely disagree with this view. 16.5% of the respondents are strolling on neutral grounds while 22% agree that appraisal systems motivate them in improving the quality of service they contribute. The final 43% of the respondents strongly agree that appraisal systems are a major stimulant in improving the quality of service they provide to customers.

Table 11: Importance of training and skill development
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Table 12: Managerial support
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Table 13: Customer expectations
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Table 14: Determinant of customer satisfaction
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Table 15: Employee awareness of customer satisfaction
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Table 11 provides data on the importance of training and skill development in the respondents’ daily work. It can be seen that 3% of the respondents strongly disagree that training and skill development is of great assistance where new products are concerned, to make it easier for employees to assist customers. The other 3% disagree on the same view while another 5.5% were on neutral grounds with regards to the same notion. Twenty seven percent of the respondents agree that skill development and training are crucial where new products were concerned. The final 61.5% strongly agree on the fact that skill development and training are of paramount importance where assisting customers with new products are concerned.

Table 12 provides data on the importance of managerial support in enhancing the quality of service employees provide to customers. Nine percent of the employees strongly disagree while the other 9% disagree that managers play an important role in enhancing the quality of their work. Thirteen percent of the respondents had a neutral view about the importance of managers. 21.5% of the respondents agree that managers play an important role in their daily job. A majority of 47.5% of the respondents strongly agree with the support provided by managers which is integral in enhancing the quality of service provided to customers.

Table 13 demonstrates data relating to respondents’ view on customers expectations on the quality of service they expect to receive. 0.5% of the respondents strongly disagree that customers have expectations on the quality of service they would like to receive. 2.5% of the respondents disagree that customers have the same expectations. Five percent have a neutral view on the customer expectations from the service they would like to receive. 31.5% of the respondents agree with this idea. While the final 60.5% strongly agree that customers have expectations about the quality of service they would like to receive.

Table 14 illustrates respondent’s view of whether customers were satisfied when their expectations had been met. Three percent of the respondents strongly disagree on the idea that customers are satisfied once their expectations are met. Six percent of the respondents however disagree on the same idea. 3.5% are neutral towards customer satisfaction in this aspect. 28.5% of respondents agree that customers are satisfied when their expectations are met. The final 59% of the respondents strongly agree that the customer satisfaction level heightens when their expectations are met.

Table 15 represents employee awareness in providing excellent quality of service and its repercussions to the company as a whole. 1.5% of the respondents were unaware of the importance of providing excellent quality of service to their image. 1.5% of the respondents were unaware of the same while the other 1.5% of the respondents were neutral. 27.5% of the respondents were aware that providing good quality in service is important. A majority of 68% of the respondents are more aware of the seriousness of providing excellent quality of service to customers and its importance as a whole.

Table 16 illustrates respondent view on the bad experiences with the quality of service received by customers and if these experiences have a negative impact on the customer-company relationship. 1.5% of the respondents strongly disagree that bad experiences of customers will tarnish the customer-company relationship.

Table 16: Impact of bad experiences
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Table 17: Impact on customer loyalty
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Table 18: Importance of customer satisfaction
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Table 19: Employee Job function and importance of customers cross tabulation
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Table 20: Employee job function and importance of customers cross tabulation in percentage
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2.5% of the respondents disagree that bad experiences of customers will have a negative impact on this relationship. Three percent of the respondents on the other hand are of neutral view with this regards. Twenty eight percent of the respondents agree that bad experiences of customers will impact the relationship negatively. The final 65% of the respondents strongly agree with the view that bad experiences of customers with the quality of service received will have a negative impact on the customer relationship.

Table 17 demonstrates information pertaining to customer loyalty when they get a bad impression on the quality of service, from the respondent point of view. 1.5% of the respondents strongly disagree that customer loyalty will be affected when they get a bad impression on the quality of service that they receive from them. The other 1.5% of the respondents disagree on the same idea while 4% of these respondents have a neutral view on customer loyalty and the bad impression they have formed on them. Thirty four percent of the respondents agree that a bad impression on quality received will impact customer loyalty. The final 59% strongly agree that customer loyalty will be at stake when customers get a bad impression on the quality of service that they have received from the company.

Table 18 provides data pertaining to the importance of customer satisfaction as a measure that quantifies the quality of service provided to customers. Two percent of the respondents believe that customer satisfaction is very unimportant in measuring the quality of service provided to them. 3.5% find customer satisfaction unimportant when measuring quality of service while 2% are neutral in thoughts towards this idea. Thirty two percent of the respondents believe that customer satisfaction is important. 60.5% of the respondents feel that customer satisfaction is very important when measuring the quality of service provided to customers.

