Impact of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) On Succeeding Rice and Optimization of N to Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
L. Gurusamy ,
K. Omar Hattab ,
N. Thavaprakaash ,
A field experiment was conducted in loamy sand soils of Tamil Nadu, India to optimize the nitrogen requirement to rice after sesame during the year 2004-2005 in two consecutive seasons in a Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD). The field was divided into 60 plots and in the summer season sesame was raised in 30 plots and the other 30 plots were kept fallow. In the next season (Kharif), the rice was raised in all the 60 plots of two different situations viz., with sesame as previous crop (Situation I) and without sesame as pervious crop (Situation II) with two rice cultivars viz., ADT 38 and KR 99001 and five levels of nitrogen viz., 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1. In rice, the plant height was significantly influenced by the situations in earlier stages and but not in the later stages. The number of tillers was found to be higher in situation II than in situation I in all the three stages studied viz., active tillering, panicle initiation and harvest stage. The same trend was noticed in number of productive tillers also. The variation in the situations did not bring any significant variation in grain yield, but slightly higher yield was noticed in situation II over situation I. Both ADT 38 and KR 99001 manifested higher yields at 150 kg N ha-1 in both the situations reveals the fact that this level of N, which is a recommended dose of N for medium and long duration rice, is sufficient for better growth and development of rice. The straw yield was comparable in both the situations.
Nitrogen is the most important nutrient for rice and its deficiency occurs almost everywhere, unless nitrogen (N) is applied through fertilizer. Rice is the maximum consumer of N fertilizer constituting one third of the total N consumption of the world (Saravana Pandian and Perumal, 2002). Thus, N is the most critical input that limits rice productivity and increasing rice productivity would mean more supply of N to the crop. Lowland rice depends more on soil fertility than on fertilizers. The dependence of lowland rice on soil fertility is best illustrated by a Japanese saying Grow paddy with soil fertility, Grow barley with fertilizers (Yoshida, 1981). This shows that it is necessary to have a specific recommendation of fertilizers for rice under specific growing environments than blanket recommendation. So, the optimization of N to rice with situation specific is necessary for higher yield and to sustain its demand.
A specific situation in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry
is the crop rotation of rice-rice-sesame, where sesame is grown as rice-fallow
crop during summer season in with the use of residual moisture and nutrients
of pervious season (Rabi) rice. Hence, no fertilizers are applied to the sesame,
which is also an N responsive. The response of sesame to N fertilizer varies
from 20-150 kg ha-1 (Hemalatha et al., 1999). This sesame
may utilize the native soil N also for its growth and development. This may
leads to deficiency of N in the soil for the next season rice, which is grown
in the next season. This situation necessitates finding out the impact of sesame
grown in previous season on rice grown after that and optimizing the N requirement
to the rice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental Design and Treatment Details
The experiment was conducted in a loamy sand soil of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, Union Territory of
Pondicherry, India during the year 2004-05. The experimental site, which is
situated 12 km from Bay of Bengal lies between latitude 10°49 and 11°01
North and longitude 78°43 and 79°52 East with an altitude
of 4 m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). The initial soil analyses show that the soil
was loamy sand in texture falls in Fluventic Haplustept taxonomic class.
The soil was optimum in bulk density (1.33 Mg m-3) and particle density
(2.66 Mg m-3) with the porosity of 50%. The soil reaction was neutral
(pH: 7.61) and the electrical conductivity is low (EC: 0.21 dS m-1).
The soil was low in organic carbon content (0.32%) and available nitrogen (KMnO4-N:
213 kg ha-1), medium in available potassium (NH4OAc-K:
262 kg ha-1) and high in available phosphorous (Olsen-P: 31.4 kg
ha-1). The experiment was conducted in FRBD design with three replications.
The field was divided in 60 equal plots of 20 m2. The experiment was carried out in two consecutive seasons. In the summer season (Chithirai pattam), the 30 plots of the field was raised with sesame and the other plots were kept fallow without any vegetation. The sesame was cultivated with residual nutrients of previous season (Rabi) rice without fertilizer application. The regular agronomic practice for dry land sesame was followed and crop was harvested after 97 days after sowing. In the Kharif season, the left out sesame stubbles of about 15-20 cm height were incorporated 15 days before transplanting. Rice was raised in all the 60 plots of two different situations viz., with sesame as previous crop (situation I) and without sesame as pervious crop (situation II) with two cultivars viz., a medium duration variety of ADT 38 and a long duration pre-release culture of KR 99001 with five levels of N viz., 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1. The treatment details are given in Table 1. The N was supplied through urea in four equal splits as basal, at Active Tillering (AT), Panicle Initiation (PI) and grain filling stage as per the treatment levels. Phosphorous (P) at the rate of 50 kg ha-1) was supplied through single super phosphate in two equal splits as basal and at AT; potassium (K) at the rate of 50 kg ha-1) through muriate of potash in four equal splits as that of N and zinc through zinc sulphate at the rate of 12.5 kg ha-1) as basal. A hand weeding was done at 25 days after transplanting and a pesticide spray of monocrotophos at the rate of 250 mL ha-1 was given at 30 days after transplanting to control leaf folders. Plant height and number of tillers were recorded at AT, PI and Harvest Stage (HS) and number of productive tillers was recorded at HS. The crop was harvested separately from the plots, harvested and winnowed and grain and straw yields were recorded. The observations collected from the field experiment and the data on the results of analysis of soil and plant samples were subjected to statistical scrutiny as per the procedure of Gomez and Gomez (1984).
