Effect of Bio-fertilizer Inoculations on Growth and Yield of Dwarf Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Conjunction with Different Doses of Chemical Fertilizers
A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive Rabi seasons of 2007 and 2008 to study the effect of bio-fertilizers in conjunction with inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of dwarf field pea (cv. Jai) at Oil Seed Research Farm, Kalyanpur in C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications in sandy loam soil. The experiment comprised 32 treatment combinations of four levels of fertility (Control, 50, 75 and 100% RDF) and eight bio-fertilizer treatments (Control, Rhizobium, PSB, PGPR, Rhizobium+PSB, Rhizobium+PGPR, PSB+PGPR and Rhizobium +PSB+PGPR). Results indicated that the combined application of 100% RDF and seed inoculation with Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR improved all the growth; yield attributes and yields of field pea. Fresh and dry weight plant-1, nodules number and dry weight plant-1 were found significantly maximum. Number of grains pod-1, number and weight of pods plant-1 at maturity attributed significantly in increasing the grain yield of field pea up to 31.00 q ha-1 and net return up to Rs.26187 ha-1 with the application of 100% DRF and seed inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR, yield was 10.96 and 11.93% higher over co-inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR (27.60 q ha-1) and 100% RDF (27.30 q ha-1) application. Thus, it can be recommended that to obtain the maximum grain yield and net profit from dwarf field pea, seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR and crop should be fertilized with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer.
Field pea (Pisum sativum) derives from the Middle East and was first cultivated
roughly 10,000 years ago (Mithen, 2003). Field pea is
a cool-season legume crop that is grown on over 25 million acres worldwide.
Field pea or dry pea is marketed as a dry, shelled product for either human
or livestock food. It is commonly used throughout the world in human diets and
has high levels of amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, which are relatively
low in cereal grains and contains approximately 21-25% protein. Being a legume
crop and has the inherent ability to obtain much of its nitrogen requirement
from the atmosphere by forming a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium
bacteria in the soil (Schatz and Endres, 2009). Pulse
crops ability to use the atmospheric nitrogen through Biological Nitrogen Fixation
(BNF) is economically sound and environmentally acceptable (Saikia
and Jain, 2007). India is a largest pulse producing county, pulses accounts
for one fifth cultivated area and one twelfth of the total food grain production.
The area under pulse crops at present is around 23.31 million hectare, the production
is around 14.50 million tones and productivity is around 622 kg ha-1
during 2007-08. Country would needs at least 30 million tones of pulses by 2020
A.D. Among pulses field pea is an important crop in India having about 7.93
lakh hectare area and 7.10 metric tones with 895 kg ha-1 of productivity.
(Banergee and Palke, 2010).
The term bio-fertilizer or microbial inoculants can be generally defined as
preparation containing live or latent cells of efficient strains of nitrogen
fixing and phosphate Solubilizing micro organism used for treatment of seed
or soil. Biofertilizers are organic products containing living cells of different
types of microorganisms, which have the ability to convert nutritionally important
elements from unavailable to available form through biological processes (Vessey,
2003). They are composting the area with the objective of increasing the
number of such micro organisms and accelerate microbial process to augment the
extant of the availability of the nutrient in a form which can easily assimilated
by plant (Subba-Rao, 1986). The Rhizobium as fertilizer
in pulses could fix 50-200 kg of N/ha/season and is able to meet 80-90% of the
crop requirement for nitrogen. Inoculation in these crops was found to increase
the crop yield by about 10-15% under on farm conditions (Khurana
and Dudeja, 1997). In many situations this association also leaves substantial
residual nitrogen for subsequent crops. The Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF)
has been estimated to contribute more than 175 million tones of nitrogen out
of which legume N2 fixation accounts for almost 40% (Burns
and Hardy, 1975). Nitrogen fixation by different annual legumes has been
reported to vary from 35-270 kg N/ha/Year (Nutman, 1969).
