Effect of Photo-Fenton Operating Conditions on the Performance of Photo-Fenton-SBR Process for Recalcitrant Wastewater Treatment
Emad S. Elmolla
The study was undertaken to examine the effect of H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio as one of the important operating conditions on the performance of combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for treatment of recalcitrant (antibiotic) wastewater. The SBR was fed with photo-Fenton-treated antibiotic wastewater under five H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio (10, 20, 50, 100 and 150). The results indicated that, as H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio decreases (increase of Fe2+ concentration), BOD5/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton-treated effluent increases and SBR and overall efficiency increases. The SBR efficiency in terms of sCOD removal was observed to be very sensitive to BOD5/COD ratio below 0.40. It decreased from 69±1% at BOD5/COD ratio of 0.49±0.01 to 44±1% at 0.19±0.02. In this study, the best H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio for treatment of the antibiotic wastewater was observed to equal 20. At photo-Fenton-SBR operating conditions (H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 20, H2O2/COD molar ratio 2.5, pH 3 and 30 min photo-Fenton irradiation time and 24 h hydraulic retention time in SBR), the combined photo-Fenton-SBR efficiency (overall) was 86% as sCOD and final sCOD was 56±2 mg L-1, which meets the requirements of the discharge standard.
June 06, 2010; Accepted: July 06, 2010;
Published: October 19, 2010
Pharmaceutical compounds including antibiotics and other drugs have been observed
in the aquatic environment. These compounds have been observed in surface water
(Kolpin et al., 2002; Anderson
et al., 2004; Rabiet et al., 2006),
ground water (Rabiet et al., 2006), sewage effluent
(Carballa et al., 2004; Nikolaou
et al., 2007) and even in drinking water (Stackelberg
et al., 2004). Pharmaceutical compounds can reach the aquatic environment
though various sources such as, pharmaceutical industry, hospital effluent and
excretion from humans and livestock (Ikehata et al.,
2006; Nikolaou et al., 2007; Yang
et al., 2008). Before discharging antibiotic wastewater from pharmaceutical
industry to the environment, antibiotic degradation should take place. Problem
that may be created by the presence of antibiotics at low concentrations in
the environment is the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria (Walter
and Vennes, 1985). In fact, bacteria have been observed to transfer their
resistance in laboratory settings as well as in the natural environment (Kanay,
Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have proved to be highly effective for
the removal of many of the pollutants in wastewaters (Pera-Titus
et al., 2004). Oxidation with Fentons reagent is based on ferrous
ions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals produced by the catalytic decomposition
of H2O2 in acidic solution (Chamarro
et al., 2001). In the photo-Fenton process, additional reactions
occur in the presence of light that produce hydroxyl radicals or increase the
production rate of hydroxyl radicals (Pignatello et al.,
1999), thus increasing the efficiency of the process.
Coupling AOPs and biological processes has received attention in recent years
as a promising alternative treatment for recalcitrant wastewater. Using AOPs
as pretreatment for recalcitrant wastewater is important to improve the biodegradability
and produce an effluent that can be treated biologically (Sarria
et al., 2002). Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process has been reported
to be effective for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewater such as Cibacron
Red FN-R and Procion Red H-E7B dyes (Garcia-Montano et
al., 2006a, b), Diuron and Linuron herbicides
(Farre et al., 2007), Laition, Metasystox, Sevnol
and Ultracid pesticides (Martin et al., 2009)
and sulfamethoxazole antibiotic aqueous solution (Gonzalez
et al., 2009).
Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) is a wastewater treatment system based on the
activated sludge process. The operation cycle is divided into five phases: filling,
aeration-reaction, settling, decant and idle. With respect to application, SBR
has been successfully employed in the biodegradation of both municipal and industrial
wastewater (Mace and Mata-Alvarez, 2002).
