Background and Objective: The effectiveness of mineral use is an essential topic in modern poultry feeding. The trend of using organic minerals over inorganic sources in poultry is increasing rapidly as they are supposed to be more bioavailable and efficient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the total replacement of zinc, copper, manganese, iron and selenium mineral supplementation in inorganic form by organic minerals, in the form of chelates - amino acids, on productive performance and pododermatitis score in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 480 Cobb broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications, as follows: T1 (control, with the inclusion of inorganic minerals) and T2 (total replacement of inorganic mineral sources by the blend of organic minerals, in the inclusion of 1.0 kg t46443D1, meeting the nutritional requirements of the strain). During 42 experimental days, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, viability, productive efficiency index and pododermatitis score were measured. Results: The birds fed with 1 kg t46443D1 of the organic blend showed lower feed intake (p = 0.0091), better feed conversion rates (p = 0.043), productive efficiency (p = 0.0065) and viability (p = 0.0465) in relation to the control group. The other variables did not differ statistically, although the group fed with organic minerals had a smaller number of animals with pododermatitis in the most severe scores of the disease. Conclusion: It is concluded that the blend of organic minerals met the nutritional requirements of the strain, by providing better rates of productive performance and can be an efficient substitute for inorganic sources of minerals.
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The performance and health of birds are the main factors affecting the profits of poultry producers. The recent state-of-the-art opinion points to a positive impact of mineral supplements on the general health status in poultry. The effectiveness of the use of microelements is an essential topic in modern poultry feeding1.
Trace minerals such as selenium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc are essential to chicken development because they are active in several metabolic pathways. These minerals are involved in many biochemical, physiologic and endocrine functioning as catalysts for enzymatic processes, secretion of hormones and immune responses and are essential for the growth and health of the poultry, including reproduction, growth and sanity2-4.
When supplementing trace minerals in poultry feed, differences in availability and contamination are of great concern5. It is a well-known fact that in commercial poultry feed, the inorganic form of trace minerals is added (sulfate or oxide salts) at up to ten-fold higher dose than the nutritional recommendations because of its low retention rates6 but there are two main disadvantages of using inorganic minerals in the diet of birds.
First, the contamination factor: Copper sulfate and zinc oxide, for example, are common inorganic sources of copper and zinc used in the diet of birds but these two sources are derived from the steel industry and have a large number of contaminants, such as fluorine and cadmium, which are transferred to the diet of birds7. Second, the antagonistic effects between inorganic minerals can decrease their metabolism and absorption rate8. These factors are important and have a strong impact on increasing production costs.
Organic micro-mineral sources are an alternative to inorganic sources and have been increasingly used in broiler diets due to their greater bioavailability compared with traditional sources (inorganics). The application of organic mineral sources in poultry nutrition may prevent minerals from creating indigestible complexes with some dietary components and reciprocal mineral antagonisms in the intestine that could decrease their absorption rate9.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the total replacement of the inorganic sources of copper, iron, manganese, zinc and selenium minerals, by a blend composed of the respective minerals in organic form, on the performance and pododermatitis score of broilers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All the procedures of the present study were carried out in accordance with the precepts of Law No. 11,794, of October 8, 2008, of Decree n°6,899, of July 15, 2009 and with the norms of the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) and by the Commission on Ethics in the Use of Animals (CEUA) of the Company Samitec-CEUA/SAMITEC (Registration No. 0017.01.22).
A total of 480 one day old male broilers (Cobb 500 strain) with an average initial weight of 45.84 g were used in this study. Birds received feed and water ad libitum during the experimental period (1-42 days). The experimental trial was conducted on a commercial farm, with a semi-controlled environment, temperatures and ventilation suitable for each stage of development (according to the Cobb Management Guide reference). The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design and subdivided into two treatments, with eight replications and 30 birds/repeat, as follows: T1 = basal diet, without supplementation of the inorganic mineral blend. In this treatment, all the nutritional requirements of the birds were supplied by inorganic sources of minerals and, T2 = basal diet with the total replacement of inorganic sources of minerals by organic sources, offered in the form of a blend of organic minerals B-360 Poultry (Yessinergy do Brasil Agroindustrial LTDA), in the inclusion of 1.0 kg t46443D1. The basal diet was isonutritive, formulated in accordance with the requirements of National Research Councill10, according to the respective stages of chicken development, after evaluation by the NIRS technology. Composition of experimental diet is presented in Table 1.