Seasonal Distribution of Zooplankton in Mahanadi Estuary (Odisha), East Coast of India: A Taxonomical Approach
C. R. Panda
N. C. Rout
Study of coastal and estuarine water is important as they act as a medium of
exchange of materials between land and ocean. Mahanadi estuarine system forms
the largest system of its kind in Odisha. Zooplankton, the secondary producers
plays a vital role in the hydrobiology and food chain regulation. The zooplankton
diversity of Mahanadi estuary (Odisha) was investigated during postmonsoon (December
2009), premonsoon (April 2010) and monsoon (July 2010). Important hydrographical
parameters such as water temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen, NO2
(nitrite), NO3 (nitrate), NH4 (ammonia), TN (total nitrogen),
PO4 (phosphate), TP (total phosphorous) and SiO4 (silicate)
were measured during the present study along with the study of the qualitative
and quantitative aspects of zooplankton. Zooplankton population dominated by
copepod at all the stations in all the seasons except during low tide of premonsoon
season where caridean larvae were dominant. In total, 86 species of zooplankton,
mostly belonging to Crustacea, Chaetognatha, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Cnidaria,
Ctenophora, Protozoa, Larvacea among the holoplankton and 16 different types
of larval forms were encountered. The population density ranged from 52 to 885
org. m-3 with highest density during high tide of post-monsoon i.e.,
885 org. m-3. The copepods like Subeucalanus mucronatus, Subeucalanus
subcrassus, Sapphirina maculosa, Sapphirina auronitens are recorded
for the first time from marine and estuarine ecosystem of Odisha. Presence of
16 different crustacean dominated larval forms signifies the conduciveness of
estuary during the whole period for breeding and spawning of shell fishes in
the estuary. During the present study, zooplankton population density was positively
related with zooplankton biomass.
February 11, 2013; Accepted: March 13, 2013;
Published: May 28, 2013
Estuaries act as a transitional zone between land and sea (Ketchum,
1951) and they serve as abodes for a great variety of flora and fauna having
tremendous socioeconomic and ecological significance. Zooplankton by their major
abundance and diversity forms the most important community in the estuarine
zone. Zooplankton regulates the pelagic food chain by controlling primary production.
Many zooplankton species are used as good indicator of coastal water pollution.
A few zooplankton such as copepods are also used in pharmaceutical industries.
From the fishery point of view, zooplankton production is used as an index of
potential harvest. Considering their multiple utility extensive studies have
been made dealing with the taxonomy, ecology and biochemical composition of
marine and estuarine zooplankton all over the globe (Raymont,
1983). Available literature however suggests that zooplankton studies from
tropical areas are less compared to those in high latitudes. The literature
reviews (Grindley, 1981; Miller, 1983;
Madhupratap, 1987) also showed that estuarine zooplankton
studies from tropical and subtropical region are less compared to those of temperate
region. Further they opined that more research, particularly, the ecological
aspects of estuarine zooplankton in tropical and subtropical areas need to be
The review of Madhupratap (1987) and other publications
on estuarine zooplankton of India shows that, the investigations over the years
were mostly limited to the Cochin backwater (George 1958;
Haridas et al., 1973; Menon
et al., 1971; Wellershaus, 1974; Madhupratap
and Haridas, 1975; Silas and Pillai, 1975; Madhupratap,
1978, 1979, 1980), Vellar
estuary (Seshadri, 1957; Krishnamurthy,
1967; Subbaraju and Krishnamurthy, 1972; Santhanam
et al., 1975; Chandran and Ramamurthi, 1984;
Shanmugam et al., 1986), Zuari and Mandovi estuaries
(Goswami and Singbal, 1974; Goswami
and Selvakumar, 1977; Goswami, 1982, 1983;
Padmavati and Goswami, 1996), Hooghly estuary (Dutta
et al., 1954; Roy, 1955; Shetty
et al., 1961; Saha et al., 1975;
Sarkar et al., 1984, 1986;
Sarkar and Singh, 1986) and Kaduviyar estuary (Perumal
et al., 2009).
