Increment Characteristics for Man-Made Stand of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in North of Iran
M. R. Pormajidian,
S. Mohammadpoor Pashakolaei
In this study, the afforestation stands of 18.1 ha with planting interval 2x2 m of Picea abies, at the age of 44 years old was investigated to compute increment and wood production in Kelardasht plantation (North of Iran). This stand was inventoried using region map and 70x70 m inventory grid. The samples were taken by randomized-systematic method. Increment statistical factors in 32 sample plots with 500 m2 area were measured. Inside each plot, Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) of whole trees and height of four witness trees (two thickness trees inside the plot and two nearest trees to center of plot) were measured. Results of this research showed that survival percentage of Picea abies at the age of 44 years old was 39.3% in Kelardasht region. Also, the average of stand diameter, height, basal area, volume, annual volume increment and form factor were 16.86 cm, 18.20 m, 23.59 m2 ha-1, 193.73 m3 ha-1, 4.4 m3/ha/year and 0.46, respectively. Considering obtaining results and comparing them with its main habitat, the stand increment amount and statistical parameters are low.
Pay attention to, the most species of Iran North forests have low increment,
need to woods with tall wood elements (fiber and tracheid) in woody industries
and also considering to establishment of forgery big industries in world thus,
need to afforestation is increasing day to day. It is look that plantation of
species with high increment is able to answering to these needs. With considering,
plantation of native species are proposed always, but sometimes because of economical
reasons, higher increment and ensuring of appropriate wood for marketing, it
is possible to plantation of exotic species (Rezayee, 1995;
We should culture the species with high increment by arboriculture programming
for its utilization in industrial poles. In these conditions conservation of
existence species are necessary and plantation with exotic species is proposed
by Mosadegh (1996). Investigation of afforestation successfully
with Picea abies in plant community of Kelardasht region showed that
the parcel with number 4 and with fertility index of 26 is the best site. This
species in this habitat with production of 120 m3 ha-1
and age of 25 years old is similar to the best site of Picea abies in
European (Mirbadin and Sagheb, 1991).
Pormajidain (1992) investigated increment characteristics
for Picea abies in Kelardasht region (North of Iran) by randomized-systematic
method with considering age of 29 years old and diameter mean of 11.05. Results
his research showed that the diameter, height, volume increment average were
0.38 cm, 0.32 m and 1.56 m3 ha-1, respectively. Rezayee
(1995) surveyed Picea abies afforestation stand in age of 35 years
old in Lajim region (North of Iran) with plantation distance 2x2 m using random-systematically
method. He was resulted that volume, basal area, height and diameter increment
average were 4.3 m3/ha/year, 0.4 m2 ha-1, 0.4
m and 0.5 cm, respectively.
Johnssson (1995) investigated the Picea abies
stands situated in 55° to 66° latitude and mean age of 41 years old.
Results of his research showed that mean of stand density and diameter is 1640
ha-1 and 25 cm, respectively. Also, it is resulted that viability
percentage of Picea abies young stands are less in heavy clay soils in
compare to the other soil types. The institute of forests and rangelands researches
in Iran studied the efforestation successfully of Picea abies stand in
Kelardasht region. The obtained report is indicating adaptation of this species
with its site (Khodabakhsh, 1998). Gorjy
and Gholy (1997) investigated this species in Sangdeh region of Mazandaran
province (North of Iran). Their research showed that Picea abies with
provenance of Yugoslavian is adapted with site conditions and viability of this
species is 95%.
Siahipoor et al. (2000) studied the afforestation
23 years old of Picea abies with plantation distance 2x2 m in Asalem
region (North of Iran). The mean of diameter, height, basal area and mean of
annual volume increment were recorded 14 cm, 10.5 m, 34.3 m3 ha-1
and 7.5 silve ha-1, respectively. Misson et
al. (2002) showed that stand density can change the relation between
climate and increment as in single trees; the thinning can increase resistance
of tree opposite to drought. Makinen et al. (2002a)
mentioned that thinning is due to increasing of radial increment in low
sections of tree stem in compare to higher heights.
Makinen et al. (2002b) investigated the changes
of radial increment for Picea abies in different latitudes and altitudes
in north and center of European. Results of theirs research showed that increment
changes in 10 years periods were similar in every site, but had significant
different in different sites. Jaakola et al. (2006)
studied the Picea abies stand in Finland. Results of his research
showed that thinning operations increased the speed of single tree increment
but special weight was reduced. Increasing speed of increment is possible to
reduce of tracheid length and size of fibers is affected, also. Parn
(2006) resulted that climate changes has significant effects on radial increment
but pollutions have low effects on radial increment of Picea abies stand.
