The jujube, locally called as ber, is an indigenous fruit of China and the South Asian subcontinent. It is produced in several temperate regions such as India, Pakistan, China, Syria, Malacca, Australia and Malaya. This fruit is grown in parts of Afghanistan, Iran and sub-tropical parts of Russia. China is one of the most important country for jujube cultivation, where it is known as Chinese dates. Several hundred varieties of jujube are available in China some of them are seedless. Jujube is considered to be one of the major fruits in China, because people buy it for good luck. The tree of this fruit is very hard, drought-resistant and can thrive in poor alkaline tracts without much irrigation and care, and is recommended for soils where other fruit trees can not survive.
In Pakistan, jujube has been successfully cultivated in Hyderabad, Khairpur, Multan, Sargodha and Lahore districts. In Sindh, the area and production of jujube has increased significantly during 1997-98 to 2001-2002. Data indicates that the area under jujube has increased from 708 to 1210 ha and its production has increased from 3716 to 5395 metric tons during the same period (Govt. of Sindh, 2001-02). It is mainly cultivated in Hyderabad and Khairpur districts. In Hyderabad, Tando Jam and Tando Allahyar are major area for jujube production. Many varieties are grown likes soofi, kheerol (chambeli), sanghri and gola. Gola is most popular variety and it has two kinds, the green (leemai) and the golden (white). White gola is harvested earlier than other varieties.
This fruit is mostly consumed in fresh, but his other forms such as dried, candied, pickled, squish and juice is also used. Various Yunani medicines contain jujube extract, which is said to be blood purified and also helps digestion. The powder and decoction prepared from the roots are effective in case of fever, ulcers and old wounds. The stem bark is considered to be a remedy for diarrhoea. It is highly nutritious fruit depending upon variety, the fruit pulp may contain 0.20 to 0.80% acidity at fully ripe stage. It contains 70 to 165 mg ascorbic acid per 100 gms of pulp, which is much higher than the vitamin-c content of citrus fruit, as a well known source of this vitamin. Jujube fruit is also very rich in vitamin A, containing nearly 80 ug of B-carotene per 100 gms of fruit. The fully ripe jujube fruit contains 0.9% protein and 12.8% carbohydrates, the highest level found on fruit. The reducing sugars are also quite high and amount to 3.1 to 10.0%, respectively. The mineral contents are calcium, phosphorus and iron. Jujube fruit excel even apple and oranges. This study was planned to conduct detailed investigation on cost of cultivation of jujube in Hyderabad Sindh with the following objectives.
||To determine average per hectare cost of production incurred
||To investigate the physical productivity per unit area of
jujube and to estimate the returns realized by the growers.
||To compute the average per unit net return.
||To determine the input output ratio involved in the production
The information for this research was derived primarily from in-depth semi-structured
interviews with key informants, met during the course of separate survey of
jujube growers, conducted as part of a broader investigation of the performance
of farming system in Sindh. Jujube survey in Musa Khatan and Tando Qasir area
in Hyderabad Sindh was purposely carried out, because of the concentration of
jujube fields and deemed sufficiently representative study area. An exploratory
survey was conducted of jujube growers and some members of fruit growers association
who become key informants met on several occasion and with whom
relationships based on trust were established. The officers from the relevant
department i.e. Agri. Extension, Research, Horticulture, Directorate of Agriculture
Marketing and economics also provide important information. Given the largely
purposive selection of key informants the accuracy and representativeness of
the information gained cannot be formally validated. However, all assertions
made in this paper were verified by cross checking from at least three or more
Production of farm commodities involves numerous relations between resources
and commodities. Some of these relationships are simple while others are complex
but according to Heady (1964) they all provide the tools by means of which problems
of production can be analyzed. The production function expressed the way in
which output are produced by inputs and the way inputs cooperate with each other
in varying proportion to produce any given output of products. A production
function can be expressed in form of:
||f (x1, x2, x3, x4
||specific factor of production or resources
The production function has been used to analyze the data collected from the jujube producers. The various resources or output as entered into the production process was evaluated at the prevailing market price. The cultural operations were considered the basis to quantify various inputs.