Nutrients affected all most growth and yield attributing characters and yields through its doses as well as sources. Keeping the facts in consideration, the present investigation was under taken to estimate the effect of different bio-fertilizers (Rhizobium, PSB and PGPR) alone and in combination with fertility levels on growth and yield attributes and grain yield of field pea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present experiment was conducted during Rabi Season of 2007-08 and 2008-09,
with a view to find out the effect of different bio-fertilizers on growth and
yield of field pea under different fertility levels at Oil seed research farm
of C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (INDIA). The soil
of experimental field was sandy loam having 0.03% O.C., 196.00 kg ha-1
available N, 25.20 kg ha-1 available P2O5 and
175.00 kg ha-1 available K2O with 7.98 pH. This was not
observed favorable to make the nutrient availability, because pH range between
6-7 seems to promote the availability of nutrients to the plants (Brady,
1988). Crop during experimental period received 4.6 mm rains spread over
three days in first year and 5.5 mm rains spread over one day in second year.
Maximum mean temperature rose up to 35.1 and 34.1°C, while minimum mean
temperature gone up to 5.6 and 5.3°C during first and second year of crop,
respectively. Relative humidity, wind speed and evaporation rate were also remained
more or less similar during both years.
The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The treatments comprised 32 treatment combinations of four levels of fertility in main plots i.e., Control, 50, 75 and 100% RDF(40-60-40) and eight bio-fertilizer seed inoculation treatments in sub-plots (control, Rhizobium, PSB, PGPR, Rhizobium+PSB, Rhizobium+PGPR, PSB+PGPR and Rhizobium+PSB+ PGPR). Sowing of inoculated seed as per treatment of fieldpea (Pisum sativum L.) variety Jai (KPMR-522) was done in furrows with the help of country plough at 22.5 cm apart using seed at 120 kg ha-1. Full dose of fertilizer as per treatments was incorporated into the field at the time of sowing with the help of seeding spout attached with country plough at below the seed. Experimental crop was grown under irrigated condition as per the recommended agronomic practices. The effect of treatments was evaluated on pooled basis on growth and yield attributes; yields and economics.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect of fertility levels
On growth and yield attributes: Pooled data presented in Table
1 indicates that the plant height at 30 and 60 DAS was recorded significant,
the significant increase in plant height was due to increasing doses of fertilizers
similar findings was also reported by Bisen et al.
(1985). Fresh weight per plant at 90 DAS was recorded significantly higher
with 100% RDF (140.77 g) against 75% RDF (132.49 g), 50% RDF (125.64 g) and
control (112.59 g). Dry weight per plant at 90 DAS was recorded significantly
higher with 100% RDF (25.83 g) against 75% RDF (21.65 g), 50% RDF (20.97 g)
and control (20.99 g). Number of nodules per plant at 60 DAS was recorded significantly
maximum of 32.78 at 100% RDF against 26.01, 22.41 and 20.45 at 75% RDF, 50%
RDF and control, respectively. Dry weight of nodules plant-1 at 60
DAS was recorded significantly maximum of 33.13 at 100% RDF against 26.09, 22.41
and 20.54 mg at 75% RDF, 50% RDF and control, respectively. The effect of increasing
fertility levels on number and dry weight of nodules per plant also corroborated
the results of Solaiman and Rabbani (2006) and Maurya
and Prasad (1998).
Number of pods per plant at harvest was recorded significantly maximum of 21.27
at 100% RDF against 17.31, 15.23 and 10.67 at 75% RDF, 50% RDF and control,
respectively. Number of grains per pod at maturity was recorded significantly
maximum of 5.02 at 100% RDF against 4.75, 4.50 and 3.92 at 75% RDF, 50% RDF
and control, respectively. Length of pods at 30, 45 and 60 DAS was recorded
significantly higher with 100% RDF (7.50 cm) against 75% RDF (6.94 cm), 50%
RDF (6.81 cm) and control (6.43 cm). Weight of pod per plant was recorded significantly
maximum of at 100% RDF (9.46 g) against 75% RDF (8.59 g), 50% RDF (7.88 g) and
7.33 g control, respectively. These results are in harmony with those reported
by Negi et al. (2007). Hundred grain weight was
also recorded significantly maximum of 19.89 g at application of 100% RDF against
18.93, 18.84 and 18.70 g at 75% RDF, 50% RDF and control, respectively (Table
On yields: Significantly maximum grain yield of 27.30 q ha-1
was obtained under 100% RDF against 26.20, 24.40 and 20.90 q ha-1
at 75% RDF, 50% RDF and control, respectively. Straw yield was recorded significantly
maximum with the application of 100% RDF (28.30 q ha-1) against at
75% RDF, 50% RDF and control (27.30, 25.90 and 22.70 q ha-1), respectively
and Biological yield was recorded significantly maximum of 55.60 q ha-1
at 100% RDF against 53.50, 50.30 and 43.50 q ha-1 at 75% RDF, 50%
RDF and control, respectively (Rizk and Shafeek, 2000).