As far as the Odisha coast is concerned, zooplankton studies mostly limited
to a few estuaries (Gouda and Panigrahy, 1995; Mishra
and Panigrahy, 1999; Ramaiah et al., 1996),
Chilka Lake (Patnaik, 1973; Sewell,
1914; Naik et al., 2008) and coastal waters
of Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary (Sahu et al.,
2010). Presently, there is no published work on the zooplankton of Mahanadi
estuary. So, the study was carried out to investigate the zooplankton community
of Mahanadi estuary and provide a systematic list that will therefore be useful
in improving knowledge of the estuarine zooplankton in the region of Odisha.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study site: Mahanadi river system is the third largest in the peninsula
of India and the largest river in Odisha state. It has its origin near Sihawa
in the Raipur district, Madhya Pradesh and after travelling a distance of nearly
857 km debouches into the Bay of Bengal near Paradip, Odisha. There is heavy
industrial activity in Paradip and upstream of Mahanadi estuary. It also receives
a large amount of agricultural run-off along its course. Human influences are
pronounced at Sambalpur, Cuttack and Paradip where the proliferation of industries
and sewage discharges are prominent. The nutrient rich water after travelling
all the distances enters Bay of Bengal through the Mahanadi river mouth at Paradip.
The drainage basin area of the Mahanadi is 1.42x105 km2
yielding a total annual runoff of 50x109 m3. The tidal,
estuarine part of the river covers a length of 40 km and a basin area of 9 km2.
On the basis of physical characteristics, it is classified as partially-mixed
coastal plain estuary. Seasonal variations of rainfall have strong effects on
the river discharge and subsequently on the concentration of pollutants in river
Collection of water and zooplankton samples: Water and zooplankton samples
were collected from Mahanadi estuary (lat. 20° 17'37"N and long. 86°
42'25"E) during 2009-2010 (Fig. 1). The surface sampling was
carried out at an interval of 3 hour in three different seasons such as, postmonsoon
(December), premonsoon (April) and monsoon (July). pH, air and water temperature
were measured using a Seawater Analysis Kit (Make WTW). Salinity, Dissolved
Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and analysis of different nutrients
like Nitrate (NO3), Nitrite (NO2), Ammonia (NH4),
Phosphate (PO4), Silicate (SiO4), Total Nitrogen (TN)
and Total Phosphorous (TP) were determined by standard procedures prescribed
by APHA (1998).
||Showing sampling location of Mahanadi Estuary, Box: Zooplankton
Population; Line: Zooplankton Biomass, HT: High Tide; MT: Mid Tide; LT:
Zooplankton samples were collected by horizontal haul using a conical plankton
net, (mesh size of 300 μm) and preserved with 5% neutralized formaldehyde
after their collection. In the laboratory, the zooplankton samples were divided
into two subsamples with the help of a Folsom Plankton Splitter for quantitative
and qualitative analysis. From one subsample, the biomass was determined following
the volume displacement method. Estimation of qualitative composition of the
zooplankton was done with other subsample. The numerical abundance values were
represented in org. m-3. The relative abundance was computed from
total density and the density of each group. Standard literatures and some invertebrate
texts were referred for identification of organisms (Kasturirangan,
1963; Newell and Newell, 1977; Conway
et al., 2003).
Hydrographical parameters: Hydrographical parameters in an estuarine
and lagoon ecosystem are controlled by the combined influence of the ongoing
physical, chemical and biological processes. All the 14 hydrological parameters
such as depth, air temperature, water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen,
biological oxygen demand, NO2, NO3, NH4, TN,
PO4, TP, SiO4 showed visible tidal and seasonal variations
during the present study (Table 1). The mean values of hydrographical
parameters are given in Table 1 for postmonsoon, premonsoon
and monsoon. Avg. depth of water column varied from 12.8 m (monsoon) to 13.4
m (postmonsoon) during the study period. The mean air temperatures were 24.7,
29.5 and 30.7°C in postmonsoon, premonsoon and monsoon, respectively.
Water temperature during the study ranged from 25.30-31.0°C. The salinity
values during the present study ranged from 7.33PSU-19.32 PSU while pH values
were between 7.74 and 8.14. A seasonal salinity trend: postmonsoon >premonsoon>monsoon
was noticed. This lower value of salinity during monsoon were comparable with
the earlier observations made by Vareethiah (1999)
and Achary et al. (2010). The mean dissolved
oxygen contents were 7.65, 7.59, 7.84 mg L-1 during postmonsoon,
premonsoon and monsoon respectively showing homogeneous situation over the year.
Average NO2 was found higher in monsoon period (0.33 μmol L-1)
but lower in post-monsoon season (0.16 μmol L-1). A seasonal
nitrite trend: monsoon >premonsoon >postmonsoon was noticed. Average NO3
concentration was found maximum in pre-monsoon (9.98 μmol L-1)
and minimum in post-monsoon (2.54 μmol L-1). The NH4 concentration
was maximum in monsoon (3.25 μmol L-1) and minimum in postmonsoon
(1.16 μmol L-1). PO4 (5.39 μmol L-1)
and TP (6.06 μmol L-1) was found higher in postmonsoon where
as lowest in pre-monsoon. SiO4 value was found high in monsoon (66.26
μmol L-1) and lowest in postmonsoon (16.23 μmol L-1).