The land inputs were measured on the basis of area planted under various
crops at the selected diversified farm. The main component of land input included
the rent of land, irrigation charges and usher tax. Market rate of leasing out
one hectare of land for growing various crops as prevalent in the area were
considered as an appropriate criteria to compute rent of land inputs for various
(As X Cr) + (As X Ie) + (As X ut)
||Land inputs per hectare for specific crop
||Area sown under specific crop
||Contract rate per hectare use of land
||Irrigation charges rate
||Usher tax rate
Labour inputs include machine use, manual and animal labour. The hiring
of tractor along with implements and bullock pair including plough or leveler
were calculated at rates prevailing in the area. Therefore, labour inputs as
employed to grow various enterprises were estimated on the basis of opportunity
cost principle. The following formula was used to calculate the labour inputs.
Lis = (Mh X Hc) + (BwD X Hc) + (MWD X
||Labour inputs for specific activity
||Bullock work days
||Man- work days
The capital inputs used in the various enterprises were seed, farmyard manure,
fertilizer, insecticide and pesticide sprays. The actual expenditure as incurred
by the respondents on these capital inputs was investigated from farmers and
means were computed for all the farmers. The following formula was used to compute
capital inputs for various crops raised on the selected farms.
Cph=(Qs x Pr) + (Qm x Pr) + (Qf xPr) +
(QfxPr) + (Ppe)
||Capital inputs per hectare Qs=Quantity of seed used for various
||Price per unit weightQm=Quantity of manure applied
||Quantity of fertilizerPpe=Actual expenses on plant production
||Area sown under various enterprises
||Quantity of seed used for various enterprises
||Quantity of manure applied
||Actual expenses on plant production
Production Practices of Jujube
The prime and basic objective of the growers is to get higher yields through
adopting the proper management practices and production technology. Production
of any commodity depends on the combination of different inputs and resources
allocation. The main purpose of this analysis is to describe and analyze the
jujube production system. The emphases have been laid on qualitative and quantitative
analysis of production practices adopted by the jujube growers and identification
of technical and socioeconomic factors in jujube production. The basic data
collected in the study is presented hereunder.
Land preparation is considered the initial task for any crop cultivation.
A good land preparation is necessary for proper and rapid growth of the crop.
Land preparation varies from one grower to another. It was found that most of
the growers prepare their land with one gobble plough, followed by 2-3 cultivators
per acre. It was also observed that 81% of the respondents leveled their land
before planting of Jujube trees.
The plant-to-plant distance should be 25 feet to maintain the 35 to 40 plants
in one acre. If the land is not ready for planting keeps the budded plants in
the shade and apply irrigation through sprinkler time to time for 2 to 3 days,
when the land comes in condition, then first of all put the plants near the
ear marked spots, specially in one plot. After that dig the pit from the center
and fit the plant in the pit, the plant should be erect, not too below or above
the surface. Put the soil and fix the budded plants in the center of the pit.
In this way all the plants should be fitted, then immediately irrigate the area
with irrigation water. 3 to 4 irrigation turn should be given at the interval
of 3 to 4 days.
Jujube can be propagated through seed, root cutting, grafting and budding.
Generally the seed collected from fully ripen fruits are viable although in
many cases seed treated by H2SO4 their stratification
with sand, keeping in warm place, or extraction of seed by breaking the hard
shell helps in early germination. Seedling may be germinated in small containers
to four-leaf stage and may be planted in the field at a distance of 10-12 meters
between them. Budding is considered useful for the development of new varieties.
The jujube seeds are sown in the field at desirable distance and budding is
done since success in transplanting of seedling is difficult. Whip grafting
has been practiced successfully for jujube. Both ring and shield budding can
be done successfully during July, whereas, only shield budding is more feasible
during August-September. Budding during March, April gives very little success,
as there is little sap slow in the mother plant.
Planting time and Varieties
Time of planting is an important factor for its rapid and successful growth.
Crop sown on proper time, gave best germination. The best time for planting
and budding are first February to March and second is during monsoon from August
to October. There are many varieties like soofi, kheerol (chambeli), sanghri
and gola. Gola is most popular and is of two kinds, the green (leemai) and the
golden (white). White gola is harvested earlier commonly grown in the area.
It was investigated that 75% respondents planted the gola Variety, and 10% planted
soofi, kheerol (chambeli) and sanghri variety.
The weed control is an important practices in the initial stage of the crop.
