With the development of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture), SaaS (Software
as a Service), IOT (Internet of Things), Cloud Computing and other information
technologies and applications, the ubiquitous information service environment
is emerging (ChangFeng Open Standards Platform Software Alliance,
2009). Such an environment has resulted in the collaboration among enterprises
which has changed from the whole production of value of traditional supply chain
to service oriented networking model. New mode of business must be able to react
quickly to the changing of market demands, but also flexible to adapt to dynamic
organized business in the value networks. Therefore, enterprises are going through
a new round of large-scale optimization and reorganization. It is on the whole
industry chain optimization and reorganization commenced around the construction
of core competence of enterprises which is different from the past. In this
context, the enterprise with guidance of SOE (Service Oriented Enterprise) emerged
at the right moment and has received preliminary recognition of the market (Janssen
and Joha, 2008).
The systematic design method of the value-aware service engineering, by focusing
on the services of software system for multiple value side and the dependencies
between them, established software quality, software value individuality and
difference links, software content and other aspects, to guide optimal design
of software services. It is more important to connect the values in management
activities with the services components. This is also the crucial factor to
ensure service engineering and the implementation of SOE successfully.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ORIENTIED SERVICE ENGINEERING
The intension and value characteristic of service engineering: Service
engineering essentially belongs to system engineering. It carries through modeling,
analyzing, optimizing and balancing on the key elements and the relevance of
the service system to make a strategic decision in the whole service lifecycle
(Xu and Wang, 2008). And regulate and control the design
of service system through controlling the feedbacks. It has established connections
between business and IT and then to bring a high customer satisfaction.
Service value and its creating process are focused on in service engineering.
At first it forms the new service schemes by various kinds of service innovations
to create new values expected by the supply and demand. Service scheme describes
how to create values and to share risks and responsibility by coordinated operation
between customers and service suppliers (Fig. 1).
Value-aware service engineering: VASEM (Value Aware Service Engineering
Methodology) uses the model driven idea to transform from top to bottom and
payes equal attention to service value and service function.
|| Service and value in service engineering
In the transformation process, if existing more aspects to influence service
values then make decision by the value-aware method.
Therefore, analysis and optimizing about service model can be done by the value
oriented method. When all values can be fully supported by service models then
enter the service system implementation process.
There are some kernel links in VASEM: value modeling, value tagging, value
oriented analysis, value oriented model optimizing, feedback and redesign, value
oriented combination and system implementation.
RESEARCH ON SOE
Proposing and defining SOE: Enterprises are going through a new round
of large-scale optimization and reorganization. The processes of decomposition
and recombination are required to implement by business components. Though,
breaking the enterprise business in the value chains into business units and
after a certain amount of analysis and optimization, business components formed
with business units. Each business component is an independent unit within the
enterprise, corresponds to the company specific business functions. Traditional
businesses reap profit by providing products or services, but business components
through the provision of business services to the rewards. Business services
are the main characteristics of business components and are different from generally
Web services involved in the SOA. A business service usually means enterprise
service with some business value that can be perceived and measured in a certain
business environments. It can achieve some or all of the business processes
and achieve business objectives in conjunction with other business services.
Construction of core competence of enterprises is through the analysis of the
enterprise's business strategy; identify core and non-core businesses of enterprises.
The core business builds enterprise business components, but non-core business
through outsourcing by the enterprise in the form of external business components.
So, it is not enough to implement agile of enterprise business operation only
with business component, but also needs interaction between enterprise business
component and other enterprise components; to support in real-time information
flow and integrated information systems and to implement seamless integration
across enterprise boundary of business components in entire value chains; to
create business value by cooperation partners, customer and suppliers of various
business component of collaborative operation. Service oriented technology is
the core technology of seamless integration between business components and
business interaction between components reflect the thought of service oriented,
which means that each service component to the other business service components
provide one or more of the business and when using the business component services,
do not need to know how service components were developed. Service interactions
among business components are defined with the constraint of SLA (Service Level
Agreement). The agreement defined the evaluation standard of delivery service
and enterprise can manage service function, service time and service cost through
business layer protocol defined in this agreement.
