Although electric motors are well mounted and robust, faults may occur
during runtime. Unexpected breakdown of electric motors causes both monetary
losses and replacement of the motors earlier unless required precautions
are taken by diagnosing the faults. Therefore, it is important to diagnose
and detect the faults before they occur (Subhasis et al., 2005).
Electrical faults, mechanical faults or combination of them may take place
in electric motors (Finley and Burke, 1994).
It may take time to detect the faults occurred in electric motors. By
means of condition monitoring of electric motors and fault diagnosis,
both security and reliability of the motor are enhanced. There are different
fault diagnosis methods that detect and pre-diagnose the faults of electric
motors. Each of these methods comprises different scientific methods and
technologies (Vas, 1993; Chow, 1997).
While fault diagnosis and detection, online monitoring and quality control
of dc motors getting more importance, the interests of scientist`s and
engineering`s have also increased. Fault diagnosis of those motors is
being implemented by specialists using conventional techniques. Those
conventional techniques can not meet all of the demands (Liu et al.,
2000; Hajiaghajani et al., 2004). Taking into consideration that
being specialist on this field is difficult, the fault diagnosis systems
using artificial intelligence techniques in electric motors are becoming
There have been studies being carried out on fault diagnosis of electric
motors using artificial neural networks (Chow et al., 1993a, b;
Yang et al., 2004; Marzi, 2004; Bay and Bayir, 2005; Selaimia
et al., 2006; El-Shafei et al., 2007). One of these artificial
neural networks is LVQ neural network. Faults of rotating machine could
be detected by using LVQ neural network. Wear, tight and loose connection,
eccentrically connection and normal conditions have successfully been
detected by LVQ neural network using the real time torque data acquired
from computer (Tse et al., 1995).
Rotating machine faults are successfully diagnosed by Self Organizing
Map (SOM) and LVQ networks using high level statistics data as input data
(Wang and Too, 2002). In rotating parts; unbalance, bad balance, very
bad balance, bedding and bad bedding faults and normal condition of their
components and rotating parts have been successfully diagnosed. LVQ network
has been used for fault diagnosis of electric machines using vibration
signals (Wang and Xu, 1996). Bearing wear caused by false connection of
connection shaft, clang of connection shaft in resonance and normal condition
of motor have been successfully diagnosed. In another study, faults have
been diagnosed by using three different artificial neural networks to
diagnose the faults of damaged and worn gear box using vibration signals.
From the earlier, it has been determined that LVQ has classified in 80%
accuracy (Abu-Mahfouz, 2005).
It is decided by LVQ that whether the parameters of wavelet transform
of sound signals measured from the transmission equipments are bad or
not (Wang et al., 2003). LVQ has been successfully used to determine
leakage voltage and stability of voltage transition in electric distribution
systems. Electric distribution systems are protected by predetermination
of the conditions mentioned above (Vera-Candeas et al., 2006).
Sheet metal stamping process is widely used in industry due to its high
accuracy and productivity. To identify the faulty conditions of this process,
the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) networks are used as a classifier
with the Hilbert marginal spectrum as the input vectors. The performance
of this method has been tested by 107 experiments derived from different
conditions in the sheet metal stamping process. Artificial defects are
detected with a success rate of 96.3% (Bassiuny et al., 2007).
The application of neural networks and fuzzy logic to the diagnosis of
faults in rotating machinery was investigated. The Learning Vector Quantization
(LVQ) neural network was applied in series and in parallel to a fuzzy
inference engine, to diagnose faults in rotating machinery. Investigated
faults were unbalance, misalignment and structural looseness. The effectiveness
of the integrated neural network and fuzzy logic method was illustrated
(El-Shafei et al., 2007).
In this study, the faults that could be occurred in serial wound starter
motor are diagnosed and condition monitoring was performed in real time
via LVQ network.
TRANSFERRING THE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SIGNALS OF STARTER MOTOR INTO
Starter motors are dc motors running under heavy duty. However, they
have some different electrical and mechanical parts compared to conventional
dc motors. This makes them more complicate (Bolenz, 1995; Denton, 2006).
Starter motor has vital importance for vehicles. For this reason, it is
crucial to detect and diagnose the starter motor faults before they happen
(Denton, 2004; Bayir and Bay, 2004). Finding that whether there is a fault
in starter motor or not is called as detection and determining that where
the fault is caused by is called as diagnosis.
To acquire the current and voltage signals of the starter motor, the
electrical connections in the ICE test rig were arranged as shown in Fig.
1. Current and voltage data is transferred to GUI program using Advantech
1716 HG data acquisition card. This card was selected as it could be used
real time controllable via Visual Basic 6.0. Analog input and output of
this data transceiver card has 16 bit resolution. The sampling rate of
the card is 250 kS sec-1. The current sensor is based on hall-effect
technology and used to measure both DC and AC current values. This sensor
may be also used in conjunction with multimeters, recorders and other
suitable equipments. Measurement range of this sensor is 200A ACRMS
or DC, besides a resolution of ±100 mA.