|| Effect different fertility levels and bio-fertilizer treatments
on growth and yield attributes on field pea
|| Effect different fertility levels and bio-fertilizer treatments
on yields, harvest and economics on field pea
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in grain and straw and uptake by
grain and straw (Sharma et al., 2006) were recorded
significantly maximum with 100% RDF. Harvest index was recorded significantly
maximum with 50% RDF (50.27%). It might be due to comparatively higher increase
of grain yield than that of respective vegetative yield of crop. Similar finding
was also reported by Chanda et al. (2002) (Table
On economics: Application of 100% RDF gave maximum gross income, which was Rs.39085 ha-1 followed 75% RDF (Rs.37496 ha-1), 50% RDF (Rs.34961 ha-1) and control (Rs.29876 ha-1), respectively. Net return was noted significantly higher by a margin of Rs.21061 ha-1 with 100% RDF over Rs.19934, 17859 and 13798 ha-1 at 75% RDF, 50% RDF and control, respectively. The highest B:C ratio of 2.17 was calculated under 100% RDF followed by 2.13, 2.04 and 1.86 at 75% RDF, 50% RDF and at control, respectively (Table 2).
How bio-fertilizers are working and benefited the crop?
Rhizobium: Atmospheric nitrogen must be processed, or fixed, in order
to be used by plants. Some fixation occurs in lightning strikes, but most fixation
is done by free-living or symbiotic bacteria. These bacteria have the nitrogenase
enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia, which
is then further converted by the bacteria to make their own organic compounds.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobium, live in the root nodules
of legumes. Here they form a mutualistic relationship with the plant, producing
ammonia in exchange for carbohydrates.
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria: Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB)
are a group of beneficial bacteria capable of hydrolysing organic and inorganic
phosphorus from insoluble compounds. P-solubilization ability of the microorganisms
is considered to be one of the most important traits associated with plant phosphate
nutrition. It is generally accepted that the mechanism of mineral phosphate
solubilization by PSB strains is associated with the release of low molecular
weight organic acids, through which their hydroxyl and carboxyl groups chelate
the cations bound to phosphate, thereby converting it into soluble forms. In
addition, some PSB produce phosphatase like phytase that hydrolyse organic forms
of phosphate compounds efficiently. One or both types of PSB have been introduced
to agricultural community as phosphate Biofertilizer. They are composting the
area with the objective of increasing the number of such micro organisms and
accelerate microbial process to augment the extant of the availability of the
nutrient in a form which can easily assimilated by plant (Subba-Rao,
1986). However, a large portion of soluble inorganic phosphate which is
applied to the soil as chemical fertilizer is immobilized rapidly and becomes
unavailable to plants. Currently, the main purpose in managing soil phosphorus
is to optimize crop production and minimize P loss from soils. PSB have attracted
the attention of agriculturists as soil inoculums to improve the plant growth
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Rhizobacteria are root-colonizing bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship with many legumes. Though parasitic varieties of rhizobacteria exist, the term usually refers to bacteria that form a relationship beneficial for both parties (mutualism). Such bacteria are often referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, or PGPRs.
PGPR enhance plant growth by direct and indirect means, but the specific mechanisms
involved have not all been well-characterized (Glick, 1995;
Kloepper, 1993). Direct mechanisms of plant growth promotion
by PGPR can be demonstrated in the absence of plant pathogens or other rhizosphere
microorganisms, while indirect mechanisms involve the ability of PGPR to reduce
the deleterious effects of plant pathogens on crop yield. PGPR have been reported
to directly enhance plant growth by a variety of mechanisms: fixation of atmospheric
nitrogen that is transferred to the plant, production of siderophores that chelate
iron and make it available to the plant root, solubilization of minerals such
as phosphorus and synthesis of phytohormones (Glick, 1995).
