Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Assessment of Rainwater Run-off Due to the Proposed Regional Plan for Gaza Governorates

Atef R. Khalaf, Husam M. Al-Najar and Jehad T. Hamed
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Throughout the years, Gaza Strip has been experiencing an increasing shortage of water, due to growing demands and its location in a semi-arid region with a small average rainfall of 300 mm/year. The main source of water in the Gaza Strip is the groundwater aquifer that is naturally recharged from rainfall. Over the time, continuous increase of population resulted in dramatic urban expansion, which has a direct influence in reducing groundwater recharge and increasing the surface run-off. To quantify the losses due to run-off, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a measurement tool, in addition to the soil conditions and metrological data for more than 20 years is used. The urbanized area represents around 16% in the year of 1998 and 21% in the year of 2005 and is expected to increase in the next years due to the rapid increase in population to represent 33% for the year of 2015. In the meantime, the water demand will increase due to the expansion of water supply systems. The total amount of rainwater losses due to urbanization as surface run-off is estimated 14.5 Mm3 in the year of 1998 and expected to increase to about 20, 35 Mm3, for the years of 2005, 2015, respectively. These will results in an increasing pressure on underground water resources, which has lead to an irreversible depletion of the aquifer. Mitigation measures, such as rainwater collection and areas for natural recharge should be protected.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Atef R. Khalaf, Husam M. Al-Najar and Jehad T. Hamed , 2006. Assessment of Rainwater Run-off Due to the Proposed Regional Plan for Gaza Governorates. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6: 2693-2704.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2006.2693.2704


1:  Abdul-Hadi, A., 1997. Gaza water crisis worsening.

2:  Abu-Mayla, Y., M. Abu-Jabbal and M. El-Baba, 1998. Water resources management and development in Gaza Strip-Palestine. Proceedings of the Conference of Water and Food Security in the Middle East, April 20-23, Nicosia, Cyprus.

3:  Al-Agha, M.R., 1995. Environmental contamination of ground water in the Gaza Strip. Environ. Geol., 75: 109-113.
CrossRef  |  

4:  Al-Najar, H. and A.J. Adeloye, 2005. The effect of urban expansion on groundwater recharge as renewable resource in Gaza Strip. RICS, 5: 7-21.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Goris, K. and B. Samain, 2001. Sustainable irrigation in the Gaza Strip. M.Sc. Thesis, Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium.

6:  Lawrence, A.R., B.L. Morris and S.S.D. Foster, 1998. Hazards Induced by Groundwater Under Rapid Urbanization. In: Geohazards in Engineering Geology, Maunds, J.G. and M. Eddleston (Eds.). Geological Society, London, pp: 319-328.

7:  McGhee, T.J., 1991. Water Supply and Sewage. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

8:  Metcalf and Eddy Consultant Co., 2000. Coastal aquifer management program. Integrated Aquifer Management Plan (Gaza Strip), USAID Study Task 3, Executive Summary and Appendices, Vol. 1, B-G. Gaza, Palestine.

9:  Ministry of Environmental Affairs, 2001. Assessment of Land Based Pollution Sources. Palestinian National Authority, Palestine.

10:  Ministry of Local Governorates, 2004. Maps of Urban Development of Gaza Governorates in 2004. Palestinian National Authority, Palestine.

11:  Ministry of Planning and International Corporation, 1997. Technical Maps Atlas for Gaza Governorate. Palestinian National Authority, Palestine.

12:  Mogheir, Y., 1997. Salt Water intrusion modeling and monitoring in the Gaza strip aquifer. M.Sc. Thesis, IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

13:  MOPIC, 1998. Regional Plan for Gaza Governorates 1998-2015. Palestinian National Authority, Palestine.

14:  Palestinian Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction, 2000. Tatf-Water sector strategic planning study. Final Report, Vol. 3: Specialist Studies, Part B: Focal Areas. Technical Assistance and Training Department (TAT).

15:  Palestinian Water Authority, 2003. Groundwater levels decline phenomena in Gaza Strip. Final Report, Water Resources and Planning Department-Hydrology Section, Gaza.

16:  Palestinian Water Authority, 2004. Palestinian vision for water management in the Israeli Colonies Area in the Gaza Strip. Strategic Planning Department Water Resources Directorate.

17:  Pouraghniaei, M.J., 2002. Effects of Urbanization on Quality and Quantity of Water in the Watershed. Natural Resources Research Center of Semnan, Iran.

18:  Sogreah, B.R.L. and Team, 1999. Master Plan for Sewage and Storm water Drainage in the Gaza Governorates Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian.

19:  United Kingdom Environment Agency, 2001. Thames Region Hydrological Summary. United Kingdom Environment Agency, UK., pp: 9.

20:  Van de Ven, F.H.M., 1990. Water balances of urban areas. Proceedings of the Duisberg Symposium, (DS' 1990), The Netherlands, pp: 21-32.

21:  MOP, 2005. Regional Plan for Gaza Governorates. Palestine National Authority, Palestine.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved