This study examines economic structure and results of economic activities of farms (2001-2002 production years) in the context of Yozgat Rural Development Project (YRDP) that implemented between 1991 and 2001 in the Yozgat province in Turkey by International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD) and aims at disclosing economic effects of YRDP on farms in the region. For this purpose, farmers living within and outside of the project area were interviewed and a questionnaire study was carried out.Comparative evaluation and factorial analysis methods were employed in the analyses. It was observed that the farmers are not well informed of the objectives of YRDP, project related activities, project implementation agencies and relationships between them. It was also found out that the farmers did not actively participate to several stages of the project (such as planning, implementation and control). YRDP achieved its objectives in some areas (such as road construction, irrigation and domestic water supply), however it could not reach that level in other activities. Yozgat Rural Development Project could not meet the expectations in terms of regional development and several activities (animal husbandry, forestry, women programs, creating additional income sources etc). The main deficiencies of the Project were as follows: insufficient cooperation between implementing agencies, selection of improper tools for creating additional income, selecting region based on unsatisfactory data, inadequate activities towards the old people and the children. Taking into consideration of the factors affecting farm activities and adoption of new rural development approaches such as organic farming, micro-credit applications and rural tourism and also establishing new farmers` associations/unions that utilize Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) will lead to a new understanding for the improvement of individuals living in the region.
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Agricultural sector has an important share in the economies of developing countries such as Turkey. Agricultural sector maintains its dynamic feature due to reasons that, covering countrys food needs, providing raw-material to other sectors, creating new employment opportunities and providing foreign money influx by producing yields oriented towards foreign trade.
Likewise in Turkey, the portion of the agricultural sector in GDP, which was 43% in 1923, fell 40% in 1939, 25% in 1980 and 13.4% in 2002. It is estimated to be 12.8% in 2003 (TZOB, 2002). As to the datum, the portion of agricultural sector in GDP is obviously seen to have fallen continuously.
On the other hand the portion of agricultural sector in the general employments is yet very high (34%). Agricultural sector has a unique importance as being the main activity field of the people living rural parts of country. 66.4% of these people, living rural sections, make agricultural activities (Anonymous, 2003).
Though the major portion of the population is engaged in agricultural activities, distribution of national income has been impaired unfavorably against rural sections due to their low lot in GDP. Since the continuation of divisions of agricultural territories via inheritance, the decrease in sizes of agricultural enterprises and the occurrence of further problems in agricultural fields (infrastructure, education, health, organizational structure etc.), poverty has become a current issue. According to criteria of OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development), in Turkey, 14.8% of population living in rural section and 14.2% of households in rural section are below poverty limit (Pamuk, 2002). In 2002, 36.6% of population living rural areas are below poverty limit (DIE, 2002).
Taking into consideration all these progress, the rural sections have been given a particular significance to some extent since the initial years of planned development period. Preceding the planned term, these studies were limited with coming into effect of Village Law, earliest economics congress, earliest village congress, abolition of tithe (Aşar tax), establishment of Village Institutes, getting titles to the lands; however, during the period of planned term, thanks to the model village approach, many-sided arrangements of rural sections, programs for society development, city-village model and the projects of Rural development these studies have evolved (Kılıç, 1997).
Rural Development Projects have come on the scene as a new model in rural development studies for last 20-25 years. National and international organizations gave place in their development programs. The main goal of this study is to utilize natural sources more efficiently throughout different regions of Turkey, to eliminate socioeconomic differences observed in rural sections, to improve infrastructure of rural sections, to increase the income of rural population thereby helping to improve living conditions and to increase the production of both vegetable and animal.
YRDP is one of most important Rural Development Project implemented between 1991 and 2001 in the Yozgat province in Turkey by International Fund for Agricultural Development and aims at disclosing economic effects of YRDP on farms in the region. There were different kind of activities were implemented in the project area such as construction of greenhouses, using agricultural credit, demonstrations on agricultural education, giving short courses to agricultures on technical issues, construction of rural infrastructure like rural roads, amelioration of drinking water resources. For instance, in the project area 35 greenhouses constructed for demonstration purpose, 261 agricultural courses were carried out (in these courses 6239 farmers educated), also at the level of village 165.746 farmers participated different meetings with specialists.
The aim of workings such as rural roads working archived 100%, on drinking water 96% and irrigation 76% were archived. Finally, rural roads made and 26.900 people benefited from rural roads workings, 23.558 people benefited from drinking water workings and 47.589 people benefited irrigation workings. On the other hand on agricultural credit possibilities were developed thanks to these studies 1.600.393 $ agricultural credit used by farmers in the region (TKB, 2003).
In this study, in addition to the goals mentioned above, it is aimed to disclose the consequences of Rural Development Project in Yozgat to the region and to identify the effects of YRDP on Yozgat rural area.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in September 2004 in rural areas of Yozgat province in Turkey. Basic material of the study is composed of the data gained by poll from agricultural enterprises performing in the rural area of Yozgat province. In addition to these data, the study is reinforced by the secondary data attained from local, national and international organizations.
In the study field, aimed example method is used to determine the places polled. After the determination of the places to be embraced, the number of agricultural enterprises is determined and these enterprises form the frame list. Applying Proportional Stratification Method to this frame list, example number is determined as 100 with 95% reliance level and 10% divergence from average.
The number of example inferred from calculations is distributed to each layer. Therefore, it is found necessary to take 10 examples from the first layer enterprises (0.1-2.9 ha), 22 from second layer enterprises (3.0-5.0 ha), 30 from third layer enterprises (5.1-10.0 ha), 26 from fourth layer enterprises (10.1-20.0 ha) and 12 from fifth layer enterprises (20.1-> hectare). The enterprises polled in the study field are selected randomly. Taking into consideration the amount of agricultural enterprises in the villages polled, it is considered acceptable to survey 70 enterprises within the scope of YRDP and 30 other enterprises beyond the scope of this project.
The data attained by poll belongs to 2002 production season. MS Excel 2000 and SPSS 11.0 are used in analyzing the primary data.
Applying statistical tests (Chi-square test and t-test) to these various data gained via analysis, it is tried to achieve significant results. As transforming them into detailed presentation tables, these results are tried to interpret through averages and percentage distributions.
The enterprises are analyzed by means of factor analyzing technique, one type of variable statistical techniques, to determine whether there is a factor stemming from YRDP, within the factors effective on enterprises surveyed. In the study, VARIMAX rotation technique was used.
At the assessment stage of polls, the enterprises functioning within the scope of Rural Development Project in Yozgat are named A Group Enterprises and the other enterprises beyond the scope of Rural Development Project in Yozgat are named B group Enterprises, thus the results are given in accordance with these definitions.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN TURKEY
A great many development projects supported by foreign financing system like International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) were carried out in Turkey to eliminate local differences between the prosperity levels, to improve the living conditions of rural people, to impede the migration and to minimize the problems causing cultural discrepancies. The principal projects, completed recently or still on the process;
|Rural Development Project in Çorum-Çankırı (1976-1984),
|Rural Development Project in Erzurum (1984-1989),
|Rural Development Project in Ordu-Giresun (1996-2004),
|Rural Development Project in Bingöl-Muş (1990-1999),
|Rural Development Project in Sivas-Erzincan-Tunceli (1993-2006),
|Rural Development Project in Yozgat (1991-2001) (DPT, 2000).
Brief information about these Rural Development Projects is given below:
Rural Development project applied in Çorum-Çankırı provinces was the first integrated Project. With this project, the amount of the lands left uncultivated was diminished from 46 to 20%, as a result of increase in production of horsebean (baklagil), a 60% boost were experienced in wheat and barley yields (Gülçubuk, 1997). In addition, late as they might be, such infrastructure services as clean water supply and electricity were provided with the small and large-scale irrigation projects.
After the application of Rural Development Project in Erzurum, the level of mechanization used in agriculture was enhanced and an increase in production amount ranging between 8 to 62%, varying from product to product, were achieved. Immigration rate from rural sides to province centers decreased from 12 to 5.9% as a result of increase in incomes and opportunity of employment. Approximately 1.200 farmers were trained on animal dairy, apiculture, tractor maintenance and repair and vegetable cultivation (Anonymous, 1987).
As a consequence of new production activities created within the scope of Rural Development Project in Bingöl-Muş, 4310 persons were employed and thus 14 million (from 1990 to 1999) additional gross product values was provided per enterprise.
Although constructive results were taken from these Rural Development Projects, they had also hindering aspects. For instance, some infrastructure investments (such as public bath, laundry etc.) were never used; some were not completed although planned within the scope of Rural Development Project in Çorum-Çankırı; demonstration studies remained insufficient and also there seemed some problems in credit application (mostly due to high interest rate) (Gülçubuk, 1997).
According to the report of UNOPS committee (the committee of United Nations),, the disruption observed in YRDP could be explained with the lack of coordination between foundations, deficient technical assist and insufficient financial sources. The most effectual factor was regarded as incompetent (5 Nisan 1994 crisis) appropriation of funds (Kaya, 1996).
To briefly mention the main defectiveness seemed in rural development projects applied in Turkey; these can be listed, the governmental administrative center was the decision-maker, the demands of target audience was no taken into consideration, mutual reliance atmosphere could not be created, political preferences were dominant on place selection, which led to financial and moral losses, there were not coordination between institutions involved, local members of projects had limited authority, the project was launched later than envisioned date and there were too much bureaucratic procedure.
FINDINGS OF RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION
Demographic structure of the enterprises and employment: Below, the inquiries concerning household size of enterprises, education level of inhabitants, professional experience of entrepreneur, employment conditions of households in the enterprises, entrepreneurs supplementary revenue and residing situation are explicated in sum.
In the enterprises surveyed, average size of households are determined 5.6 people. This figure is calculated 5.3 for the enterprises of group A whereas 5.6 for the enterprises of group B. Within the study field, average size of household is higher than general average of the country for group A and B (The average figure of nation is 4.5 people as to 2002 year).
There are no distinctions among the enterprises groups (p<0.05) regarding population. The average size of household is less than the average figure of whole enterprises (5.6) and than the general figure of Yozgat province (5.6) (DIE, 2000).
This situation could be explained as a consequence of migrations from settlement places in which group A enterprises were located to the city centres.
The distribution of population in the enterprises of study field is given in Table 1. At the enterprises surveyed 8.9% of population forms 0-6 age group, 14.5% forms 7-14 age group, 51.4% forms 15-49 age group and 25.2% forms 50 and above age group.
|Number of persons in enterprise groups
|Education situation of inhabitants aged above 6 in enterprises (%)
As it seems from Table 1, 15-49 age groups forming the source of essential workforce is first in importance. This proportion is 48.5% for group A and 59.1% for B group enterprises. The reason why this proportion happens less in group A than B is that the people of 15-49 age group participate in migration more frequently.
As to that within the whole average of the enterprises (Table 2), it is found that the 23.1% of inhabitants is illiterate; 4.5% is literate; 36.3% is graduated from elementary school; 16.1% is still attending to elementary school; 7.3% is graduated from junior school; and 11.7% is either graduated from high school or still attending to those.
At the enterprises located in the study field, a significant amount of householders function as payless family worker (85.5% for group A, 80.0% for group B) and these proportions are far above the Turkey average.
Rural development projects aim to improve the activities providing additional income to people living in the rural areas. Considering this situation with respect to the enterprises in the study area, it could be seen that the amount of the enterprises which have supplementary income is very little. Especially in the study field, the average figure of the people devoid of supplementary income is higher than the average of the total enterprises. This condition is stemmed from the inappropriate performance of actions which was first thought to provide additional income and from the alteration of these actions from their initial route.
At nationwide, the proportion of people functioning in agricultural sector and devoid of additional income is 86.3% and the ratio of people functioning chiefly in agricultural sector with additional income is 6.8% (DIE, 2001). In the study field the general average figure of people devoid of supplementary earnings is 80.6% and this figure is 84.1% for A group enterprises and 72.4% for B group.
|Situations of householders supplementary revenue in enterprises surveyed (%)
As to these results, the people of A group enterprises is close to the nation average (86.3%) with regards to the supplementary earnings. As for the people of B group this figure is lower than nation average and they have also better condition (Table 3).
Average age of entrepreneurs and professional experience are determined as 49.1, 25.8, respectively. Despite of this, no one, trained on professional agriculture is coincided. It is seen that most of the entrepreneur (93.6%) reside in village.
Land existence of enterprises: Average land size of the enterprises located in the study field is 14.9 ha and that is 11.8 ha for A group enterprises, 21.9 ha for B group enterprises. This distinction was effective in selecting the project area.
When the utilization types were examined at the enterprises surveyed, the proportion of the enterprises cultivating their own lands was turned out to be higher at both kinds of enterprises than that ones cultivating by means of hiring and partnership. This condition reflects the general tendency observed all through the country. The proportion of the enterprises cultivating their own lands is 81.3% (DIE, 2001). That ratio is 75.0% for A group enterprises, 77.9% for B group and 76.5% in comparison with the average of all enterprises.
Tenancy rate is 17.0% for A group enterprises and 18.2% for B group (Table 4). Taking into consideration that this ratio is 1.8% in general of Turkey, it could be said that the hiring system in study field is widespread. The proportion of the enterprises functioning based on ownership is determined 3.0% in general of Turkey and 2.4% for the study field.
According to the results of General Agricultural Enumeration of 2001, average figure of lots is determined Table 1 in Turkey. As for the enterprises surveyed this figure happens 6.6. For both type of enterprises this ratio is higher than the average figure of Turkey.
|Usage types of lands in enterprises (%)
|*: Government has ownership of land but it is cultivated for years by agriculture
|Parcel situation of lands in enterprises surveyed
This situation is important due to reflect that the enterprises in the region tend to shred. Principally, at the A group enterprises the highness of the parcel number emerged from the tendencies of the peoples migrating to cities. For both kinds of enterprises, the average number of parcel is 5.4 within the border of villages and 1.2 outer. The average parcel number is higher in A group enterprises (6.8) than B group (6.3). Ninety percent of the enterprises whose average parcel number is 6.6 are within the boundary of villages and 9.9 percent are exterior.
As inspecting the parcel situation of lands at enterprises groups, the ratio of inner village parcel is 88.5% at A group enterprises and 91.7% at B group enterprises (Table 5). Lands manifest polyfragmented temperament in the region.
41.7% of the lands of enterprises is composed of irrigatable territories and 58.3% is unirrigatable ones. The ratio of irrigatable lands is 19.0% for Turkey (DIE, 2001).
The proportion of the irrigatable lands is 51.3% and the proportion of unirrigatable lands is 48.7% for A group enterprises. The portion of irrigatable lands is higher in A group than B group (34.8%). The reason why this ratio higher in A group is related to the efficiency of studies applied to region within the scope of YRDP. Seventy six percent of the goals planned in the scheme were reached in the irrigation region of YRDP. As to these results, it could be said that the rural development project applied in the region proved effectual in broading the quantity of irrigatable lands.
Pattern of vegetable products: Pattern of vegetal products were examined from the view of sowing lands in the enterprises surveyed. As to that, 62.1% of the lands is aparted for producing cereal plants, 15.5 is for horsebean, 1.3% is for producing feed plants and 3.2% is apparted for sugar beet. Also the fruit and vegetable cultivation is made on 1.3 percent of the lands. In the region, the proportion of following lands to total lands is 14.4% and this figure ID higher than the general figure (5.6%) of Turkey.
Inspecting the production pattern according to enterprises groups, in the A group enterprises, cereal plants are cultivated on 61.1% of lands, horsebean are on 22.7%, feed plants are on 1.3%, sugar beet is on 4.1% and fruit-vegetable cultivation are held on 1.7% of lands; in the B group enterprises, wheat is cultivated on 63.3% of lands, horsebean are cultivated on 6.4%, feed plants are on 1.6% and fruit-vegetables are cultivated on 3.8% of lands.
