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Emotional Intelligence Models as Generators of Business Management Change in the Human Talent Area



Zlata Borsic Laborde, Karol Benítez Burbano, Verónica Gallardo Reinoso, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Sikandar I. Mulla and Mariadoss Selvanayagam
 
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ABSTRACT

Emotional intelligence models helps in designing strategies that allow the development in human talent area. The objective of this study was to perform a critical analysis on the evolution of construct and emotional intelligence models in the human talent area. An intellectual quotient approach based on social and emotional intelligence is also carried out. Social intelligence develops the ability of individuals to perform in the human relations area, self-awareness and contact with others. Emotional intelligence due to its role in the organizational structure, is able to identify emotions, feelings, self-esteem and emotional management. This article describes emotional intelligence models focused on the company and its contribution in increasing business productivity, adaptation and change as a generator of interpersonal relationships, which facilitates proper management, efficient evaluation of staff and better productivity of organizations. Finally, a brief discussion is presented regarding the future development of the intelligence theory in the administrative area as a manager of human talent.

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Zlata Borsic Laborde, Karol Benítez Burbano, Verónica Gallardo Reinoso, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Sikandar I. Mulla and Mariadoss Selvanayagam, 2019. Emotional Intelligence Models as Generators of Business Management Change in the Human Talent Area. Journal of Artificial Intelligence, 12: 1-10.

DOI: 10.3923/jai.2019.1.10

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jai.2019.1.10
 
Copyright: © 2019. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Emotional intelligence models in the human talent area and his first approach was managing efficiently the human resources of the organizations and designing strategies that allow their development. Taylor1 considered the administration as an interdisciplinary area of knowledge. Consequently, emotional intelligence is born in psychology, however it has transdisciplinarity characteristics, so its application in the administrative area facilitates the management of individuals in the labor field and in the emotional intelligence construct, which allows to manage human talent in any field of action2. Considering the individuals emotions, managers of organizations must prepare themselves to take on the challenges of dynamism, as well as design strategies to develop human talent in their work since feelings allow individuals to learn from their experiences and react more adequately3. Given the diversity of definitions of intelligence and emotions available, recognizing the key elements in both the terms and the construct of emotional intelligence becomes imperative. Etymologically, “intelligence” comes from the Latin intelligentĭa, which derives from inteligere: Intus which means between and legere which means to choose. According to Royal Spanish Academy4, the term Intelligence refers to the capacity of an individual to choose the most convenient alternative to solve a problem. Therefore, intelligence could be defined as the ability of an individual to solve problems in various contexts or an individual’s flexibility and ability to adapt to changes4-5.

While Lolas6analyzed how emotions have been studied from different angles, such as biology, psychology and sociology7, describes emotions as constructs related to personality and socio-cultural features as demonstrated by the influence of the context on individual behaviour. Emotions are change adaptation processes biologically expressed as corporal reactions and emotional intelligence results from the relationship between emotions and functional skills. Currently in organizations has increased the interest in the application of emotional intelligence, since emotions are part of working life. Contrary to the previous decades, in which the IQ was considered as a predictor of job success8. The emotional intelligence influence in the workplace emphasizes the satisfaction of people in their work and the strengthening of workers. If emotional intelligence influences the work performance of individuals, the fact of investigating this construct is justified8. At the end of the XVIII century, intelligence was defined as the ability of an individual to face daily life situations and capability of learning and solving problems. French researcher Binet and Simon9 developed the first test designed to measure the intellectual capacity and introduced the expression Intellectual quotient, better known as IQ (Intelligenz-Quotient, in German). In the early XIX century, Thorndike10 introduced the concept of social intelligence defined as the ability of individuals to perform within human relations based on empathy. Garner11defined personal intelligence which refers to self-knowledge (intrapersonal) and knowledge of others (interpersonal). Both concepts are similar to what would be later called emotional intelligence.

Gardener broadened the perception of intelligence by theorizing the existence “multiple intelligences” where individuals have different types of intelligence: verbal, musical, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential. Later, Gardner12 described emotional abilities as: leadership, capability to cultivate relationships and maintain friendship, conflict management and social analysis skills. Gardner11 and Sternberg13also made reference to multiple ways in which to be intelligent in different environments. Based on the previous statements it was proposed that there are differences in the cognitive abilities that individuals need to develop for the proper exercise of their functions. In addition to the cognitive aspect, individuals manifest diverse physiological and mental changes that form a determined behaviour known as emotion. About 2500 years ago, it described emotions as an innate part of human beings. An emotion is an affective state resulting from senses, ideas or memories and represents a noticeable organic alteration consisting of a cognitive and a physiological factor14,15, theorized emotions as being the origin of everything. To explain this theory, it used the concept of the internal medium as an equivalent to the environment inside the human body. Wukimir16 stated that emotions are an immediate organic responses that can transfer messages about how a stimuli or a situation is received. Therefore an emotion can be negative or positive. Finally, intelligence and emotional concepts converge in the definition of emotional intelligence. This study was performed a critical analysis of construct and emotional intelligence models in the human talent area.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODELS

The current study “Emotional intelligence models as generators of business management change in the human talent area” was consisted of a literature review using digital resources from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and additional papers from Redalyc. The selection criteria for the resources were: limiting research to indexed publications, prioritizing accessibility, recent releases and reliability. Additional sources such as dictionaries and books were used.