Raiskila et al. (2006) studied the characteristics
of wood in Picea abies species. They reported the mean of annual ring
cross about 2.76±1.07 to 3.70±1.22 mm. Mean of special weight
in Picea abies wood was 461±0.077 g cm3, also. Zangrele
and Oberhuber (2007) studied the changes of radial increment in Picea
species. They resulted that felling of aside dominant trees, is due to improvement
of tree radial increment. Investigation and growth study and operation of Picea
abies afforestation stand and its comparison with origin sites of this species
and performed afforestations can be an appropriate field for the better management
of aforementioned afforestations. This research was investigated the increment
characteristics of Picea abies including diameter, height, basal area
and volume in Kelardasht region (North of Iran) and obtained results will compare
to results some of other regions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area: Study area (18.1 ha-1 areas) was afforestation
with Picea abies (L.) in 1965 by Total Official of Natural Resources-Noushahr
(TONRN) (North of Iran) with initial plantation distance of 2x2 m. These areas
are situated in forest management plan of Marzan Abad. Study area is located
on 45 km southwest far from Chalous town (Kelardasht region) between 36°
29 54" to 36° 29 52" North latitude and 51° 10
51" to 51° 10 00" East longitude. The general aspects of these forests
are Northern. The average slope of forest field is about 15% (Min. 5% and Max.
27%), the height of forest area at sea level starts from 1250 m and continues
till about 1350 m (Mohammadpoor, 2007). This research was
performed in the summer of 2006.
Sampling method: Pay attention to evenness of stand and facility in
performance, randomized-systematic method was used for accomplishment of this
research. Area of sample plots with considering at least 10-15 trees in every
sample plot (Zobeiry, 2000) were selected 500 m2
with circle form. Numbers of 32 sample plots with grid dimensions of 70x70 m
were designed and inventory intensity was 10.2% in this study that was sufficient
pay attention to obtained results by Pormajidian (1992),
Keshavars (1992), Khodabakhsh (1998) and Haghi
(2002). In every sample plots, diameter at breast high whole trees using
caliper and height of witness four trees (two largest diameter and two nearest
to center of sample plots) and totally, height of 128 witness trees in whole
areas were recorded by means of suunto clinometers.
Investigation normality of Picea abies stand: Normality distribution
is defined by probability density function (Eq. 1) (Zobeiry,
||Real mean of community
||Quantity that calculating of its frequencies is considerable
||Natural logarithm, that is equal to 2.7183
||Total No. of community members
Pearson coefficient was used for calculation of skewness (Eq.
2, 3) (Zobeiry, 2000; Rahimnejad,
||Pearson skewness coefficient
||Low limit of class that medium is situated in it
||No. of data
||Density frequency before class that medium is situated in it
||Unconditional frequency of class that medium is situated in it
Calculation of form factor and stand kurtoisis: Form factor and kurtoisis
were calculated using Eq. 4 and 5 (Namiranian,
1991; Zobeiry, 2000).
||Kurtoisis coefficient of stand
||Average of height (m)
||Average of diameter at breast height (cm)
||Form factor of tree
||Tree volume (m3)
||Height of tree (m)
||Basal area at breast height (m2)
Distribution number per hectare and stand normality: The diagram of
number distribution in diameter classes and normal curve showed that studied
stand has even aged structure (Fig. 1) and probability density function is as
For confidence normality and abnormality of stand distribution, Chi-square
test was used which calculated 34.601 for this stand. Pay attention to Chi-square
test of table at level of 5% and degree freedom 8 (equal to 15.507), the supposition
of different between numbers per hectare of Picea abies stand in Kelardasht
with normal distribution are significant. Pearson coefficient for distribution
number per hectare of stand on basis of diameter classes was calculated –0.76.
Aforementioned stand has 982 No. ha-1 and considering initialing
plantation distance 2x2 m and number of initial plantation 2500 No. ha-1,
natural mortality, cultural inventions, disallowable felling, disease and pests,
the viability percentage was 39.3%.
||The normal curve of number distribution per hectare for Picea abies
Statistical characteristics for Picea abies in Kelardasht region
at 44 years old
Diameter, height, basal area and volume increment mean: In even aged
stand that diagram of stand trees distribution in diameter classes is near to
normal status, the arithmetic mean of diameter and height are used. Diameter
mean, diameter average increment, arithmetic mean of height, average increment
of height, mean of basal area, average increment of basal area, growing stock,
average increment of volume were calculated 16.86, 0.38 cm, 18.20, 0.41 m, 23.59
m2 ha-1, 0.54 m2/ha/year, 193.73 m3
ha-1 and 4.4 m3/ha/year, respectively (Table 1).
Form factor and kurtoisis of stand: Forma factor calculated 0.46 for Picea abies stand. Also, statistical characteristics including standard deviation, standard error and coefficient variance (%) for form factor of Picea abies were calculated 0.03, 0.01 and 6.5%, respectively. Kurtoisis coefficient is one of the most factors that are used for judgment in relation to stand stability. This coefficient was 107.95% for studied stand (Fig. 2).