The growers generally practices three weeding. Removal of weeds is necessary
to keep the orchard clean; weeding also conserves moisture and reduces the depletion
of nutrients. The orchard should be kept clean by removing wild species of jujube
as it acts as an alternate host to fruit fly and powdery mildew. For this purpose
ploughing immediately after pruning and second ploughing should be done to remove
weeds. In this way garden will remain clean free from diseases.
It was investigated that growers did not follow the recommendations made
by agriculture department and mostly used fertilizer on their own experience.
Tables 1 indicate that majority 44% growers applied below recommended dose of
urea and 33% applied the recommended dose. The same pattern was found in DAP,
in which 3% growers applied above recommended dose, and 40% applied recommended
doze of DAP and 42% applied below recommended dose of DAP.
|| Application of Fertilizer in Jujube Orchard
|Source: Survey data, 2002-03
It was found that growers had applied 2 to 3 pesticide sprays to control
insect, pests. It was investigated that 25% respondents did not apply any spray,
whereas, 20% applied 2 spray and 40% 3 sprays during the year 2003.
Pruning is an important practices to keep proper shape and form of Jujube
plant. The jujube fruit is borne in the axil of leaves on the growing shoots
of the current year. Therefore, full pruning is necessary to induce a good healthy
growth to provide maximum fruit bearing. The best time of pruning is mid May
to mid June. It is advisable to complete the pruning before mid June, when the
plant sheds its leaves and goes to rest.
The harvesting of jujube starts when the fruit reach the marketable stage.
Delay in harvesting particularly in season makes the fruit unsuitable for the
market. The jujube tree flowers in May to June and again in December to January
depending upon variety. Jujube fruit is ready in February and March when no
other fruit is available in the market. It takes about 3-4 months to mature
its fruit. The yield of grafted trees is heavy and regular too. The skin of
the fruit must mature to get better market prices. During harvesting and picking,
it must be ensured that fruits are not damaged. The harvested fruits may be
stored in a shady place to keep its freshness. It is difficult to adjust its
harvesting according to the price situation in the market.
The yield of jujube varied from farm to farm and from plant to plant. There
are number of reasons for yield variation i.e. soil variation, land preparation,
attack of insect-pests and diseases. It was estimated that the yield of jujube
ranged from 290 mounds to 470 mounds with an average of 380 mds ha-1.
It was also examined that there are number of factors, which help to increase
the production of jujube, 50% respondents reported by using quality seed, 07
and 28% reported good variety and balanced fertilizer.
There is a wide variation of price received by the jujube growers. The prices
in early season are higher than the mid and late session but some times prices
in early season become much lower than mid or later session. During the study
it was found that the sale price of jujube in the early session was Rs.580/
40 kg and Rs.420/40 kg in mid session and Rs.200/40 kg in late season.
The economic analysis describes the methods used in analyzing economic behavior
and the application of inputs, the results obtained to solve economic problems
(David, 1979). Economic analysis deals with the cause and effect relationship
of economic phenomena. It aims to formulate statement or principles as to what
is true or correct under assumed condition. Economic analysis explains, for
example how price is determined under conditions of competition or monopoly,
why business fluctuations occur, and what forces promote or retard economic
growth (Thomas; M. J, Brennan. 1975). The question whether the business was
run profitably or not is determined by an analysis of the enterprise, which
is called economic analysis. The objectives of economic analysis are to verify
the use of various inputs of production and income obtained. There are many
economic measures to determine the profitability of farm business. Yet none
of them is perfectly suitable for all-purpose. Some criteria are most suitable
to derive certain conclusions. The most important criteria, which are commonly
used to analyze efficiency of agricultural enterprise, are calculation of net
return and determination of input-output ratio. These criteria were used to
determine the economic efficiency of jujube cultivation in selected area of
Sindh during 2003.
Jujube cultivation is an economic and resource allocation decision; it is not only to grow on the piece of land, but also to take proper care and application of inputs i.e. fertilizer insecticides and pesticides throughout the season. Growers have to decide whether they should allocate their scare resources (Land, Labour, Capital and Machinery) to grow jujube or they should utilize these resources for other crops, taking account of both fixed and variable costs.