Intelligence defines as the individual’s capacity to learn9, solve problems and aptitude in dealing with daily situations. The author considered that this unique capacity could be measured using standardized instruments, leading her to develop the first intellectual capability test and to coin the term Intellectual Quotient, also known as IQ which stands for the German: Intelligenz-Quotient. At the beginning of the XIX century, Thorndike10 introduced the concept of social intelligence, defining it as the ability of individuals to perform human relationships based on empathy. On the other hand, described personal intelligence as self-knowledge (intrapersonal intelligence) and the knowledge of other (interpersonal intelligence). At the same time, Gardner11 introduced the theory of multiple intelligences, in which individuals have different types of intelligence: verbal-linguistic, musical-rhythmic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential.Later, Gardner12 established that the emotional abilities were: leadership, ability to cultivate relationships and maintain friendships, conflict management and social analysis skills. In this context, Sternberg17 and Gardner11 detailed the importance of the multiple intelligence figure in studying how people perform in different environments, contemplating the existence of differences in cognitive abilities. In addition to the cognitive aspect, individuals manifest diverse physiological and mental changes that form a determined behaviour known as emotion.

Definitions of emotional intelligence: Emotional intelligence is described as a key element in personal development and social performance. Researchers highlighted the existence of an intelligence that differs from the intellectual intelligence which is based on emotions and serves the purpose of solving problems and adapting to the environment18. Later, Mayer and Salovey18 redefined emotional intelligence as the ability to perceiving, value and express emotions; in addition to the capacity of an individual to generate feelings that contribute to thinking and controlling emotions, in order to promote emotional and intellectual development.

According to the theory of Emotional Intelligence19, individuals have the ability to face problems, overcome mishaps, be conscious of their emotions and understand the feelings of others. Goleman20 redefined emotional intelligence as a set of skills that allow an individual to have self-control, self-motivation, be persistent and the ability to control impulses, postpone gratification, regulate mood states, avoid stress and maintain hope. By doing so, the individual is able to use emotional information to guide thinking processes and behaviour. Emotional intelligence, then presents characteristics known as personality traits. Emotional intelligence described as non-cognitive capacities that influence how individuals face environmental pressures, increasing the possibilities of successfully responding to that environment. Bar-On21 considered that emotional intelligence can be developed and improved with training and time; the author also hypothesized that individuals with a superior emotional quotient are more likely to face the environmental demands and that emotional and cognitive intelligences conform the general intelligence as an indicator of life success. In other words, individuals with high emotional intelligence perform more effectively both as individuals and in groups. At the same time, Cooper and Sawaf22 conceived emotional intelligence as being a set of competences that determine behaviour, the style of facing life, reaction to stimuli and communication. Cooper and Sawaf22 and Mehrabian23 stated that the ability to perceive one’s emotions and those of others, dominating emotions and responding appropriately to daily situations were part of emotional intelligence. Consequently, they considered that emotional intelligence allows the conscious expression of emotions, in a balanced environment, with courtesy, consideration and respect to others.

Emotional intelligence models: Emotional intelligence is classified into: ability models and mixed models.

Ability Models
Mayer, Salovey and Caruso model: The abilities of the emotional intelligence are divided into three hierarchical categories where perception of emotions forms the base and the emotional management is located at the top in Table 1.

Basically Mayer and Salovey18 and Mayer et al.24 formed the original concept of emotional intelligence, introducing empathy as one of its components and presenting the most representative ability model in terms of intellectual and emotional development potential, known as the mental ability model with focus on emotions (MSCEIT). The MSCEIT model focuses on emotional information processing and the study of capacities related to this processing and its application on an individual’s thinking. This way, emotions can contribute to solving problems and adaptation processes.

Table 1: Categories of the hierarchical categories
Source: Mayer and Salovey18

Table 2: Models of emotional intelligence
Source: Mayer et al.24

Fig. 1: Four branches of emotional intelligence abilities
  Source: Mayer et al.24

This model sorts the four branches of mental ability hierarchically, in order to facilitate the understanding of emotions (Fig. 1).

The MSCEIT model24 is formed by the four branches of emotional intelligence abilities (Table 2) and seeks for the individual to regulate emotions in order to achieve an intellectual and emotional development.