Mean Chl-a showed its maximum in monsoon (4.83 mg m-3) and
minimum in premonsoon (0.63 mg m-3).
Tidal variation showed that during postmonsoon highest air temperature (26.0°C),
BOD (2.01 mg L-1), NO2 (0.21 μmol L-1),
NO3 (3.36 μmol L-1), NH4 (1.39 μmol
L-1), TN (32.91 μmol L-1), PO4 (8.71 μmol
L-1), TP (9.21 μmol L-1), SiO4 (18.91
μmol L-1) were observed during low tide, highest water temperature
(25.60°C) and salinity (22.52 PSU) during mid tide and highest pH (8.17)
and DO (8.06 mg L-1) during high tide (Table 1).
During pre-monsoon, higher values of salinity (23.47 PSU), pH (8.28), DO (7.74
mg L-1) were observed during high tide. But during mid tide, water
temperature (30.40°C), NO2 (0.30 μmol L-1), NO3
(13.24 μmol L-1), NH4 (1.34 μmol L-1),
TN (46.92 μmol L-1), PO4 (3.31 μmol L-1),
TP (4.26 μmol L-1) were higher as compared to the high tide
and low tide.
|| Hydrographical and Biological parameters in Mahanadi estuary
during postmonsoon, premonsoon and monsoon (2009-2010)
The values of BOD (0.91 mg L-1) and SiO4 (63.10 μmol
L-1) were higher during low tide (Table 1).
Like postmonsoon, the high values of BOD (2.02 mg L-1), NO2
(0.49 μmol L-1), NO3 (4.12 μmol L-1),
NH4, (3.84 μmol L-1), TN (46.22 μmol L-1),
PO4 (5.74 μmol L-1), TP (6.89 μmol L-1),
SiO4 (97.37 μmol L-1) were recorded during low tide
of monsoon season. Maximum value of DO (7.97 mg L-1), pH (8.19),
water temperature (31.40°C) and salinity (9.62 PSU) were recorded during
high tide where as air temperature (31.50°C) were higher during mid tide
Species composition: The zooplankton community of Mahanadi estuary during
the present study was represented by 86 species of holoplankters belonging to
19 diverse groups (Table 2, 3) and 16 different
types of meroplankters (Table 2). The holoplankton community
mainly comprised of protozoans, hydrozoa, siphonophores, ctenophores, a variety
of crustaceans (like copepods, cladocerans, ostracods, euphausiids, decapods,
isopods, mysids, amphipods), gastropods, chaetognaths and tunicates like Oikopleura
and Fritillaria. Details of the species composition is summarized here
Protozoa: The protozoan population were represented by four different
species of tintinnids namely Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. cylindrica, T.
nordqvisti, T. beroidea and three different species of foraminifers
i.e., Globigerina sp. and two unidentified benthic foraminifera. Among
these six species, Tintinniopsis butschlii and Globigerina sp.
were more abundant than others. Tintinnids were observed only during high tide
of pre-monsoon and monsoon with very low numerical abundance whereas completely
absent during postmonsoon. Foraminifera were noticed only during the premonsoon
of all the 3 tides.
Copepod: Among all the groups, copepod formed dominant component of
the zooplankton (31.39 to 95.31%) in all the samples collected during three
seasons over the tidal cycle except during low tide of monsoon where caridean
larvae (34.73%) remained dominant form (Table 2). The population
density of copepod showed well marked seasonal and tidal variation (Table
2). The average population density of copepod was higher during post-monsoon
(487 org. m-3) followed by monsoon (175 org. m-3) and
pre-monsoon (120 org. m-3). Higher value of copepod during post-monsoon
was also previously reported at Muttukadu Back water, Chennai (Bharathi
Devi and Ramanibai, 2012). Many workers have reported the contribution of
copepods up to 96.4% (Sarkar et al., 1986),
97.0% (Sarkar and Singh, 1986), 91.25% (Gouda
and Panigrahy, 1995), 94.99% (Naik et al., 2008),
95.2% (Bhunia and Choudhury, 1982), 94.2% (Shanmugam
et al., 1986). These relative abundances of copepod can be comparable
with the present study i.e., up to 95.31%.