The fixed costs of jujube were estimated by calculating all the costs incurred
from initial land preparation until it starts harvesting. The main costs involved
are land development, labour and machinery costs. The land development costs
included ploughing, planking, leveling and lay out of the field. The land rent,
government taxes and markup on the fixed capital have been included in the fixed
costs. The wages of permanent labour and repair of farm equipments and other
miscellaneous costs were considered as fixed costs (Norman et al., 1985).
The variable costs consists of production practices, input costs including
FYM, fertilizer and pesticides. The wages for hired labour for irrigation, interculturing,
spraying, harvesting and transportation and other management practices have
been included in the variable costs. These costs are known as working capital,
defined as capital requirement to fund the production cycle (Nix, 1979).
The Variable costs are those costs, which are specific to an enterprise and vary with its scale. The variable cost consists of land management, crop inputs, Fertilizers, Pesticides and Irrigation. In addition payments for hired labour for crop production activities. The variable cost varies from farm to farm, from one producer to another and from one crop to another crop, because some producers hire labour for harvesting, picking and others engage family labour.
Marketing costs are those expenses, which are incurred by the growers when
agricultural commodities move from producing area (farm gate to the market).
This is term frequently used to designate expenditures incurred from the time
of commodity leave the farm gate till it reaches the wholesale market. Marketing
costs include cleaning, grading, packing and transportation charges. The marketing
costs of jujube varied according to the distance of market.
Cost of Production
Total cost is defined as the fixed costs plus variable costs (TFC + TVC
= TC) (Bishop et al., 1958). The total cost of production was determined
to appraise the input-output relationship. For this purpose all costs incurred
in the jujube cultivation including marketing costs are aggregated and presented
in Table 2.
Net return refers to the residual, which remains for the entrepreneurs after
subtracting all costs of production from its gross income. Net return was determined
by subtracting average per hectare costs from average income per hectare realized
by the growers. The net return of jujube growers is presented in Table
|| Cost of Production of Selected Growers
|Source: Survey data, 2003
|| Net Return Received by the Selected Grower
Conclusions and Recommendations
The ultimate object of the present study is to improve the economic condition
of resource poor farmers. It is only possible by increasing per hectare yield
of jujube crop by encouraging growers to adopt recommended production technologies.
It is clearly observed that cultivation of jujube in the Musa Khatan and Tando
Qasir in Hyderabad district in Sindh has great potential because there is a
better net return from jujube growing, compared to other crops grown in the
In fact, jujube is relatively less perishable fruit and its cost of cultivation is comparatively lower than the other major fruits (i.e. mango, dates, banana and guava). In the absence of efficient marketing system and frequent changes in the export policies, a reasonable profit for growers and fair price for consumers cannot be ensured. Therefore, proper marketing of jujube is a most serious problem, which calls for immediate attention. There is need to establish a sound export policy, especially with Middle East, Iran, China which may help in stabilizing jujube prices. The fore-going analysis has indicated that improved management practices such as proper land development; timely irrigation and use of adequate inputs are necessary to enhance the jujube production. It was also investigate that most of the growers do not know the advantages of timely and adequate use of inputs. The use of chemical fertilizer and labour appear to be limited by the availability of resources with jujube growers. It is therefore, suggested that proper dose of fertilizers, timely use of pesticide sprays and improvement of management operations are essential to achieve better production.
It is necessary to establish nurseries for the propagation of established
and tested varieties under strict technical supervision. As suitable system
of quality control, certification of cultivars and resistance to disease and
insects, pests will have to be evolved to infuse necessary confidence among
The improved high quality seed is an important indicator to achieve good yield and quality produce and it is only possible by planting of good and healthy plants. Therefore, there is need to select the well-trained staff to carry out the timely planting, timely harvesting, grading, picking, packing and timely marketing to get better prices. There is a need to arrange the training of staff in respect of all management operations. There is a need to improve the existing information system and focus should be given to disseminate the information among growers regarding improved production practices and appropriate use of inputs in jujube cultivation.
There is a need to motivate the growers of Sindh to grow more jujubes to earn high net returns. Given the difficulties in resources and extension services, it may be best to target such efforts at farm level. There is also a need to increase the soil fertility through the organic and inorganic sources. It is therefore suggested that growers seek guidance from local available resources such as, research stations, extension agents and progressive growers of the locality. The timely and proper application of FYM and chemical fertilizers and pesticide sprays to control the insect-pests and diseases are important to achieve better crop yield.