In this study, the starter motor current (Im) and voltage
across the motor (Vm) were measured. The value of Vm
is the sum of the voltage drops of field winding and of armature. The
value of Im is the current flowing through the field winding
and armature. In the experiments, the starter motor was examined for the
cases when the ICE was allowed to run and not allowed to run. Table
1 shows technical specifications of a Mako`s Starter motor, which
is used in experimental test.
In Fig. 2, the current drawn by the normal starter
motor and the voltage drop across the starter motor was measured when
the ICE was allowed to run. When ICE was not running, for the current
drawn by and the voltage across a normal starter motor, a small ripple
was observed for each piston movement (Bayir and Bay, 2004). The signals
of other faults observed in the starter motors are shown in Fig.
3 as current (I) and voltage (V) graph. By locating voltage as X axis
and current as Y axis, a pattern is formed for each fault. The pattern
of each fault is formed differently (Fig. 3a-i).
These differences are used to detect and diagnose the faults (Bay and
||The sample of technical specifications of a Mako`s starter
||Test rig where the signals of starter motor was measured
||The signals of current and voltage of the starter motor
when it is in normal condition and when ICE is running
The case of battery fault and the case of connection fault (when the
connections of poles are loose) are shown in Fig. 3a
and b, respectively. The case of solenoid fault,
the case of short circuit of field windings among its own windings and
the case of looseness of armature and the case of having a broken wire
in armature windings are all shown in Fig. 3a-f,
Although, the starter motor is normal in Fig. 3g,
if there is a problem in ICE, the I/V graph of the current drawn and the
voltage across the starter motor becomes similar to that in Fig.
3h. When the starter motor and ICE is normal and ICE is allowed to
run, the current drawn by starter motor becomes quite variable. The load
of the starter motor decreases as ICE begins to run and the current drawn
from the battery by the starter motor becomes in negative values as alternator
begins to give voltage to mains (Fig. 3i). If the
current is in negative values, it could be considered that the ICE began
to run. Besides, this feature provides an easiness to classify the case.
FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND DETECTION USING LEARNING VECTOR QUANTIZATION NETWORK
Learning vector quantization network: Learning Vector Quantization
(LVQ) network is a type of hybrid competitive network that uses both unsupervised
and supervised learning to classify datasets. This network is generally
used for classification problems (Kohonen, 2001). LVQ network is composed
of 3 layers as input layer, Kohonen layer and linear layer (Fig.
4). Ability of Kohonen layer to classify input vectors and to learn
distribution of input vectors is very high (Haykin, 1999). Neural nodes represent vectors distributed on a plane. Neural cells on
Kohonen layer calculate their own values according to discrimination function.
This discrimination function is the basis of the competition among neural
cells and provides the determination of neural cells which are topologically
around the winning neural cell. Thus, cooperation between neighboring
neural cells is provided. The own values of these determined neighboring
cells are increased according to discrimination function depending on
input signal. Besides, connection weights of these neural cells are adjusted
to an appropriate value (Fausett, 1993).
Which group or class is the winning vector is determined in linear layer.
Classification of input data during training is performed according to the rule of the nearest neighborhoods.
The nearest distance between input vector and reference vector is searched
and it is assumed to be a member of the vector which is in the nearest
distance to input vector. By changing the weight of the network, the reference
vector which will classify inputs correctly is determined. In training,
the value of the winning vector which is the nearest vector to input vector
is changed. As other artificial neural networks, learning weights are
changed according to learning coefficient. In this network structure,
learning coefficient is reduced to be 0 in time. The learning speed of
LVQ network is faster when compared to multi-layered neural networks.
Training of learning vector quantization network: The algorithm
of the LVQ network aims to reach the nearest output value to the input
vector. Assuming that x points to target vector (x1…..,
xi,….. xn) and wj points to weight vector (w1…,
wij,….. wnj) of node of j; if x and wj
is in the same group then the weight of the new input vector changes towards
these values. If x and wj is in different groups then the weight diverges
from the new vector. The algorithm of the LVQ network could be performed
with 6 steps (Fausett, 1993):
||Reference vector and learning ratio α(0) are determined
||The steps from 2 to 6 are repeated until the clause evaluates to
||For each of the input vectors which are used in training, steps
3 and 4 are repeated
||The value of j when ||x-wj|| is minimum is calculated.
The value of wj is changed as follows:
||If T = Cj then the winning node is the member of the
correct class. In this case, weight values are made close to input
vector (Eq. 1). This is done in order to make the
node win again when same input vector or other input values close
to that node are applied from input:
wj(new) = wj
(old) + α (x- wj (old))
||If T≠ Cj then winning node is in wrong class. In
this case, weight vector is moved away from the input vector (Eq.
2). This is done in order to avoid winning the node again when
this input vector or another vector with the values are close to this
vector is applied to input.
wj(new) = wj
(old) - α (x- wj (old))
||Learning ratio is reduced
||Stop condition is controlled. Training of the network could be stopped
when the number of iteration is completed or when learning ratio is
adequately decreased (Fausett, 1993)
In Eq. 1 and 2; α represents
learning ratio, T represents correct classification or class of training
vector, Cj represents category to be classified or output node of j, ||x-wj||
Euclidean distance represents the distance between input vector and weight
vector of output node of j.