Other crustacean: The other crustacean taxa encountered during the present
study included the Cladocerans, Ostracods, Mysids, Euphausiids, Cumaceans, Decapods,
Isopods and Amphipods. Four species of cladocerans namely Evadne tergestina,
Penilia avirostris, Diaphanosoma leuchternbergianum, Sida sp. were
encountered during this study. Of these four, Penilia avirostris was
more abundant in pre-monsoon collection while Sida sp. in monsoon season.
Occurrence of limnetic cladocerans during the monsoon season was also reported
by Goswami et al. (1979). During the present
study, maximum and minimum numbers of cladocerans were observed during the monsoon
and postmonsoon respectively (Table 2).
|| Seasonal and tidal distribution of different zooplankton
groups in Mahanadi estuary
These results are in agree with the other observation of Goswami
et al. (1979). Two species of ostracods namely Conchoecia elegans
and Conchoecia sp. were found during present study. Mysids were represented
by only 2 species i.e., Mesopodopsis orientalis and Neomysis sp.
The other crustacean which made sporadic appearance included amphipoda (Leucothoe
spinicarpa), Euphausiaceae (Euphausia sp.), Decapoda (Lucifer
hanseni) and Isopoda (Edotea triloba).
Other non-crustacean zooplankton
Siphonophores and Hydroidomedusae: Siphonophora population of Mahanadi estuary
comprised of three species, belonging to family Diphyidae during the study period.
|| Checklist of Holoplankton encountered in Mahanadi estuary
They were Diphyes dispar, Lensia sp. and Sulculeolaria
sp. (Table 3). They however, made sporadic appearance. In
addition to these three species of Siphonophores, Obelia sp., Phialella
quadrata and Aurelia aurita of Hydroidomedusae were also encountered.
Ctenophores: The planktonic ctenophore of Mahanadi estuary was represented
by only one specie i.e., Pleurobrachia globosa belonging to family Pleurobrachiidae
which made sporadic appearance during the study period with a very low relative
abundance of 0.05% (Table 2). The occurrence of these species
was very negligible as compared to other zooplankters and the same was also
reported by Sahu et al. (2010).
Polychaetes: This group was represented by only one species of Tomopteris
Molluscs: The planktonic molluscs of the Mahanadi estuary were represented
by two species-Limacina inflata and Cresis acicula. They were
seen commonly in most of the collections.
Chaetognatha: Three species namely Sagitta bedoti, S. enflata,
S. robusta were encountered during the present study. However, these
species were found only during the high tide of premonsoon.
Larvacea: This group was represented by three species i.e., Oikopleura
parva, Oikopleura dioica and Fritillaria sp. Oikopleura
dioica, however, is more abundant than other two species (Table
3). The relative abundance of appendicularians were higher during high tide
of postmonsoon and premonsoon where as during monsoon they were completely absent
during high tide and mid tide and appeared with a very low %composition during
low tide (Table 2).
Meroplankton: The meroplankton component of the present study was represented
mainly by 7 larval groups. They were the larvae of Crustacean, Molluscs, Polychaetes,
Brachiopods, Echinoderms, Phoronida, fish egg and fish larvae. The crustacean
larval population mostly comprised of nauplius, zoea, megalopa, alima and these
all together contributed 0.47-36.12%. Among the crustacean larvae, the zoea
larvae of Brachyurans were found in entire collections over the year (Table
2). Caridean larva contributed 0.09-34.73% of the total zooplankton density
and even occupied the first order of dominancy during low tide of Monsoon (Table
2). Molluscan veligers were also encountered at almost all stations during
the entire period of observation. Larvae of Polychaetes were less in number
compared to others. The Lingula larvas of Brachiopods were only observed during
post-monsoon with higher percentage. Fish egg and larvae were commonly encountered
during the course of investigation in the entire year.
Population density and biomass: The standing stock of zooplankton during
the present study is presented by the numerical abundance (Organisms m-3).
The population size of zooplankton discerned significant tidal variations (Fig.
2 and Table 2). In postmonsoon, highest plankton densities
of 885 Org. m-3 were observed during the high tide, while lowest
density of 287 Org. m-3 was observed during mid tide. The mean density
in post-monsoon was 532 Org.m-3. The population density in Pre-monsoon
varied between 75 org. m-3 (mid tide) and 196 org. m-3
(high tide) with a mean density of 137 Org. m-3. The highest zooplankton
density was encountered during mid tide with 456 Org. m-3 and lowest
density of 52 Org. m-3 was encountered during low tide of monsoon.
The mean density in monsoon was 231 Org. m-3. Average zooplankton
biomasses were 1.50, 0.32, 0.59 mL m-3 during Postmonsoon, Premonsoon
and monsoon respectively. Maximum displacement volume (3.00 mL m-3)
was recorded in mid tide of postmonsoon.
