The Brazilian swine production is increasing annually, either to meet domestic
demand, is also to meet the foreign market. The increase in production has caused
the accumulation of waste in the properties, often beyond the capacity of the
surrounding areas to receive such waste (Seidel et al.,
This fact has generated concern from environmental agencies, for once exhausted
the soil adsorption capacity, such wastes can cause serious environmental damage,
particularly to water resources. This concern with pollution from animal waste
has stimulated the search for alternatives that enable the most efficient use
of waste (Queiroz et al., 2004).
Why be waste containing high levels of organic matter and other nutrients,
primarily nitrogen and phosphorus (Scherer et al.,
2007), swine manure can improve the physical properties and chemical and
biological soil properties (Galvao et al., 1999),
allowing its use in agriculture as immediate supplier of nutrients and beneficial
elements to the development and production of plants, minimizing losses through
volatilization (Basso et al., 2004; Costa
et al., 2004).
For Seidel et al. (2010), agricultural production
is focused on the sustainability of agroecosystems and, therefore, it is essential
the need for treatment and proper management of swine manure, returning them
to production systems.
Thus, the high cost of agricultural production, mainly by the use of chemical
fertilizers (about 40% of costs), the use of biofertilizers swine-origin becomes
feasible, since nowadays the searching agriculture increased productivity and
reduced costs (Seidel et al., 2010). The economy
is characterized not only by being a resource available on the property, since
it is also possible to treat these wastes with low cost and after mineralization,
using them as an organic fertilizer (Mondardo et al.,
Several studies have demonstrated the effect of swine manure with biofertilizer
on the increased production of various grasses like oats (Ceretta
et al., 2005), millet (Moreira et al.,
2011) and maize (Giacomini and Aita, 2008; Leis
et al., 2009; Seidel et al., 2010),
yet there is little information on the response of grassland to this practice,
justifying this research.
The forage plants have high potential to respond to application of agricultural
residues, mainly because of its presence in large areas in stages of increasing
degradation (Benett et al., 2008). Grazing areas
in Brazil have evolved significantly with the introduction of Brachiaria
spp. and their cultivars which have adapted their hardiness various soil and
climatic conditions of our country, being predominant in existing pastures and
training (Assis, 2007).
Among the pastures of better adaptation to the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna)
are Marandu and Piatã (Brites et al., 2011),
both of Brachiaria spp., whose morphology and physiological aspects can
bring to the economy of a large benchmark against gain animal weight (Magalhaes,
The objective of this research was to evaluate the production of two cultivars
of forage species Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf, subjected
to four different concentrations of swine biofertilizer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Site and experimental treatments: The experiment was conducted during
March-May of the year 2011 in the experimental area of the State University
of Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), located in the municipality of Aquidauana, MS,
Brazil, understood in the following geographical coordinates Lat. 20°27'S
and Long. 55°40'W with an average elevation of 170 m.
The soil in the pots was removed from an area of the University Unit itself,
classified as Ultisol sandy texture (USDA, 2004), being
collected and homogenized and then a sample was taken for chemical analysis,
the result of which is described in Table 1. The climate of
the region, according to the classification described by Köppen-Geiger
is Aw (Tropical Savanna) with average annual rainfall of 1,200 mm and maximum
and minimum temperatures of 33 and 19°C, respectively (Schiavo
et al., 2010).
According to the chemical analysis of the soil used in the experiment (Table
1), the pH resulted in thus 4.87 in the soil of the State of Mato Grosso
do Sul, Brazil, this pH combined with good saturation in bases (V = 58%) favors
the good development of Brachiaria brizantha. Despite the phosphorous
content present low, yet the development will be good of cultivating, however
is finite, needing to be reset. The other analyzed elements (Table
1) are generally satisfactory in relation to the needs of the plant in that
if you want to cultivate.