These authors questioned the validity of emotional intelligence models considering that evaluation instruments used in the mixed models were limited to an individual whose response could be distorted to show a positive image of themselves24-26. Petrides et al.27,28 and Perez-Gonzalez et al.29 pointed out the difference between the operationalization of the emotional intelligence ability or cognitive- emotional capacity and the emotional intelligence trait or emotional self-efficacy. When managed as a cognitive capacity it carries a different construct resulting from the operationalization of emotional intelligence as a personal trait.

Mixed models of the emotional intelligence: Some of the principal representatives of the mixed models of emotional intelligence include: Goleman30 reported the emotional competences model, Bar-On21 reported the socio emotional model and Petrides and Furnham31 reported the trait model. These models include personal traits such as motivation, self-control, stress management, assertiveness, persistence and tolerance to frustration.

Goleman’s emotional competences model: This model focuses on personal competences and what an individual is able to perceive through self-knowledge, self-regulation and driving relationship management. Additionally, this model includes social competences through social awareness and how an individual manages relationships with others, mixing intelligence and motivation, states of consciousness and social activity. In contrast to previous research, Goleman19,20 and Boyatzis et al.32 explained that a high IQ alone does not determine success in life. Emotional intelligence, on the other hand appears to be a better indicator as it seems to have a greater influence on decision making processes.

This emotional intelligence model highlighted the relevance an individual’s ability with regards to emotional self-awareness, understanding of other individual’s feelings, facing problems; overcoming difficulties, working in teams; tolerance and empathy (Fig. 2).

Table 3: Goleman’s emotional intelligence model
Source: Goleman20

Fig. 2:Goleman’s emotional intelligence model
  Source: Goleman19

According to the model, these capacities are used to deal with pressure, daily problems and determine an individual’s personal development potential. The CE Goleman30 emotional competences mixed model is based on cognitive aspects, personal traits, emotions and intelligence (Table 3).

The Goleman20 model initially included five main groups: Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, empathy and motivation. Later, Goleman et al.33 merged the empathy and self-motivation group resulting in four groups:

Self-awareness: Refers to preferences, sensations, states and internal resources. Abilities include: Emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment and self- confidence
Self-regulation: Feelings, impulses, states and internal needs management. Abilities: Emotional self-control, honesty, adaptability, achievement mentality, initiative and optimism
Social awareness: Refers to the recognition of feelings and the concerns and needs of others. The abilities of this group include: Influence, communication, conflict management, leadership, change catalyst, building bonds, organizational awareness and service orientation
Relationship management: Is the capability to manage relationships and to build support networks. The abilities of relationship management include: developing others, inspirational leadership, change catalyst, influence, conflict management, teamwork and collaboration. The Goleman30 emotional competences model enables the identification of individuals with high IQ but little work capacity and individuals with average IQ but high work capacity. This model is used in organization processes to analyze behaviour

Bar-On’s social and emotional intelligence model: The Bar-On21 presented the Social and Emotional Intelligence Model (ESI) based on previous studies by Mayer and Salovey18. Additionally, Emotional Quotient Inventory or EQ-i was introduced as a contributing factor to emotional and cognitive development. Bar-On21 stated that mixed models focus on emotional intelligence from a trait perspective, implying a situational consistence of the behaviour. Situational consistence can manifest through different components such as: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, mood, adaptability, stress management, empathy, assertiveness, optimism and understanding of the individual abilities. The Bar-On21 model consists of five groups which are described in Table 4.

The Bar-On21 model, combined personality dimensions and self-drive with emotional management. Additionally, the model employs both emotional and social intelligence terms referring to the social competences that an individual must have to succeed in life. Bar-On21 pointed out that the dynamic nature of both emotional and social intelligence is greater than that of cognitive intelligence.

Table 4: Bar-On’s social and emotional intelligence model
Source: Bar-On21

Table 5: Trait emotional intelligence model
Source: Petrides et al.34

Fig. 3:Petrides and Furnham Trait Emotional Intelligence Model
  Source: Petrides and Furnham31

Petrides and Furnham emotional intelligence model: These authors presented the emotional intelligence model as a set of traits that relate to an individuals’ ability to understand, process and use affect-laden information31. The trait EI model considers the behavioural dispositions and self-perceptions described in Fig. 3.

According to the authors, Trait EI consists of a constellation of emotions, behaviours, abilities and self-assessments focused on the individual’s capacity of recognizing, processing and utilizing emotional information. The trait EI mixed model presented by Petrides and Furnham31, Petrides et al.28,34 incorporates elements from the Goleman19 model and Bar-On21, when considering emotional intelligence as a key factor to achieve personal development. Petrides et al.34, highlighted that the trait EI uses a self-applied test consisting of 15 distinct facets considered personality traits. Facets are described in Table 5.