In the study field, wheat has the biggest portion of cereals (43.8%); chickpea has the biggest portion of horsebean (12.3%), vetch has the biggest portion of feed plants (1.3%). These determinations are correct for both type of groups. In general of Turkey, considering that wheat has 67.2% part of cereals, chickpea has 40.7% piece of horsebean, vetch has 20.9% of feed plants (TZOB, 2002), it could be said that the study field reflects the general inclination of Turkey.
The proportion of lands on which fruits and vegetables are cultivated is 1.7% in A group enterprises and 3.8% in B group. At the villages (for both A and B groups) on the study field, cultivation of fruits and vegetables is not sufficient. The cultivation of fruits and vegetables are held largely due to meet the families needs.
The portion of following lands is 8.4% for A group enterprises and 18.2% for B group. This rate is higher than Turkey (5.6%) for both kinds of groups (DIE, 2001). The reason why this rate is lower in A group enterprises than B could be accepted as the consequences of Agricultural Publication and Research project which was applied in synchronization with the Rural Development project.
In the A group enterprises, it could be seen that the new products dont take place in the pattern of products and that the irrigation abilities is effectual in cultivation of sugar beet. In the A group enterprises, the cultivation territories of sugar beet form 4.1% of total cultivation lands. In the region, it is evident that the irrigation investments didnt lead significant alterations in the product pattern. This situation could be attributed to the deficient coordination between the institutes performing activities in the region. The importance of coordination of institutions and the whole scale application of the requirements of the project appears.
Opinions of entrepreneurs on rural development project in Yozgat: In the study field and at the same time in the A group enterprises where the activities of YRDP are implemented, entrepreneurs knowledge level about YKPP are scrutinized. B group enterprises, participating in study as control group, are not taken into evaluation in this phase since they are beyond the scope of YRDP. 30.6% of A group enterprises surveyed is determined unacquainted with this project and 69.4% is determined acquainted. Meanwhile at the villages included in YRDP, the portion of family member participant in the project is 21.7% and nonparticipants rate is as high as 78.3%. The biggest slice of participants in the activities of YRDP is formed by fathers as being householders. A significant section of these householders (90%) attended at various education activities such as greenhouses and maize cultivation. The portion of those continuing these activities after education remains as low as 4.0%.
Opinions of entrepreneurs included in YRDP on why they couldnt benefit from project are given at Fig. 1. The rate of those sharing the idea that the political inclinations are effectual is the highest one (62%).
About the outcomes of YRDP over farmers and region, 24.6% of the producers think that YRDP proved constructive only for the agricultural production, 3.1% of producers point out that YRDP influenced only the income sources in an affirmative way, 9.2% believe that agricultural production, earnings and its sources were affected affirmatively, 46.2% think there wasnt any distinction in their present conditions as compared to the preceding, 16.9% point out that the project improved the relations between institutions.
To determine whether there is a factor, effective over the enterprises surveyed, stemming from YRDP, the enterprises are analyzed by using factor analyzing technique, one of the multivariants statistic techniques. To achieve this goal, factor analyzing was applied to A group enterprises.
|Reasons why entrepreneur couldnt benefit from YRDP
According to the results of this analyzing, 5 factors effective over enterprises were determined. In this factor analyzing, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy) figure was found 0.643. The figure of Barlett Test of Sphericity was found 4376.479 and decided significant at %1 importance level. As to that, 1st number of factors is named as input utilization; 2nd is capital; 3rd number is livestock production; 4th number is income of enterprise; and 5th number is named as land factor. These factors explain 83.1% of the total variation.
According to the results attainded by factor analyzing, input utilization and land of the enterprises included in YRDP are seen important, as rather different from other enterprises groups. As a result of supports and training activities given within the scope of project, it could be said that there is a increase in the usage of agricultural inputs. Besides, the conclusion of infrastructure studies in the region by proportion of 80% and the benefits of investments especially like irrigation have constructive effects to the region. In accordance with these results, training activities and infrasturcture studies are said to be successful.
During the development history of Turkey, necessary balance among the agriculture, industry and service sectors has never been established. For this reason, it is vital to revise the strategies of development applications and to apply the programs based on the approach of regional integrated rural development.