Distribution number per hectare and stand normality: The curve of number
per hectare in different diameter classes (Fig. 1) showed
that investigated stand has even aged structure. Chi-square test showed that
the curve of number per hectare is not similar to normal distribution curve.
Skewness of stand is high, also (Rahimnejad, 2002). Number
per hectare was more than normal status at diameter classes of 12-14 cm that
should be considered in cultural operations. Viability percentage and number
per hectare of Picea abies stand were compared pay attention to this
study and the other performed studies (Table 2). Table
2 showed that Picea abies stand of Kelardasht region has viability
percentage and number per hectare more appropriate with considering to stand
age in compare to the other mentioned sites.
Diameter, height, basal area and volume increment average: Pay attention
to performed studies (Mirbadin and Sagheb, 1991; Pormajidian,
1992; Rezayee, 1995; Siahipoor
et al., 2000; Dohrenbusch et al., 2002;
Siahipoor et al., 2002), it is mentionable that
diameter increment of this stand had not high changes from 29 years old up to
now. Also, diameter increment average is lower than sites with three grades
of French (Table 3). Because of number per hectare of low
diameter classes are high in stand, therefore, trees have competitive status
one another and the stand has higher height increment in compare to diameter
For improvement of stand diameter increment, harvesting of low diameter classes
should be considered in programming of cultural operation in order to increasing
of stand diameter increment.
||Comparison of viability percentage of Picea abies in different
Also, with considering Table 3, it is clear that
height increment average of stand is equal to French sites, relatively. Because
of existence high density and increasing of competition in stand, the diameter
increment is reduced and height increment will increase, thus, stand stability
Basal area increment of stand are lower than to the other sites similar to
diameter increment because of high density of low diameter class in stand (Table
3), which is due to reduction of diameter, basal area and volume increments.
Pay attention to performed studies (Assman, 1961; Pormajidian,
1992; Rezayee, 1995; Dohrenbusch
et al., 2002; Siahipoor et al., 2002),
it is considerable that volume increment of stand was lower than to different
sites in Iran and out of Iran and also has lower growing stock (Table
4) and performing of appropriate culture operations is necessary for its
In order to increase of production in area unit and improvement of quantity
and quality characteristics of Picea abies afforestation in Kelardasht
region, the operation of thinning should be performed with high precession pay
attention to site typical conditions, high kurtoisis coefficient and skewness
coefficient of stand. Because of, every intervention without consideration to
stand conditions is due to reduction of tree resistance opposite to environmental
parameters such as wind and snow, etc. and it is increased fall of stand trees
Form factor and kurtoisis of stand: Form factor of stand is depending to some
of factors such as age, site and species, even aged or uneven aged of stand
and cultural method of forest. Also, form factor is more in young stands and
lower in stands with high ages (Zobeiry, 2000). Form factor
mean of Picea abies stand in Kelardasht region calculated 0.46 that is
appropriate, almost with considering the low age of stand. Stability coefficient
was calculated 107.95% for Picea abies stand in Kelardasht stand at age
of 44 years old, therefore, the stand sorted in very instability class (Namiranian,
The curve of stability coefficient on basis of diameter classes is showing
that stability coefficient has descending status and the stability of stand
will increase with increasing of diameter (Fig. 2).
||Comparison of diameter, height and basal area increment for Picea abies
in different regions
||Comparison of volume increment for Picea abies in different
||Scatter plot and the curve of stand kurtoisis
High kurtoisis coefficient of this stand is due to stand density, competition
between species for achievement to light and laying in high stair and do not
thinning of stand in appropriate time. With appropriate cultural operation and
thinning of stand, it is possible to reduce this coefficient but, thinning operation
should be performed with high precession because of stand is very instability
and pay attention to superficial roots of Picea abies species, the danger
of fall by wind is very high in stand. Siahipoor et al.
(2002) estimated the stability coefficient for Picea abies at 27
years old about 89 and 78% for Oroston and Pisesoon regions (North of Iran),
respectively. Therefore, Oroston Picea stand and Pisesoon Picea stand are sorted
in instability and stability classes, respectively.
Mean number per hectare of Picea abies in study area was 982 and almost 60% of initial planted sapling were deleted by reason of competition, primary harvesting and the other environmental factors such as snow, wind and disallowable felling and the stand missed its normal status and has high density in low diameter classes. Mean of diameter, height, basal area and volume increments in study area and its compare with the other sites is indicating low increment and yield in stand. Probably, low increment in surveyed stand is due to disallowable felling and do not performing of appropriate cultural operations in stand that is due to stand distance of normal status.
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