Petrides and Furnham31 and Petrides et al.27,28 criticized the measurement procedure used in the Mayer et al.34 ability model-MSCEIT and the Bar-On21 model, they considered that these models lack psychosometric meaning and that are based in the self-perception, respectively. The authors stated that the emotional intelligence-ability tests cannot be objective since the criteria of the answers considered correct are defined by the researcher’s perspective.

Other models: This section describes models which include personality components and cognitive abilities that have been created with the objective of divulging the use of the emotional intelligence construct. Some of the most popular models among researchers include: Matineaud and Engelhartn35, Cooper and Sawaf36, Rovira37, Boccardo et al.38, Valles and Valles39 and Elias et al.40.

Matineaud and Engelhartn model: Data in Table 6 shown emotional intelligence components, this model focuses on the evaluation of its components through questionnaires that include different dimensions and external factors35.

Authors integrated the above dimensions as emotional intelligence components: Self-awareness, mood management, self-drive, impulse control and empathy.

Table 6: Matineaud and Engelhartn model
Source: Matineaud and Engelhartn35

Table 7: Cooper and Sawaf model dimensions
Source: Cooper and Sawaf36

Table 8: Rovira’s emotional intelligence model
Source: Rovira37

The components of the Matineaud and Engelhartn35 model coincide with those of the social cognition processes in mixed models: Self-awareness, self-drive and impulse control with those of social perception: Humour management and with those of interpersonal relationships: Openness to others and empathy.

Cooper and Sawaf model: Pioneers in the practical application of emotional intelligence, these authors made advances in leadership and teamwork in different fields36. Their model, based on four cornerstones, short emotional intelligence in the fields of the direct knowledge, the study and the practice in organizations. These cornerstones are: Emotional literacy, emotional fitness, emotional depth and emotional alchemy in Table 7.

The model is based on four cornerstones adapted to the working environment in search of efficacy and assurance.

Rovira model: This model includes social values such as: Positive attitude, having alternative values and the ability to give and receive37. In contrast to Mayer et al.24 models, empathy is not presented as an emotional ability but as an intrapersonal attitude. Rovira presented a twelve dimensions model with sub dimensions, described in Table 8.

Boccardo, Sasia and Fontenla model38: This model distinguishes emotional intelligence from interpersonal intelligence. Boccardo et al.38and places emotional self-awareness, emotional management and positive self-drive as components of the emotional intelligence construct. Data in Table 9 described the components of the Boccardo et al.38 model.

Table 9: Boccardo, Sasia and Fontenla emotional intelligence model
Source: Boccardo et al.38

Table 10: Vallés and Vallés emotional intelligence model
Source: Vallés and Vallés39

Vallés and Vallés emotional intelligence model: The authors described this modeled as the ability to achieve self-knowledge, tolerate frustration, reach agreements with colleagues, prioritize, make conscious efforts, manage anger, manage thoughts, handle criticism, have fun, be dynamic, be optimistic and have sense of humour, in addition to other components of the emotional intelligence that demonstrate positive attitude39. The model includes components such as: Self-esteem, motivational aspects and the ability to identify, manage and express own and others’ feelings and emotions. For a better understanding, the abilities of the Vallés and Vallés39 model has been classified, based on the principles of emotional intelligence and shown in Table 10.

Table 11: Elías, Tobías and Friedlander emotional intelligence model
Source: Elías, Tobías et al.40

Table 12: Bonano’s emotional self-regulation model
Source: Bonano41

Elías, Tobías and Friedlander model: The authors described five basic principles of emotional intelligence: emotional self-awareness, recognition of others’ emotions, emotional self-control, self-drive and interpersonal relationships40. The components of emotional intelligence are shown in Table 11.

Authors integrated previous models by means of standardizing the emotional intelligence construct measurement. However, the development of objective and reliable techniques to measure the construct has not been achieved. The emotional intelligence models not only differ from each other for how the construct is conceived but for which evaluation tool is used.

Bonano’s emotional self-regulation model: There is an emotional intelligence model based on emotional self-regulation processes, under the premise that all human beings have a level of emotional intelligence that has to be regulated to in order to be efficient41. Table 12 described the three categories of emotional self-regulation.

CONCLUSION

Intelligence is defined as the learning capacity of an individual to look for the best solution in different daily situations and problems. Based on the intellectual quotient, it is divided into social and emotional intelligence. Social intelligence develops the ability of individuals to perform in the fields of human relationships, self-awareness and contact with others. Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify one’s own emotions and feelings and those of others, self-worth and emotional management; contributing to adaptation to change as an interpersonal relationship builder. Besides considering the intellectual capacity of their human assets, organizations take into account emotional intelligence due to its role in the organizational structure. Emotional intelligence has demonstrated to increase productivity, efficiency and efficacy in business related activities.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

The different models of Emotional Intelligence provide tools to managers in the human talent area, which allow an evaluation of the organizations personnel, which has direct implications in the organizations productivity.

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