Individual profile and customer satisfaction cross tabulation: Table 19 and 20 demonstrate employee thoughts on importance of customers. It can be seen from Table 20 that 1% of the respondents strongly disagree with the thought that customers are an asset to the company, 2.5% disagree with idea while 2% of them were neutral. 23.5% of the respondents agree that customers are an asset and the final 71% strongly agree with the view that customers are important to the company. Twenty five percent of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% are from the operations department, 20% are in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and the final 5% are from the others group.

Table 21 demonstrates a cross tabulation between employee job function and the importance of receiving excellent service. Table 22 has been converted into a percentage form to show that 2% of the respondents strongly disagree that receiving excellent customer service determines the level of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty to the company. 6.5% of them disagree with this idea while 8.5% are neutral towards it.

Table 21: Employee job function and importance of receiving excellent service cross tabulation
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Table 22: Employee job function and importance of receiving excellent service
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Table 23: Employee job function and level of customer satisfaction cross tabulation
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Table 24: Employee job function and level of customer satisfaction cross tabulation in percentage
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Subsequently it can also be seen that 23% of the respondents agree that receiving excellent customer service is important and the final 60% strongly agree with the idea. Twenty five percent of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% were from the operations department, 20% were in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and the final 5% were from the other groups.

Table 25: Employee job function and role of employees in customer satisfaction Cross Tabulation
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Table 26: Employee job function and role of employees in customer satisfaction, cross tabulation in percentage
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Table 24 portrays the cross tabulation between the employee job function and level of customer satisfaction. Table 23 has been converted to take on a percentage form and is illustrated in Table 24. It can be seen that 3% of the respondents believe that customers were dissatisfied, 12% feel that customers were generally dissatisfied while 6.5% were neutral to the level of customer satisfaction. Twenty three percent of the respondents had indicated that customers were satisfied as a whole. The final 55.5% believe that customers were very satisfied. Twenty five percent of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% are from the operations department, 20% are in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and the final 5% are from the others group.

A cross tabulation between the employee job function and the role played by these employees in customer satisfaction can be seen in Table 25 and also Table 26. From the table, it can be deduced that 3% of the respondents felt that they had an unimportant role in customer satisfaction while 6% of them felt that they had a less important role. 7.5% of the respondents were neutral in view and 25% of them feel that they play an important role in ensuring customer satisfaction. The final 58.5% felt that they play a very important role in ensuring that customer satisfaction was achieved through the service provided to them.

Table 27: Employee job function and determinant of customer satisfaction, cross tabulation
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Table 28: Employee job function and determinant of customer satisfaction, cross tabulation in percentage
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Table 29: Employee job function and employee awareness of customer satisfaction, cross tabulation
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Twenty five percent of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% were from the operations department, 20% were in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and the final 5% were from the others group.

Table 27 and 28 illustrates a cross tabulation between the employee job function and also the determinant of customer satisfaction. It is evident that 3% of the respondents strongly disagree on the notion that customers were satisfied when their expectations were met by the company. Six percent of them disagree with the same idea while 3.5% were neutral towards this view. 28.5% of the respondents agree that customers were satisfied once their expectations were met by the company and the final 59% strongly agree with this idea. Twenty five percent of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% were from the operations department, 20% were in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and 5% are from the others group.

Table 29 and 30 demonstrates a cross tabulation between employee job function and employee awareness of customer satisfaction. 1.5% of the respondents are unaware that providing excellent quality of service to customers is crucial.

Table 30: Employee job function and employee awareness of customer satisfaction, cross tabulation in percentage
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Table 31: Employee job function and importance of customer satisfaction, cross tabulation
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Table 32: Employee job function and importance of customer satisfaction, cross tabulation in percentage
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1.5% of the respondents were less aware of it while 1.5% were neutral towards this idea. 27.5% of them are aware while 68% of the respondents are more aware on the view that providing excellent quality of service is crucial. Twenty five percent of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% are from the operations department, 20% are in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and the final 5% are from the others group.

Table 31 and 32 demonstrates a cross tabulation between employee job function and their thoughts on the importance of customer satisfaction in measuring the quality of service provided to customers. Two percent of the respondents feel that customer satisfaction is unimportant in measuring the quality of service provided while 3.5% feel that customer satisfaction is less important.

Table 33: One- sample statistics on the customer satisfaction level
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Table 34: One-sample test on the customer satisfaction level
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Two percent of the respondents are neutral towards this view while 32% agree that customer satisfaction is important. The final 60.5% of the respondents feel that customer satisfaction is very important in measuring the quality of service provided to customers. 25% of the respondents belong to the management department, 30% are from the operations department, 20% are in the administration department, 20% in the customer service department and the final 5% are from the others group.