In our previous work, degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin
antibiotics in aqueous solution using Fenton (Elmolla and
Chaudhuri, 2009a), photo-Fenton (Elmolla and Chaudhuri,
2009b), TiO2 photocatalysis (Elmolla and
Chaudhuri, 2010a), ZnO photocatalysis (Elmolla and Chaudhuri,
2010b) were studied. In addition, technical and economic comparison among
different AOPs as well as simulation of the Fenton process for treatment of
an antibiotic aqueous solution were made (Elmolla and Chaudhuri,
2010c; Elmolla et al., 2010). The present
study was undertaken to examine the effect of photo-Fenton operating condition
H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio on the performance of
photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chemicals and antibiotics: Hydrogen peroxide (30% w/w) and ferrous sulphate (FeSO4•7H2O) were purchased from R and M Marketing, Essex, UK. Analytical grade amoxicillin (AMX) was purchased from Sigma and cloxacillin (CLX) from Fluka to construct HPLC analytical curve for determination and quantification of the antibiotics. Sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid were purchased from HACH Company, USA. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) was purchased from Fluka and acentonitrile HPLC grade from Sigma.
Analytical methods: Antibiotic concentration was determined by HPLC
(Agilent 1100 Series), equipped with micro-vacuum degasser (Agilent 1100 Series),
diode array and multiple wavelength detector (DAD) (Agilent 1100 Series), at
wavelength 204 nm. The data was recorded by a chemistation software. The column
was ZORBAX SB-C18 (4.6x150 mm, 5 μm) and the column temperature was set
at 60°C. Mobile phase was made up of 55% buffer solution (0.025 M KH2PO4
in ultra purified water) and 45% acentonitrile and flow rate 0.5 mL min-1.
Ions present in raw wastewater such as SO42¯ and
Cl¯ were determined by an ion chromatograph (Metrohm). The eluent phase
consisted of 3.2 mM Na2CO3 and 1.0 mM NaHCO3.
The analytical column was METROSEP A SUPP 5-150 (4.0x150 mm, 5 μm). The
flow rate was 0.7 mL min-1 and the temperature was 20°C.
|| Antibiotic wastewater characteristics
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was determined according to the Standard Methods
(APHA, 1992). If the sample contained hydrogen peroxide
(H2O2), to reduce interference in COD determination pH
was increased to be above 10 to decompose hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water
(Talinli and Anderson, 1992). The pH was measured using
a pH meter (HACH sension 4) and a pH probe (HACH platinum series pH electrode
model 51910, HACH Company, USA). Biodegradability was measured by 5-day Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD5) test according to the Standard Methods (APHA,
1992). DO was measured using an YSI 5000 dissolved oxygen meter. The seed
for BOD5 test was obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment
plant. TOC analyzer (Model 1010; O and I analytical) was used for determining
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Determination of Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
and Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) were carried out according to the Standard
Methods (APHA, 1992).
Antibiotic wastewater: Antibiotic wastewater used in this study was obtained from a local antibiotic industry producing amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin. The antibiotic wastewater characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
Experimental setup and procedure: Figure 1 shows a schematic of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR batch treatment system. The treatment was accomplished in two stages, photo-Fenton process as stage 1 and aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) as stage 2.
Stage 1: Photo-fenton process: Batch experiments were conducted using
a 2.2 L Pyrex reactor with 2000 mL of antibiotic wastewater. The required amount
of iron (FeSO4•7H2O) was added to the wastewater
and mixed by a magnetic stirrer to ensure complete homogeneity during the reaction.
Thereafter, necessary amount of hydrogen peroxide was added to the mixture simultaneously
with pH adjustment to the required value using H2SO4.
|| Schematic of combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment system
The mixture was subjected to UV irradiation and the source of UV light was an
UV lamp (Spectroline Model EA-160/FE, 230 volts, 0.17 amps, Spectronics Corporation,
New York, USA) with nominal power of 6 W emitting radiations at wavelength ≈365
nm and it was placed above the reactor.
The time at which hydrogen peroxide was added to the mixture was considered
the beginning of the experiment. The reaction was allowed to continue for the
required time (30 min). Thereafter, pH was increased to above 10 for iron precipitation
and decomposing residual H2O2 (Talinli
and Anderson, 1992). Precipitated iron was separated from the reactor and
the supernatant was used for SBR feeding after pH adjustment to 6.8-7.2. Samples
were taken and filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane syringe filter for soluble
Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) measurements and filtered through a 0.20 μm
membrane syringe filter for antibiotic measurements by HPLC.