The performance of the LVQ network is in close relation with determination
of the reference vector in correct number, random values of the weights
assigned at the beginning and the value of the learning coefficient. The
case of the learning coefficient being not 0 in time is forgotten of the
network of learned values in other words divergence of the values of correct
weights. Another drawback of this network is to determine to which class
the vector that is in between or in the boundary of two groups belongs
when groups to be classified are close to each other. These cases cause
the network to misclassify.
||The main window of the user interface software designed
to detect and diagnose faults
Graphical user interface design for starter motor condition monitoring
and fault diagnosis: The data acquisition card connected to the computer
can easily be controlled by a programming language with dll file provided
by the manufacturer. External data (current and voltage of starter motor)
is transferred to the data acquisition card by the sensors. Data taken
to the program is normalized and applied to input of the LVQ network.
The main window of the user interface software designed to detect and
diagnose the faults of starter motor in real time is shown in Fig.
The user can change the parameters (number of input neurons, learning
ratio) of LVQ network. In this study, one hundred input elements are used
in input layer of the LVQ network. Learning ratio of the network is 0.001.
Eight neurons were chosen in output layer. This number, at the same time,
shows the number of conditions of the starter motor to be classified.
The number of neurons in hidden layer of LVQ was chosen as 200.
By pressing start LVQ network, fault detection and diagnosis using LVQ
network is performed. However, first, data is to be placed to I/V graph.
As shown in Fig. 5, the software indicates the result
of the diagnosis of LVQ network as a circle in I/V graph. The result found
is expressed to user with a textbox in the same window. The user can make
these processes automatically. This can be done by making electrical connections
in test stand and choosing automatic option in software control. The user
can also perform all the processes manually.
||Window prepared to read input data real time
The window in Fig. 6 is used in order to transfer current
and voltage data of starter motor to computer real time. Using this window,
sampling speed, number of data to be sampled and which channel of data
acquisition card will be used to input can be adjusted. Adjustment of
analog input voltage intervals of the card is not allowed to be selected
by the user for security of the card. The obtained data, if desired, can
be saved to an excel file. The user can see the data by pressing show
data button to examine.
Condition monitoring window of a starter motor is shown in Fig.
7. From the Fig. 7, whether the starter motor has
a changed parts or not, the starter motor specifications and its condition
monitoring depending on the time can be seen.
||Condition monitoring of the starter motor window
At introduction tab, the
user can see list of registered starter motor by special register number.
The user can also record a new starter motor. The system creates a*.mdb
file for each starter motor. In condition monitoring of a starter motor,
date, time and how long the starter motor is worked and results of LVQ
network are also recorded to the file of the starter motor.
These defects have been classified by LVQ neural network. Classification results
and starter motor records are recorded backwards. The system determines when
the condition of starter motor deteriorates or before a defect take places.
At the I/V graph of winner cell, by following the place shown for each diagnosis,
which defect of starter motor is going to be happened can be determined (Fig.
7). By means of this feature, starter motor faults can be diagnosed beforehand.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A correct diagnosis result with LVQ network is shown in Fig.
8a. The software indicates the fault diagnosis result (battery fault)
with a circle. The wrong classification result occurred when starter motor
is normal and ICE is not allowed to run is shown in Fig.
8b. When starter motor is normal and ICE is not allowed to run, since
data cover wide area in I/V graph, LVQ network results in more than one
points. As a result of classification performed under these conditions,
it`s difficult to determine the faults correctly.
Wrong diagnoses are occurred, when pattern of the faults covers wide
area in I/V graph. In those cases, the network indicates more than one
fault as result. When more than one result occurs at the same time, by
determining with software which point is close to which fault region,
that fault is indicated as the result. When ICE is allowed to run, although
starter motor is normal, armature fault is indicated as result. Besides,
the wrong classifications of connection fault as battery fault, armature
broken fault as solenoid fault and field winding fault as armature fault
are resulted from that these fault regions are close to each other.
The faults observed in starter motor and starter system like connection
fault, battery fault, armature fault, field winding fault and solenoid
fault were detected using LVQ network when starter motor was normal and
ICE had problems and allowed to run. LVQ network was tested for 64 samples
and resulted in 91% correct classification.
With the help of learning starter motor faults before they occur and/or
get worse, the user take necessary precautions. Taking into consideration
the difficulties of having experts on fault diagnosis, the importance
of these studies increases significantly. This system developed can be
used to condition monitoring, to diagnose faults of starter motors in
repair and maintenance workshops.
||Diagnosis results of fault diagnosis software (a) correct
classification result (battery fault) and (b) wrong classification
result (starter motor is normal and solenoid fault)
Starter motor manufacturers can also use this system to test their production.
In addition, the developed software can be incorporated into industrial
computers (PC104) and can be used for real time condition monitoring of
faults diagnosis of vehicles.