Effect of bio-fertilizers
On growth and yield attributes: Plant height at 90 DAS affected significantly
with the different bio-fertilizers treatments. Lowest plant height (43.90 cm)
was recorded at control and highest plant height (50.85 cm) was recorded at
90 DAS with combined application of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR on pooled
basis. The significant increase in plant height due to increasing doses of bio-fertilizers
was also reported by Balachandran and Nagrajan (2002).
Fresh and dry weight of plant at 90 DAS was significantly varied with the varying
bio-fertilizers inoculations provided to the crop. Highest fresh (169.33 g)
and dry weight (31.25 g) was recorded with combined inoculation of all the bio-fertilizers
inoculation. These results are also close to confirm with Singh
et al. (1997). Significant highest number (36.63) and dry weight
(37.00 mg) of nodules plant-1 at 60 DAS was found on pooled basis
(Table 1), the effect of different bio-inoculations on number
and dry weight of nodules plant-1 also corroborated the results of
Sudhansu (1997) and Balachandran
and Nagrajan (2002).
Number of pods per plant at harvest was recorded significantly maximum of 18.83
at combined inoculation of (Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR) followed by 18.13
in dual (PSB + PGPR) and 16.00 in single (PGPR) inoculation against 12.50 over
control. Number of grains per pod was recorded highest 5.67 at combined inoculation
of (Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR) followed by 4.92 dual (Rhizobium +PSB)
and 4.54 single (PSB) inoculation and 3.58 in control. Results also confirmed
by the findings of Mehta et al. (1995).
Pod length at 60 DAS was recorded significantly higher with Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR (7.95 cm) followed by PSB+PGPR (7.46 cm), Rhizobium+PSB (7.40 cm) against control (5.64 cm). Weight of pod per plant at maturity was recorded significantly maximum of 10.13 g at Rhizobium+ PSB+PGPR followed by dual 9.41 g (Rhizobium+PSB) and single 8.17g (PGPR) against 5.84 g at control. Hundred grain weight (Seed Index) was recorded significantly maximum of 19.89 g at inoculation of Rhizobium+PSB+ PGPR followed by 19.51, 1923 and 18.35 g in dual (PSB+ PGPR), PGPR alone and at control, respectively (Table 1).
On yields: Significantly maximum grain yield of 27.60 q ha-1
was obtained under Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR inoculation followed by PSB+PGPR
(26.50 q ha-1) in dual and Rhizobium alone (24.20 q ha-1)
inoculation. Straw yield was recorded significantly maximum (29.10 q ha-1)
with the Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR inoculation followed by PSB+PGPR (28.10 q
ha-1) in case of dual inoculation. PGPR alone produced (25.40 q ha-1)
highest straw yield among single inoculations.
|| Interaction effect of fertility levels and bio-fertilizers
on grain, straw and biological yield; and net return
Biological yield was recorded significantly maximum of 56.70 q ha-1
at inoculation of Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR followed by 54.50 q ha-1
at dual (PSB+PGPR) inoculation and Rhizobium alone produced 49.30 q ha-1
among single inoculations (Table 2).
On economics: Application of Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR gave maximum gross income, which was Rs.39518 ha-1 followed PSB+PGPR (Rs. 37913 ha-1), Rhizobium+PSB (Rs.36743 ha-1) and Rhizobium+PGPR (Rs.36443 ha-1), respectively. Net return was noted significantly higher by a margin of Rs. 22169 ha-1 with Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR over Rs. 20667.00, 19497.00 and 19197 ha-1 at PSB+PGPR, Rhizobium+PSB and Rhizobium+PGPR, respectively. The highest B:C ratio of 2.27 was calculated under Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR followed by 2.19, 2.12 and 2.11 at PSB + PGPR, Rhizobium + PSB and Rhizobium + PGPR, respectively (Table 2).
The application of 100% RDF and co-inoculation of Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR
either individually or in combination proved economically feasible for field
pea cultivation. The maximum grain yield (31.00 q ha-1) and net profit
of Rs.26187 ha-1 was achieved with the use of 100% RDF and inoculation
of Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR (Table 3).
Thus, it can be said that for obtaining maximum grain yield as well as profit from dwarf field pea (cv. Jai), seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium+PSB+PGPR along with application of 100% RDF.
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