Relative abundance: In marine and estuarine waters, the zooplankton
populations are always represented by a mixture of Tintinnids, Siphonophores,
Polychaetes, Crustaceans, Molluscs, Chaetognath, Larvacea together with an array
of larval forms. During the present study, for the purpose of computing relative
abundance, the zooplankton population were first divided into two major groups:
the holoplankton and meroplankton.
The holoplankton were represented mainly by copepods, other crustaceans (Decapods,
mysids, cumaceans, amphipods, isopods, ostracods, cladocerans, euphausiids etc)
and non crustaceans which included the appendicularians from tunicates, cnidarians
(hydroidomedusae, siphonophores and ctenophores), protozoans, gastropods, polychaetes
and chaetognaths etc (Fig. 3). Undermicroscope photographs
of some identified zooplankton species are provided in Fig. 4.
||Seasonal and tidal variations in population density and biomass
of zooplankton, HT: High Tide; MT: Mid Tide; LT: Low Tide
|| Seasonal relative abundance of major zooplankters in Mahanadi
||Undermicroscope photographs of some zooplankton species encountered
during the study
Temperature, which always remains as a covariate with other environmental factors,
considerably influences the physico-chemical and biological characteristics
of an aquatic ecosystem. The water temperature again depends very much upon
the air temperature and amount of radiant energy reaching the surface. Our results
showed that water temperature in all the seasons almost followed the air temperature.
The salinity acts as a limiting factor in the distribution of living organisms
in estuaries and brackish water lagoons. During the entire survey the trend
of salinity variation depicted heterogeneous situation. The observed dissolved
oxygen concentrations were within the acceptable range (McNeely
et al., 1979). The pH values remained alkaline during the period
Presently recorded zooplankton consisted of 102 forms including 16 larvae from
the Mahanadi estuary. Studies on zooplankton communities, especially copepods
are very important in assessing the health of aquatic ecosystem. The abundance
and variations in zooplankton of estuaries are mainly related with salinity
regime. Among the five orders of the subclass-copepoda, the order calanoida
represented by the bulk of copepods with 33 species. This may be due to their
high reproductive capacity, quick larval development (Perumal
et al, 2009). The copepods like Subeucalanus mucronatus, S.
subcrassus, Sapphirina maculosa, S. auronitens were recorded
for the first time from marine and estuarine ecosystem of Odisha coast. However,
the appearance of three species of chaetognaths and tunicates in the estuary
indicating their recruitment into the estuary from adjacent Bay of Bengal through
tidal incursion. Occurrence of different zooplankton taxa viz. hydroidomedusae,
siphonophores, and pelagic tunicates like appendicularians is dependent upon
the state of tide which corroborates earlier findings (Goswami
et al., 1979). Chaetognaths thrived in the estuary only during high
saline period (23.47 PSU) has also been reported by previous workers (Sarkar
et al., 1986). Availability of 16 different types of larval forms
dominated by crustacean larvae depicts the conduciveness of estuary during the
whole period for breeding and spawning of shell fishes, crustaceans in the estuary.
Similar observations were also made by Perumal et al.
(2009) and Tiwari and Nair (1993). Larvae of crustaceans
were found throughout the year and this type of observation was also reported
from the estuarine ecosystem of Odisha (Gouda and Panigrahy,
1995; Mishra and Panigrahy, 1999). During the present
study, zooplankton population density is positively related with zooplankton
biomass. Further intensive and long term studies are required to evaluate the
secondary productivity of the estuary on a seasonal, annual basis and also elucidate
the plankton biodiversity in the estuary.
Total seasonal and tidal zooplankton diversity of the study area was explored
during the study. During postmonsoon and premonsoon zooplankton density dominated
during high tide indicating the dominance of marine forms. Presence of 16 different
larval forms dominated by crustacean members notifies that Mahanadi estuary
acts as a breeding ground for shell fishes. During the present study, zooplankton
population density was positively related with zooplankton biomass which denotes
equal size distribution of species. From the present study it can be safely
concluded that Mahanadi estuary plays a major role in coastal food chain in
terms of regulating the zooplankton. Further the zooplankton composition signifies
a healthy environment in this estuarine zone. The present study will act as
a baseline reference for future environmental impact assessment work on this
The authors are thankful to Director, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology,
Bhubaneswar for his permission to carry out the work. Thanks are also extended
to the scientists and staffs of COMAPS project for necessary help in sample
collection and analysis. The study was carried out under the COMAPS Project,
supported by Ministry of Earth sciences, Govt. of India.
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