The concept of SOE was proposed on the basis of business component and service
oriented thinking, different enterprise business units or services between the
dynamic combination and collaboration have formed the business ecosystem. For
the SOE, there is no unified definition in academia. One definition is: SOE
is a new kind of enterprise running with a way to provide services (Fan
and Zhang, 2011). It provides various services by organizing enterprise
business units in form of business service components. It realizes business
collaboration in entire value chains, in the way of service providing and service
consumption among internal enterprise with different business unit (service
unit). And then in accordance with prior conventions of SLA on service quality
management, it can fast and flexibly response market needs of changes, maximize
the benefits of the enterprise and the entire value network.
Architecture of SOE: Architecture of SOE can be considered of the two
aspects of organization design and implementation, operation and maintenance.
|| The architecture of SOE
Different from the tree structure and enterprise organization, SOE's organizational
structure is flat, under the command of senior management, made up of a number
of relatively independent service center, service center based on SLA, in the
form of services provided and services consumption for business collaboration.
Service centers can be divided into three classes:
||Functions service center, completed enterprises support
function, including service planning center, financial center, human resources
center and IT service center
||Business service center, completed enterprises business function
||Service management and coordination center, is responsible for completed
service agreement management and service quality management and contradictions
of coordination among different service centers
So from the global implementation perspective and the aspect of IT service
support, it is considered, reference SOA, the architecture of SOE can be divided
from top to bottom into several layers (Fig. 2). Figure
3 shows the production, supply and marketing value chain in the refineries.
Customer and service entry layer (for customer and suppliers and other institutions
providing access interfaces to access the enterprise services), Service center
layer (containing various business service and functions service centers), Business
process layer (in accordance with needs of business implementation logic, by
selecting and matching and combining business service components to form various
business processes of enterprise operations), Business service component layer
( for internal and external users with a variety of business functions), IT
service components layer (for business service components providing the data,
calculations, operations and storage services), Information system layer (including
all kinds of application information systems for enterprise running) and IT
infrastructure layer (a foundation for enterprise information system environment).
|| Value chain of production, supply and marketing
Service bus provided interconnection between the different service support
environment. Coordination of services and service quality management system
are used to coordinate contradictions among different service centers and to
evaluate and manage the service quality of the service centers.
ANALYZING THE VALUE CHAINS OF ENTERPRISE
How to use value aware service engineering methodology for SOE? How to connect
the business values to the business services in the actual project implementation
or enterprise management activities? The bottom example about the refineries
resource planning was showed.
Through, the analyzing and design of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) and
other information systems in refineries for many years, many value chains in
the management activities could be found. Just give some main attention value
chains in refineries as follows (Li et al., 2008).
The value chain of production, supply and marketing is the main activity in
the refineries. The refinery is a kind of flow enterprise. The profit points
are happened in the production value chains. They contain the costs and incomes.
The aim of enterprise is to reduce costs and increase incomes. The design of
information systems must consider these profit points carefully so that to satisfy
the requirements of enterprise. The decision-making, production working, production
optimizing and other service requirements should be integrated in the information
systems. It brings forth the KPI (Key Performance Indexes) of the production
activities (Li, 2010).
The flat organizational structure of SOE consisted of service centers can improve
operational efficiency and reduce management costs. Meanwhile, this business
model based on business component and service oriented methodology is also able
to promptly meet market demand and business requirements, to realize the seamless
integration of business processes across the enterprise. SOA and value aware
service engineering have provided technical support for this new type of enterprise
forms. Therefore, it is an important way of enterprise restructuring to make
change of organization of SOE in the new round of optimization and reorganization
of enterprises. Although these issues are very complex and have a lot of challenges,
however, driven by market demand and new technologies, traditional enterprises
transform successfully to the SOE, thereby building the business ecosystems
are the future trends in organizational change.
The study was supported by Funding Project for Academic Human Resources Development
Institutions of Higher Learning under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality
(Grant No. PHR201007131) and Opening Project of Beijing Key Laboratory of Internet
Culture and Digital Dissemination Research (Grant No. 5026035410).