Stage 2: Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR): The operating liquid volume of the 2 L SBR was 1.5 L. The reactor was operated at room temperature (23±2) and equipped with an air pump and air diffuser to keep dissolved oxygen above 3 mg L-1 and stirring plate and stirrer bar for mixing purpose. Feeding and decanting were performed using two peristaltic pumps. The cycle period was 12 h and divided into five phases: filling (0.25 h), aeration (10 h), settling (1.25 h), decant (0.25 h) and idle (0.25 h). The cycle was repeated 6-9 times as necessary to allow cell acclimation and/or to obtain repetitive results. Daily analysis of soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD) and dissolved organic carbon DOC for both influent and effluent were carried out. Concentration of Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) and Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) were monitored throughout the operation.
Start up of SBR: The SBR was inoculated with 200 mL of aerobic sludge. The source of seed sludge was the aeration tank in the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) at the Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS campus. Concentration of biomass in the reactor after inoculation was 2400 mg L-1. In order to acclimate the biomass, Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was chosen to be 2 days and photo-Fenton-treated antibiotic wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater obtained from the STP. The feed wastewater was a mixture of photo-Fenton-treated antibiotic wastewater and domestic wastewater with mixing ratio 25%:75%, 50%:50%, 75%:25% and 100% and the acclimation period was extended to 8 days.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Photo-fenton treatment: Effect of H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio: In photo-Fenton process, iron and hydrogen peroxide are two
major chemicals determining the operation cost as well as the efficiency. The
effect of H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio on sCOD and
DOC removal and biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) are shown in Fig.
2. The operating conditions were pH 3, initial sCOD 575 mg L-1
(17.97 mM), DOC 165 mg L-1, reaction time 30 min and H2O2/COD
molar ratio 2.5. To study the effect of H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio on biodegradability improvement and mineralization, experiments
were conducted at constant H2O2 concentration (44.9 mM)
and varying Fe2+ concentration in the range 0.3-4.5 mM.
||Effect of H2O2/Fe2+ molar
ratio on sCOD, BOD5 and BOD5/COD ratio for treatment
of antibiotic wastewater by photo-Fenton process
The corresponding H2O2/Fe2+ and COD/H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio were 10, 20, 50, 100 and 150 and 1.0/2.5/0.25, 1.0/2.5/0.125, 1.0/2.5/0.05,
1.0/2.5/0.025 and 1.0/2.5/0.017, respectively. The sCOD removal percent was
67±1, 67±1, 59±1, 46±1 and 30±1 at H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio 10, 20, 50, 100 and 150, respectively. The BOD5/COD ratio
was 0.48±0.01, 0.50±0.02, 0.45±0.01, 0.32±0.01 and
0.19±0.02 at H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 10,
20, 50, 100 and 150, respectively. The DOC removal percent was 48±2,
51±3, 45±2, 36±1 and 24±1 at H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio 10, 20, 50, 100 and 150, respectively. It may be noted that a wastewater
is considered biodegradable if the BOD5/COD ratio is 0.40 (Al-Momani
et al., 2002).
The results show that sCOD and DOC removal and BOD5/COD ratio increased
with decrease of H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio up to
20. Further decrease of H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio
below 20 did not significantly improve sCOD and DOC removal and BOD5/COD
ratio. This may be due to direct reaction of OH● radical with
metal ions at high concentration of Fe2+ as in shown in the reaction
(Joseph et al., 2000).
Based on the results, it may be considered that optimal H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio is 20 for biodegradability improvement, sCOD removal and mineralization of antibiotic wastewater.
To study the degradation of amoxicillin (AMX) and cloxacillin (CLX) in the
antibiotic wastewater, an experiment was conducted under the following operating
conditions (H2O2/COD molar ratio 2.5, H2O2/Fe+2
molar ratio 20 and pH 3). As shown in Fig. 3, complete degradation
of amoxicillin and cloxacillin occurred in 1 min. This agrees well with the
results reported by Trovo et al. (2008) on degradation
of amoxicillin by the Fenton process.
|| Degradation of AMX and CLX
||Performance of SBR in terms of sCOD and DOC in Case PF1-PF5
They observed 90 and 89% amoxicillin degradation in 1 min reaction in distilled
water and in sewage treatment plant effluent, respectively.
Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR): The SBR was operated for 30 days and fed with photo-Fenton-treated antibiotic wastewater under different H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratios (Case PF1-PF5) and the performance is shown in Fig. 4. The cycle period was 24 h and divided into five phases: filling (0.25 h), aeration (22 h), settling (1.25 h), decant (0.25 h) and idle (0.25 h). Table 2 shows a summary of photo-Fenton-treated effluent and SBR effluent characteristics at different H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratios.
The H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 10 (Fe2+
250 mg L-1) was considered as a starting point. The other operating
conditions of the photo-Fenton process were fixed at H2O2/COD
molar ratio 2.5, reaction time 30 min and pH 3 (based on preliminary experiments).
The characteristics of the photo-Fenton-treated effluent (Case PF1) were sCOD
183±2, DOC 80±2 and BOD5/COD ratio 0.48±0.01.
The SBR efficiency was 69±1 and 70±2% for sCOD and DOC removal,
respectively. When Fe2+ concentration was reduced to 125 mg L-1
(Case PF2), the characteristics of the photo-Fenton-treated effluent were sCOD
179±2, DOC 76±3 and BOD5/COD ratio was 0.50±0.02
and SBR efficiency was 69±1 and 69±2% for sCOD and DOC removal,
|| Summary of experimental results for photo-Fenton and SBR
process under different H2O2/Fe2+ molar
||Photo-Fenton, SBR and combined photo-Fenton-SBR efficiency
in terms of sCOD removal under different H2O2/Fe2+
To continue the same trend of Fe2+ reduction, Fe2+ concentration
was reduced 80% from initial value to be 50 mg L-1 (H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio 50 Case PF3). The characteristics of the photo-Fenton-treated effluent
were sCOD 225±3, DOC 85±1 and BOD5/COD ratio was 0.45±0.01
and SBR efficiency was 63±1 and 65±2% for sCOD and DOC, respectively.
When H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio increased (decreasing
of Fe2+ concentration) further, the SBR efficiency decreased further
as in Case PF4 and PF5 (Table 2). The results show that Fe2+
concentration or H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio is an
important parameter for the combined photo-Fenton-SBR system. Decreasing SBR
efficiency with decreased Fe2+ concentration (increase H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratios) is presumably due to decrease of biodegradability below 0.4 and
this indicates inhibition of the aerobic oxidation by the antibiotic intermediates
(Raj and Anjaneyulu, 2005).
It is noteworthy that SBR efficiency in terms of sCOD and DOC is very sensitive
to BOD5/COD ratio below 0.40. SBR efficiency in terms of sCOD removal
decreased from 69±1% at BOD5/COD ratio 0.49±0.01 to
44±1% at 0.19±0.02. With regard to the combined photo-Fenton-SBR
efficiency (overall efficiency) as shown in Fig. 5, the overall
efficiency was 90, 90, 85, 77 and 61% at H2O2/ Fe2+
molar ratio 10, 20, 50, 100 and 150, respectively. It should be noted that the
Malaysian Standards (B) set for the discharge of treated industrial wastewater
into receiving water bodies (lakes and rivers) is 100 mg L-1 in terms
of total COD (Malaysian Environmental Quality, 1979).
Assuming that COD contribution by suspended solids is ~30 mg L-1,
minimum sCOD in the final effluent should be around 70 mg L-1. It
is obvious from Table 2 that discharge limit could be met
by the treated antibiotic wastewater effluent subjected to combined photo-Fenton-biological
treatment (Case PF1 and PF2). Based on the results, the best H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio for the treatment of antibiotic wastewater in this study is 20 (Case
The combined efficiency achieved by photo-Fenton-SBR process was similar to
those observed in the reported studies. Farré et al. (2007) reported
80% DOC removal for treatment of Diuron and Linuron pesticides by combined photo-Fenton-SBR
system at H2O2/ Fe2+ molar ratio ~ 12.7, HRT
2 days and VSS 0.60±0.03 g L-1. Garcia-Montano
et al. (2006a) reported 80% DOC removal for treatment of a synthetic
textile effluent containing an hetero-bireactive dye (Cibacron Red FN-R, 250
mg L-1) by combined photo-Fenton-SBR system at H2O2/Fe2+
molar ratio 12.5 HRT 1 day, irradiation time 90 min and VSS 0.56±0.03
g L-1. Gonzalez et al. (2009) reported
75.7% TOC removal for treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing 200 mg
L-1 sulfamethoxazole by photo-Fenton-sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor
(SBBR). The treatment conditions were 300 mg L-1 H2O2
and 10 mg L-1 Fe2+ for photo-Fenton process and HRT 8
h for SBBR.