After withdrawing the sample and based on chemical analyzes of soil, the pots
were filled with four liters of soil, where it was added 15 g of superphosphate
(18% P2O5, 25% CaO and 12% S) in each pot and were then
taken to an oven agricultural arc (6.40x18.00x4.00 m) with open zenith in the
ridge, covered with polyethylene film of 150 μm.
|| Chemical analysis of the soil used in the experiment
Parameters measured and design: The experimental design used was a completely
randomized design in plot scheme split plots, with four replications. The plots
consisted of cultivars Marandu and Piatã (Brachiaria brizantha)
(Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf. The sub-plots consisted of four doses of swine
biofertilizers (0, 1, 2 and 3 L), in plastic pots of up to 5 L, where volumes
represent applied 0, 50, 100 and 150 m3 ha-1 biofertilizer,
respectively. The other sub-subplots comprised four evaluation times morphogenesis
of the following characters: Plant Height (PH), Leaf Blade Length (LBL), Width
of Leaf Blade (WLB) at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after seeding (DAS). We also performed
evaluation of the amount of fresh Green Matter (GM) and Dry Matter (DM) of shoots
and roots at 60 DAS.
Source residue: The swine biofertilizer, arising from digesters product
research lab animal waste Unity University Aquidauana. The digesters benchs
were supplied with pig manure, with retention time of 55 days and then were
stored in different gals and withdrawing a sample from each for analysis of
percentages of phosphorus and nitrogen, whose values, respectively, were 3.44
and 5.35%. After the toss of the vessels, they were labeled and then irrigated
with their respective strengths.
Laboratory procedure: The sowing was done after three days of the first
fertigation on March 11, 2011. Fertilization was carried out with the aid of
a beaker of 500 mL (0.5 L) to obtain the exact dose of the product and the witness
was irrigated the same volume of water. The pots were irrigated every morning
with water, according to the average evapotranspiration of the environment.
The cutting was carried out with the aid of scissors, being first removed all
leaves and placed in paper bags which were weighed, numbered and brought to
the oven and forced circulation at 65°C. Then the same procedure was performed
with the stems. To collect the roots water was used to remove the soil which
dried shade for a few hours in the bench prior to accommodate them on the package,
perform the weighing and packing them in the oven and forced circulation at
65°C for 72 h, being turned once daily for a homogeneous drying. After the
drying time, samples were again weighed, ground and stored in plastic bags for
analysis of parameters of dry matter of shoots and roots.
Data analysis: Through statistical software Sisvar (Ferreira,
2011), analysis was made of the two trials and the averages of the results
of each variable subjected to analysis of variance (F-test) and later made studies
of polynomial regression.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Table 2 presents the results of analysis of variance
analyzes morphogenetic cultivars of Brachiaria spp. (C) with different
doses of biofertilizers (D) and plant age (A) and their interactions, where
no significant differences were observed for the mean values of these variables
only for cultivars and their interactions (DxCxA).
There was significant difference the 1 and 5% by the F-test between the characters
of morphogenesis and age in different doses of biofertilizer. There was little
variation as to the coefficient of variation (CV), in which the highest value
was 16.31, considered stable (Table 2). Thus, suggesting a
different behavior between age and response time or the characteristics of the
plant depending on the doses of biofertilizer.
The interaction between the applied doses of biofertilizer was decomposed on
the causal effects of dosesxcultivar, cultivarxage, dosesxage and dosesxcultivarxage
which have all been quantified. With this, you can check how much each influences
to the interaction of doses. The results indicated no significant effect (p<0.05;
0.01), however detailed analysis was performed between these components.
The Fig. 1a shows the parameters PH and LBL, where there
was a linear increase (p<0.05) depending on the age of the plants, providing
the highest values of these variables at 60 DAS which are 77.95 and 59.58 cm,
The LLF parameter (Fig. 1b) showed quadratic behavior (p<0.01)
and the highest value obtained (1.60 cm), also at 60 DAS. This allows us to
infer that the use of swine biofertilizer adequately supplied the nutritional
requirements of both cultivars of Brachiaria spp.
The variables PH and LBL (Fig. 2a), were described by linear
functions (p<0.05), respectively where there was statistically more efficient
dose of 150 m3 ha-1 compared to the other treatments.