In Turkey, rural development projects have a distinctional magnitude among the studies performed to develop rural regions. These projects are being carried out also by means of foreign supports to improve the usage of natural resources and to alleviate the breach between rural and urban areas. Rural development projects, first beginning with the one performed in Çorum-Çankırı provinces, havent achieved expected efficiency over rural regions up till now.
At the rural development project in Yozgat, common problems seen in most of the rural development projects were experienced. These problems could be listed as, deficient cooperation between institutions, failure to bring participation of target mass, timeless utilization of financial resources and inadequate application of activities directed towards women, children and the old. In accordance with that, it was determined that no significant alteration in fiscal state and in outcomes of annual activities of enterprises located in the region to which Rural Development Project of Yozgat was seen yet.
According to main findings of this study, we can summarize the results. Mostly, the results of YRDP are seen successful on main infrastructure investments such as irrigation. Although inside of this project aims there were several social objectives and planning activities against disadvantageous groups such as women, elderly peoples etc., they couldnt benefit from this purpose sufficiently. It is one of the main weaknesses of the YRDP.
One of the chief goals of YRDP is to create additional revenue to the inhabitants. However, this goal hasnt been reached utterly yet. Raising livestock appears as a source of additional income differently from the activities mentioned in project. To include animal rising in forthcoming projects is important for achievement.
It is found that farmers arent pleased from the distribution of YRDPs services. Because of political effects on the project.
It is observed that the relations between the producers of region and agricultural foundations are inadequate. That these foundations are located mostly in city center is an important reason to this inadequacy. With the implementation of local training activities inclined towards villages will make the application of Participary Approach successful. And that will influence inhabitants to back projects.
It is aimed to improve revenue of inhabitants as applying modern production techniques like organic agriculture and growing products which have high market price.
Present study shows that there is a strong immigration from study area to city centers, especially people who are in 15-49 age group participate this. It means that labour mobility is more than Turkey average in study area. Due to the fact that agricultural enterprises are small, income level is also insufficient in the region. Recently, agricultural lands are cutting into parts more and more; it is a consequence of immigration from study area.
In group A, the portion of average irrigable land is more than B group enterprises and Turkey average. It is influences of YRDP in the area. Furthermore 76% of aims on irrigation investment s were achieved. Also, participatory approach couldnt be carried out successfully in projects activities implemented in the region. On the other hand it is found that YRDP played an important role on using agricultural inputs.
In the region, producers opinions were obtained. That the half of them thought positively about organic agriculture and that the excessive amount of chemicals werent used in the area are signs that the region is suitable to organic agriculture. This potential of the region should be evaluated for the benefit of producers.
In the region on which rural development projects are applied and the truism is improving, microfinance approach could be easily used to prop up local production. Microfinance means to provide suitable credits (microcredit) to impoverished families in order to encourage them to embark on production activities or to enlarge their enterprises. Especially in the rural areas, disadvantageous groups (women, elderly peoples etc.) could benefit from this purpose. For instance, women make children clothes, gloves, socks, house accessories, gifts, laceworks, tableclothes, ceramic objects etc. in convenience with the measures (colors, design, etc.) demanded by the supporter foundation and required materials are provided by the supporter foundation; afterwards, these products are putted up for sale on determined prices. Thus, inactive workforce is evaluated with little support. Within the scope of Yozgat rural development project, even though various activities directed towards the disadvantageous groups (women, elderly peoples etc.) were planned, any supportive movement werent faced. Particularly, to obtain the participation of women in production activities by providing microcredit will affect positively the development studies.
In the region, it is determined that the education level is far too low. In the agricultural publication studies, now that, the women is doing the whole jobs in animal rising, initially publication structures inclined towards women should be established.
That the applications of the approaches based on local preferences rather than sectoral; management model in which local administrations rather than central-based administration and principal of multiplicity instead of productivity boost are improved will affect affirmatively the development phase of region.
Deficient inclusion of communication technologies to the application of rural development project causes producers dependence on publication members. If the communication technologies are used sufficiently, it is evident that new concept in solution of rural problems will be derived.
In the activities being performed in the area, adoption of new development process in which government takes part as regulator and controller, civilian organizations and local administrations take part as performer and producers participate in an organized way is important in achievement of rural development projects being applied in Turkey.