The study was undertaken to examine the effect of H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio on the performance of combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment. As H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio decreases (increase of Fe2+), BOD5/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton-treated effluent increases and SBR and overall efficiency increases. The SBR efficiency in terms of sCOD removal was observed to be very sensitive to BOD5/COD ratio below 0.40. It decreased from 69±1% at BOD5/COD ratio 0.49±0.01 to 44±1% at 0.19±0.02. The best H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio for treatment of the antibiotic wastewater in this study was observed to be 20. Under photo-Fenton-SBR operating conditions (H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 20, H2O2/COD molar ratio 2.5, pH 3 and 30 min photo-Fenton irradiation time and 24 h hydraulic retention time in SBR), the combined photo-Fenton-SBR efficiency was 90% as sCOD and the final sCOD was 56±2 mg L-1, which meets the requirements of the discharge standard (B).
The authors are thankful to the management and authorities of the Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) for providing facilities for this research.
APHA., 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th Edn., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 978-0875532073, Pages: 1100.
Al-Momani, F., E. Touraud, J.R. Degorce-Dumas, J. Roussy and O. Thomas, 2002. Biodegradability enhancement of textile dyes and textile wastewater by VUV photolysis. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 153: 191-197.
Anderson, P.D., V.J. D'Aco, P. Shanahan, S.C. Chapra and M.E. Buzby et al., 2004. Screening analysis of human pharmaceutical compounds in US surface waters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38: 839-849.
Carballa, M., F. Omil, J.M. Lema, M. Llompart and C. Garcia-Jares et al., 2004. Behavior of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and hormones in a sewage treatment plant. Water Res., 38: 2918-2926.
Direct Link |
Chamarro, E., A. Marco and S. Esplugas, 2001. Use of fenton reagent to improve organic chemical biodegradability. Water Res., 35: 1047-1051.
Elmolla, E. and M. Chaudhuri, 2009. Optimization of fenton process for treatment of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution. J. Hazardous Mater., 170: 666-672.
Elmolla, E.S. and M. Chaudhuri, 2009. Degradation of the antibiotics amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution by the photo-Fenton process. J. Hazardous Mater., 172: 1476-1481.
Elmolla, E.S. and M. Chaudhuri, 2010. Comparison of different advanced oxidation processes for treatment of antibiotic aqueous solution. Desalination, 256: 43-47.
Elmolla, E.S. and M. Chaudhuri, 2010. Photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution using UV/TiO2 and UV/H2O2/TiO2 photocatalysis. Desalination, 252: 46-52.
Elmolla, E.S. and M. Chaudhuri, 2010. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process. J. Hazardous Mater., 173: 445-449.
Elmolla, E.S., M. Chaudhuri and M.M. Eltoukhy, 2010. The use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for modeling of COD removal from antibiotic aqueous solution by the Fenton process. J. Hazard. Mater., 179: 127-134.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Farre, M.J., X. Domenech and J. Peral, 2007. Combined photo-Fenton and biological treatment for Diuron and Linuron removal from water containing humic acid. J. Hazardous Mater., 147: 167-174.
García-Montańo, J., F. Torrades, J.A. García-Hortal, X. Domenech and J. Peral, 2006. Combining photo-Fenton process with aerobic sequencing batch reactor for commercial hetero-bireactive dye removal. Applied Catalysis B Environ., 67: 86-92.