Optimization of N Requirement
The data on the grain yields of rice under the various treatments were fitted
into the appropriate response function following statistical procedures. In
cases where the response function was quadratic type, the physical optimum dose
of N was calculated by equating the first order derivative of the response function
|| Treatment details rice varieties (V) under varying field
conditions (S) with Nitrogen levels (N)
The economic optimum dose was calculated by equating the first order derivative of the response function to the rice ratio (px/py) i.e.,
taking into account the unit cost of N kg-1 as 10.4 and price of rice grain as Rs. 5 kg-1.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Plant height of rice was not affected by varying field conditions created
with sesame and without sesame as previous crop i.e., situation I and II respectively
at all the three stages viz., AT, PI and HS (Table 2). This
might be due to the probable reason that the minimum requirement of nutrients
at the early stages of crop growth (Angayarkanni and Ravichandran, 2001) might
be met out from the applied N in both the situations and the deficit of nutrients
in situation I and at later stages the nutrient deficit might be compensated
by the release of N through mineralization of incorporated stubbles of sesame
along with applied N. The mineralization of crop residues, which could be benefited
for the crop growth, was reported by many authors (Omar Hattab et al.,
1998; Saravana Pandian and Perumal, 2000; Deka Medhi and Medhi, 2000; Sharma
and Verma, 2000). In general, increasing N levels increased the plant height.
It is quite expected and was in line with the research findings of Shivay
et al. (2001) and Somasundaram et al. (2002).
Number of Tillers and Productive per m-2
The tillering ability at AT, PI and HS of rice was significantly higher
in situation II (365, 385 and 385 tillers m-2) over situation I (342,
352 and 352 tillers m-2) with the percentage increase of 6.73, 9.38
and 9.38, respectively (Table 2).
|| Influence of previous season sesame on growth and yield of
This might be due to the higher requirement of nutrient for tillering in the
earlier stage was not met in situation I where nutrient loss caused by previous
season sesame. The low production in tillers at AT was maintained in the PI
and HS also. This is because the tillering of rice is mainly during AT and deficit
of nutrient at this stage can not be over come by the supply of nutrients in
the later stages. Increasing N levels enhanced the number of tillers in both
the situations in all the three stages. This result is in consonance to the
findings of Somasundaram et al. (2002) and Pariyani and Naik (2004).
The variation in the field conditions due to the situations did not bring
significant variation in grain yield, but slightly higher yield was noticed
in situation II over situation I (Table 2). This might be
due to the reason that the incorporated stubbles of sesame in field might have
released the immobilized N in the later stages and supported the crop growth
and yield. The slight variation might be due to the differential supply of nutrients
in the initial stages of growth, wherein the nutrient supply was low in situation
I, caused by depletion of nutrients by sesame.
Optimization of Nitrogen Requirement
In the case of medium duration variety ADT 38 the physical optimum was 157
kg N ha-1 and the economic optimum with 133 kg N ha-1.
The pre-release culture KR 99001 showed its physical optimum with 131 kg N ha-1
and economic optimum with 114 kg N ha-1. Both medium duration variety
ADT 38 and long duration pre-release culture KR 99001 manifested higher yields
at 150 kg N ha-1 in both the situations. This reveals the fact that
this level of N, which is a recommended dose of N for medium and long duration
rice crop, is capable of supplying nutrients to the demand of the crop at appropriate
stages both by direct supply of nutrients and by indirect supply through mineralization
of sesame stubbles. This kind of result that is the combination of organic and
inorganic sources of N in enhancing the yield finds support from Wopereis
et al. (1994) Saravana Pandian and Perumal (1994) and Omar Hattab et
The straw yield was not significantly influenced by the situations studied
(Table 2). This might be due to late recovery of rice from
the impact of nutrient loss caused by the sesame in the previous season in situation
I. The immobilized N by the sesame stubbles would have been released in the
later stages. The beneficial effect of mineralization of nutrients from the
crop residues was well established by Omar Hattab et al. (1998), Singh
et al. (1997), Grace et al. (1999), Deka Medhi and Medhi (2000) and
Rani and Srivastava (2001).
The sesame grown in previous season with residual moisture of Rabi rice has no profound effect on next season rice. The rice in both field conditions (with and without sesame in previous season) produced comparable yields. The variation was noticed in plant height, number of tillers and number of seeds per panicle but the variation was not much higher which resulted in comparable grain and straw yield. The optimization procedure reveals that 133 kg N ha-1 will sufficient for ADT 38 and 114 133 kg N ha-1 will sufficient for KR 99001 and hence, the recommended dose of N for these varieties i.e., 150 kg N ha-1 will be sufficient for better growth and development.
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