In both variables, the values were adjusted for this dose of 56.86 cm for plant
height and 47.97 cm for the length of the leaf.
With respect to the parameter WBL (Fig. 2b), increases linearly
(p<0.01) ranging from 1.22 to 1.50 cm, as doses increased, yielding the largest
value in the treatment of 150 m3 ha-1 of swine biofertilizer.
||Summary of analysis of variance of biometrics cultivars of
Brachiaria brizantha (C) at different doses of swine biofertilizers
(D), age of the plant (A) and their interactions
|1CV: Coefficient of variation; PH: Plant height;
LBL: Leaf blade length; WLB: Width of leaf blade; GMS: Green matter of the
shoot; GMR: Green matter roots; DMS: Dry matter shoot; DMR: Dry matter root.
*Significant (P<0.05), **highly significant (P<0.01)
and nsnot significant by the F-test
|| (a) Plant height and leaf blade length and (b) Width of leaf
blade in function evaluation times in two cultivars of Brachiaria
|| (a) Plant height and leaf blade length and (b) Width of leaf
blade as a function of doses of swine biofertilizer in two cultivars of
Moreira et al. (2011), to compare the morphological
characteristics of millet fertilized with swine biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer,
observed that there was a significant increase for the variables height, diameter
and number of leaves for plants fertilized with biofertilizer. These results
are similar to those obtained in this study which allows us to infer the efficiency
of biofertilizer in nutrient supply grasses which provided better development
of the same.
In Fig. 3a GMS variables are shown (p<0.01) and DMR (p<0.05)
and these are represented by quadratic functions where, again, a dose of 150
m3 ha-1 swine biofertilizer higher values in both. Mean
values adjusted for doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 m3 ha-1
swine biofertilizer to produce GMS were, respectively, 38.34, 135.99, 175.33
and 202.08 g plant-1. For DMR parameter, values for the same dosages
were 22.50, 54.20, 60.69 and 76.70 g plant-1, respectively.
The Fig. 3b shows the parameters DMS (p<0.01) and DMR
(p<0.05), described by quadratic functions, where the mean values for treatment
with 150 m3 ha-1 swine biofertilizer (48.59 and 26.73
g plant-1, respectively) were higher compared to other dosages.
According to Costa et al. (2006), show that
the dry matter production was in proportion to the increase in the interval
between cuts but the nutritional value (N, P, K and Mg) of forage decreased.
Therefore, in this study were conducted strictly cuts to 15, 30, 45 and 60 days
Research conducted by Ceretta et al. (2005),
evaluating different concentrations of swine biofertilizer (0, 20, 40 and 80
m3 ha-1), found that the highest dosage promoted increase
in dry matter production of oat, corn and turnip, agreeing with this study.
|| (a) Green matter and (b) Dry of shoots and roots as a function
of doses of swine biofertilizer in two cultivars of Brachiaria spp.
However, these data disagree with Mondardo et al.
(2009) which to evaluate the dry matter production of Brachiaria brizantha
with seven doses of swine biofertilizer (0, 13, 26, 39, 52, 65 and 78 m3
ha-1), found no significant increases in the doses used compared
to the control.
The results of green fresh and dry corroborate those of Assis
(2007), that by studying the fertilization of Brachiaria decumbens
with liquid swine manure doses (0, 60, 121, 181 and 241 m3 ha-1),
observed that treatments promoted an increase in productivity compared to the
Consistent with this research, Pereira (2006) to test
the application of swine biofertilizer on grass (Brachiaria decumbens),
obtained green and dry matter increases in the order of 200 and 300%, respectively.
The increase in forage production is a major reason for convincing the farmers
to use organic fertilizers liquids, by virtue of its proper nourishment and
vigor apparent that they provide the fertilized plants.
The manure with swine biofertilizer interfere promoted significant increases
in parameters, the recommended dosage is 150 m3 ha-1.
An increment of the parameters analyzed in the course of plant age and the
highest values obtained with 60 DAS.
There were no differences among cultivars of Brachiaria Brizantha used,
where these do not differ from each other, showing the same performance for
the evaluated variables.