García-Montańo, J., F. Torrades, J.A. García-Hortal, X. Domenech and J. Peral, 2006. Degradation of Procion Red H-E7B reactive dye by coupling a photo-Fenton system with a sequencing batch reactor. J. Hazardous Mater., 134: 220-229.
Gonzalez, O., M. Esplugas, C. Sans, A. Torres and S. Esplugas, 2009. Performance of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor for the treatment of pre-oxidation sulfamethoxazole solutions. Water Res., 43: 2149-2158.
Ikehata, K., N.J. Naghashkar and M.G. Ei-Din, 2006. Degradation of aqueous pharmaceuticals by ozonation and advanced oxidationprocesses: A review. Ozone Sci. Eng., 28: 353-414.
Joseph, J.M., H. Destaillats, H.M. Hung and M.R. Hoffmann, 2000. The sonochemical degradation of azobenzene and related azo dyes: rate enhancements via Fenton's reactions. J. Physical. Chem. A, 104: 301-307.
Kanay, H., 1983. Drug-resistance and distribution of conjugative R-plasmids in E. coli trains isolated from healthy adult animals and humans. Jap. J. Vet. Sci., 45: 171-178.
Kolpin, D.W., E.T. Furlong, M.T. Meyer, E.M. Thurman, S.D. Zaugg, L.B. Barber and H.T. Buxton, 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36: 1202-1211.
PubMed | Direct Link |
Mace, S. and J. Mata-Alvarez, 2002. Review of SBR technology for wastewater treatment: an overview. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41: 5539-5553.
Malaysian Environmental Quality, 1979. Malaysian environmental quality (sewage and industrial effluents) regulations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/shared/faolextrans.jsp?xp_FAOLEX=LEX-FAOC002509&xp_faoLexLang=E&xp_lang=en.
Martín, M.M.B., J.A.S. Pèrez, J.LC. López, I. Oller and S.M. Rodríguez, 2009. Degradation of a four-pesticide mixture by combined photo-Fenton and biological oxidation. Water Res., 43: 653-660.
Nikolaou, A., S. Meric and D. Fatta, 2007. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceuticals in water and wastewater environments. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 387: 1225-1234.
Direct Link |
Pera-Titus, M., V. Garcıa-Molina, M.A. Banos, J. Gimenez, and S. Esplugas, 2004. Degradation of Chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: A general review. Applied Catal. B Environ., 47: 219-256.
Pignatello, J.J., D. Liu and P. Huston, 1999. Evidence for an additional oxidant in the photo assisted Fenton reaction. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33: 1832-1839.
Rabiet, M., A. Togola, F. Brissaud, J.L Seidel, H. Budzinski and F. Elbaz-Poulichet, 2006. Consequences of treated water recycling as regards pharmaceuticals and drugs in surface and ground waters of a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40: 5282-5288.
Raj, D.S.S. and Y. Anjaneyulu, 2005. Evaluation of biokinetic parameters for pharmaceutical wastewaters using aerobic oxidation integrated with chemical treatment. Process Biochem., 40: 165-175.
Sarria, V., S. Parra, N. Adler, P. Peringer, N. Benitez and C. Pulgarin, 2002. Recent developments in the coupling of photoassisted and aerobic biological processes for the treatment of biorecalcitrant compounds. Cataly. Today, 76: 301-315.
Stackelberg, P.E., E.T. Furlong, M.T. Meyer, S.D. Zaugg, A.K. Henderson and D.B. Reissman, 2004. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant. Sci. Total Environ., 329: 99-113.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Talinli, I. and G.K. Anderson, 1992. Interference of hydrogen peroxide on the standard COD test. Water Res., 26: 107-110.
Trovo, A.G., S.A.S. Melo and R.F.P. Nogueira, 2008. Photodegradation of the pharmaceuticals amoxicillin, bezafibrate and paracetamol by the photo-Fenton process: Application to sewage treatment plant effluent. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 198: 215-220.
Walter, M.V. and J.W. Vennes, 1985. Occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria in domestic sewage and oxidation Lagoons. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 50: 930-933.
Yang, L., L.E. Yu and M.B. Ray, 2008. Degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis. Water Res., 42: 3480-3488.