Hypotheses testing
Hypothesis 1:

H01: The workers perceived that the customers were not satisfied with the level of service and quality of products they receive

Alternative hypotheses:

H11: The workers perceived that the customers were not satisfied with the level of service and quality of products they receive (Table 33, 34)

In this one-tailed test, a test value of 4.0 was decided upon based on the Likert Scale coding method of the questionnaire. Rank 1 to rank 5 was utilized whereby 1 = Dissatisfied; 2 = Less satisfied; 3 = Neutral; 4 = Satisfied; 5 = Very Satisfied. Hypothesis 1 can now be written in a statistical equation as follows:

H0: μ<4.0 [Customers are not satisfied]
H1: μ = 4.0 [Customers are satisfied]. It is evident that the estimated mean 4.16 is significantly different from the hypothesized value of 4.0. The p-value for this one-tailed test is significant at 1 percent level 0.1 given that the p-value is less than 0.05, one can confidently reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis which states that customers are satisfied with the level of service and quality of products they receive

CONCLUSIONS

A majority of 71% of the respondents strongly agree that customers were an important asset. Sixty percent strongly agree that receiving excellent customer service plays a role in determining customer satisfaction and also customer loyalty to the company. 55.5% of the respondents felt that customers were very satisfied with the company. From the analysis, it is evident that 58.5% of the respondents felt that they play a very important role in ensuring customer while 63.5% of the employees had implied that having a positive employee attitude is of paramount importance when servicing customers. Sixty eight percent of the respondents were highly aware that providing excellent service to customers is crucial. It can also be seen that the respondents are aware of the notion that bad experiences with the quality of service received from the company could lead to a negative impact on the customer-company relationship. Sixty five percent of the respondents have strongly agreed to this idea. A majority of 59% of respondents have strongly agreed that customer loyalty is also at stake when customers get a bad impression of the company. 60.5% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that customer satisfaction is a very important measure in quantifying the quality of service provided to customers.

The objectives of this study involved analyzing the customer satisfaction level and the frequency analysis undertaken to study the customer satisfaction level provided very satisfactory results. This is of paramount importance to the company especially when customer satisfaction is an important measure of a successful company in a competitive industry. As quality is an important sphere of customer satisfaction, it can be said that the manufacturer provides quality products to its customers in the race of pursuing a long term relationship with these customers. Attaining high levels of customer satisfaction ultimately encourages customer loyalty which leads to growth and profitability for the manufacturer. This can be said to be a major advantage of quality which led to customer satisfaction.

Recommendations for future research: Employees are the internal customers of a company. As such it is crucial to realize their importance in the success of any business. The recommendations of future research would include the welfare of the employees from many areas. Firstly, it is important to know how job satisfaction enhances the productivity of an employee. Secondly, how human resources assist employees in dealing with their jobs. The importance of training in productivity should also be studied further. The reasons behind high employee absenteeism and employee turnover should be researched while simultaneously realizing how these actions can affect the performance of other existing employees and the company as a whole.

REFERENCES

1:  Tony, B. and K. John, 1993. The sunday times-business skills. Quality: Measuring and monitoring. Century Business, UK., pp: 20

2:  Crosby, L.B., R. DeVito and J.M. Pearson, 2003. Manage your customers' perception of quality. Rev. Business, pp: 24.

3:  Kotler, P. and G. Armstrong, 2001. Principles of Marketing. 9th Edn., Prentice Hall InternationalInc., USA., pp: 198-199

4:  Lovelock, C.H., P.G. Paterson and R.H. Waller, 1998. Services Marketing: Australia and New Zeland. Prentice Hall, Sydney, Pages: 119

5:  Lovelock, C., 2001. Service Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy. 4th Edn., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA., pp: 120-122

6:  McAtarsney, D., 1999. Review, critique and assessment of customer care. Total Qual. Manage., 10: 636-646.

7:  Oliver, R.L., 1996. Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. 2nd Edn., The McGraw-Hill Companies, USA., pp: 9-13

8:  Ranaweera, C. and J. Prabhu, 2003. The influence of satisfaction, trust and switching barriers on customer retention in a continuous purchasing setting. Int. J. Serv. Ind. Manage., 14: 374-395.
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9:  Tersine, R.J., 2004. The primary drivers for continuous improvement: The reduction of the triad of waste. J. Managerial Issues, 16: 15-28.
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10:  Wright, P.M. and S.A. Snell, 2002. Highlights of the Human Resource Planning Society's 2002 State-of-The Art and Practice Study: Managing Strategic, Cultural and HRM Alignment to Maximize Customer Satisfaction and Retention. Vol. 25, Human Resource Planning, USA

11:  Vuppalapati, K., S.L. Ahire and T. Gupta, 1994. JIT and TQM: A case for joint implementation. Int. J. Operat. Prod. Manage., 15: 84-94.
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