There are number of biotic and abiotic components like; pollution, temperature,
humidity, actinomycetes, bacteria, fungal spores, algae, insects present in
our environment. Microbes get entry into indoor environment through outdoor
air current and these are disseminated by the action of wind and cause diseases
on human, animals and plant body. Fungal spores make a major part of airspora.
It may be originated in the air from different sources such as plant, water,
soil and settle down on the suitable host for their growth and development and
cause diseases and deterioration on that host. Many scientists made contribution
in study of airborne organisms in the different fields. The literature on the
occurrence of airborne fungi in the home and work place is extensive including
some comprehensive reviews by Levetin et al. (1995)
and Singh (2007). The present study reviews work done
on air and soil mould diversity of certain region of India.
AIRBORNE MOULD BIODIVERSITY
Aero mycoflora of cold storage: Cold storage is mainly used for storage
of vegetable, fruits and milk products. These products can be easily store in
2 to 4°C for long term. Fungi are diverse group of organisms and have been
found in large amount in the environment. Present study deals with the aeromycoflora
of cold storage of Raipur (CG). Sharma and Agrawal (2010)
reported 226 fungal colonies and 35 fungal species. The percentage contribution
of different classes was as follows, Zygomycotina (5.75%), Ascomycotina (0.88%),
Deuteromycotina (83.62%), Unknown fungi (8.84%) and Mycelia sterilia (0.88%).
Out of total fungal population Penicillium sp. II (13.71%) was most dominated
whereas, Cladosporium cladosporioides (7.96%), Aspergillus niger and
Aspergillus versicolor (7.52%) were co-dominant fungal species.
Aeromycoflora of raipur city: Aeromycoflora of Raipur city was studied
during present study Sharma (2009a) observed 1901 fungal
spores. The analysis of airspora indicates the class Deuteromycotina was the
highest (91.63%) concentration. It was followed by Oomycotina (4.03%), unidentified
group (0.64%) and sterile mycelium (2.84%). The major types of airspora were
Cladosporium sp. (14.21%), Aspergillus niger (11.29%), Curvularia
lunata (10.96%), Alternaria sp. (7.96%), Fusarium sp. (5.84%)
and Drechslera (5.60%), to the total air spora. Higher concentration
of spores was observed during August (292) and February (213). Out of total
flora Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp.
and Aspergillus niger are allergenic in nature.
Aeromycoflora of dwelling houses:
Intramural aeromycological survey was
carried out for 10 dwelling houses at Raipur by Sharma (2009b)
during March 2007- Feb. 2008. 22 fungal species were isolated. Maximum in winter
moderate in rainy and minimum were observed during summer season. Aspergillus
sp. were most frequent while Fusarium
were least frequent fungal species.
Aero mycoflora on Ocimum sanctum plant: Sharma
and Tiwari (2009a) reported aeromycoflora over Ocimum sanctum plant
during July 1997 to June 1998. Total 17315 fungal spores represented 43 fungal
types were observed during the present investigation period. Out of 43 fungal
types 1 from Myxomycotina. 3 from zygomycotina, 10 from Ascomycotina, 2 from
Basidiomycotina and 27 from Deuteromycotina were observed. It was also observed
that fungal population was varying from season to season and month to month.
Environmental factor play an important role for the distribution of the fungal
Soilborne mould biodiversity
Soil mycoflora of darjeeling tea garden: Sharma (2010)
isolated Mycoflora of soil from tea garden of Darjeeling. Fungal spores recorded
were representatives of the three major groups i.e., Zygomycotina, Deuteromycotina
(Anamorphic fungi) and Mycelia sterilia. A total of 12 fungi were isolated
from soil. Aspergillus fumigatus (18%), showed maximum percentage contribution
followed by A. niger and Rhizopus sp. (14%).
Yumthang valley, sikkim: Isolation of soil mycoflora from Yumthang valley
Sikkim was observed by Sharma (2009c) during May 2009.
In investigation period colonies of 15 fungal species were observed the maximum
percentage contribution of Aspergillus niger (25%), was followed by Aspergillus
japonicas (10%) and minimum percentage contribution of Trichoderma sp.
Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata (2.5%). The fungal classes
observed were Ascomycotina (60%), Deuteromycotina (33.33%) and Mycelia sterilia
(6.66%) A. chartarum, A. tamari, Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium
sp. (2.27%) were observed.
Leaf surface mycoflora: Leaf surface mycoflora of Ocimum sanctum
plant was studied by Tiwari and Sharma (2008) during
July 1997 to June 1998. Total 447 colonies of 33 fungal species (447 colonies)
belong to 18 genera of fungi were isolated during the present investigation
period. Out of 33 fungal species 01 from zygomycotina, 11 from ascomycotina,
19 from deuteromycotina and 02 from mycelia sterila. It was observed that fungal
population vary from season to season and month to month. Environmental factor
plays an important role for the distribution of the fungal spores.
Effects of exudates on fungal spore germination: Apart from the environmental
factors, the composition and distribution of the leaf surface mycoflora is influenced
by leaf exudates of the plant. Effect of leaf exutates of Ocimum sanctum
on the spore germination of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger,
Cladosporium oxysporum, Curvularia lunata and Nigrospora spherica
are studied. Spore germination of Curvularia lunata (62%), Cladosporium
oxysporum (45%) and Nigrospora spherica (40%) are observed in leaf
exudates. This is also observed by Sharma and Tiwari (2009b)
that Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger failed to germination
in leaf exudates.