Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)
H. Aghdam Shahryar,
In this study, the effects of exposure to a 950MHz electromagnetic
field (EMF) emitted from cellular phones on serum testosterone and cortisol
hormones rate of adult male Syrian Hamster were evaluated. Seventy two
male Hamster in 3 groups include: group 1 or control group, group 2 or
expose for 10 days and under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone)
for 1 h daily group 3 or expose for 50 days and under 950 MHz EMF for
1 h daily. In final, blood samples collected for determine of the testosterone
and cortisol concentration in the serum. Results showed that in long term
exposure EMF (group 3) testosterone and cortisol levels were increased
(p<0.01), but both of cortisol and testosterone hormones in short term
EMF exposure (group 2) did not significantly change. In conclusion, long-term
exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and
impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects.
Nowadays, with growth in mobile communications, exposure to non-ionizing
electromagnetic field (EMF) has increased due to mobile handset and base
station antenna. Electromagnetic fields penetrate the animal body and
act on all organs, altering the cell membrane potential and the distribution
of ions and dipoles. These alterations may influence biochemical processes
in the cell (Lee et al., 2004).
It`s shown that Microwaves (as specially waves from electromagnetic fields
of cellular phones) cause to produce temperature and energy distribution
in live tissues (Hirata et al., 2002; Lerchl et al., 2008).
Temperature is an important factor in regulation of endocrine hormones
releasing (Squires, 2003).
Also, these waves with extremely low frequency (in long term) make to
get some variations in structure and Biochemical properties of the tissues
(Lee et al., 2004). In related to electromagnetic radiations (EMR)
and EMF and their effects on nervous and endocrine systems, it has been
done a lot of experiments well (Lai, 1992; Koyu et al., 2005a,
It`s reported that magnetic fields (MFs) cause to hormonal increasing
such as glucagons, cortisol and thyroxin in the rats (Gorczynska and Wegrznowics,
One of the other hormones of endocrine is related to cortisol. Cortisol
excreted from Adrenal gland and is a stress indicator (Squires, 2003).
Base on human`s studies; it`s approved increasing of serum cortisol as
a result of EMF exposure (Radon et al., 2001).
According to Vangelova et al. (2007) studies, it`s recognized
that cortisol hormone of physiotherapists has a significant difference
in long term electromagnetic fields exposure as well as the cortisol of
the nurses. They stated, physiotherapists have a high rate in stress hormones
because of any long term exposure of EMFs.
Studies have been shown that MFs and 1 EMFs may change hormonal balance
of sex hormones and affect reproductive activity (Cakir et al.,
2003; Al-Akhras et al., 2005).
Also, exposure of EMFs in rats (in long term) may affect testosterone
levels in serum (Forgács et al., 1998; Cakir et al.,
2003). But results of previous studies are very different. Koyu et
al. (2005a) and Al-Akhras et al. (2005) reported that testosterone
hormone in rat can decrease in long-term EMF exposure condition. Cakir
et al. (2003), Forgács et al. (1998) and Moon et
al. (2006) have been reported that long-term exposure to EMFs can
affect testosterone levels in rat and increase testosterone levels in
The aim of this study is a review on biological effects of electromagnetic
field of cellular phones (950 MHz) on excretion of testosterone and cortisol
hormones in long or short terms by Syrian Hamsters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In experimental, it was done the contribution of time period under electromagnetic
fields of cellular phone (950 MHz) on Serum testosterone and cortisol
of Hamster concentration well. Study was conducted in Shabestar University
Laboratory in summer, 2007. Animals were in 3 groups 1) Control 2) 24
male Hamster in separated cages for 10 days and they were under 950 MHz
EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone) for 1 h daily 3) 24 male Hamster in
separated cages for 50 days and they were under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily.
Hamsters were maintained under 12 h light/12 h dark cycle in a temperature-regulated
(22-23 °C) animal room with a continue free access to water and food.
At then end of the test, blood samples collection from experimental groups,
and the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum to be compared
with serum concentration of the control group without of any electromagnetic
field at them.
Data collected subjected to analysis of variance and significant differences
observed in means subjected to Duncan`s multiple range test. All data
were analyzed by ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM) procedures
of the SAS Institute.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
According to Table 1, the testosterone and cortisol
concentrations serum of the Hamsters for three groups, (without of EMF),
10 and 50 days under electromagnetic field of cellular phones to observe.
In this study testosterone and cortisol have clearly increase in the
hamsters that have been exposed to the EMF on 50 days (group 3 or long-term
group) (p<0.01). But there was no significant difference between testosterone
and cortisol hormones of control and short-term exposure groups (group
1, 2) (Table 1).
||Testosterone and cortisol concentrations in serum exposed
to electromagnetic field (950 MHz) in Syrian Hamsters
|Values with differences superscripts letter(s) are significantly
different at p<0.01
Cortisol rate get significant to increasing for 50 days with 30 min daily
beside of 900 MHz electromagnetic field (Koyu et al., 2005b). Sadeghi
et al. (2006) reported an increasing of Glucose and cortisol for
Guinea Pigs besides 50 Hz MF (after 5 day and daily 4 h exposure) they
found that the MF to be caused for increasing the stress factors of serum.
According to Koyu et al. (2005a) reports, there is a significant
difference for the cortisol rate in exposure of 1800 MHz. Also according
to Radon et al. (2001) results, in present study, long term stress
from cellular phones EMFs gets increasing the cortisol rate. Other blood
factors of the stress had an increasing in Sadeghi et al. (2006)
results (such as of Glucose).
Present study results about of cortisol hormone, were as same as Radon
et al. (2001), Koyu et al. (2005a), Sadeghi et al.
(2006) and Vangeleva et al. (2007).
It is shown that testosterone level in serum may increased in exposure
to high frequency electromagnetic fields (for example: 950 MHz) in long-term
(Moon et al., 2006). But effects of low frequency EMF on serum
testosterone level were not significance (Al-Akhras et al., 2005;
Zhou et al., 2005).
Present results indicated that long-term exposure to 950 MHz EMF emitted
from cellular phones may increased serum testosterone and cortisol level
in Syrian hamsters and may affect the reproductive activity and impair
endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects. But short-term
exposure didn`t have significance effect on serum cortisol and testosterone
level in Syrian hamsters. Present results about testosterone of Syrian
Hamsters (were as same as results and findings of influence of 50 Hz magnetic
field on the testosterone production of mouse (Forgács et al.,
1998), exposed to electromagnetic fields to 50 Hz of rats (Cakir et
al., 2003) and influence of long-term Exposure of Rats (Moon et
al., 2006). In present study with direct effects of cellular phones
EMFs, differences between testosterone levels in control group and treatment
groups ( specially in long-term ) is more significance than previous studies
(Forgács et al., 1998; Cakir et al., 2003).
Financial support for this study was provided by Islamic Azad University
(Shabestar Branch). The authors are also grateful to them valuable support
and to pour-ahmadi for their skilled technical assistance throughout the
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