Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood



Ihsan Mohammed Shihab
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effects of palm pollen (pp) added to the diet of broiler chicks on the immune response against both Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease (IBDV) and blood protein. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six 1-35-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were distributed randomly in four treatment groups, with four replicates of six chicks in each replicate. Chicks whose initial weight was 38 g were purchased from a local hatchery in the holy city of Karbala. The following treatments were used: T1 (control) birds were administered a basal diet, T2 birds were administered a 2 g kg1 diet, T3 birds were administered a 4 g kg1 diet and T4 birds were administered a 6 g kg1 diet. Results: The ELISA test titer revealed significant (p<0.05) differences among various treatment groups at the end of the experiment. Chicks fed a 4 g kg1 palm pollen diet were found to have the highest serum total protein, albumen and globulin compared to the control group. The highest values of packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells and white blood cells in all treatments were found in chicks fed palm pollen. Conclusion: It was concluded that supplementation of palm pollen to the diets of broiler chicks improved humoral immunity and blood hematology.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Ihsan Mohammed Shihab , 2018. Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood. International Journal of Poultry Science, 17: 523-528.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2018.523.528

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2018.523.528
 
Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Over the last several decades, the use of natural products as substitutes for antibiotic for improving performance and immune system in animal life has been encouraged. The use of herbal medicine has increased worldwide, with many ancient records of herbal medical plants1. The antioxidant activity of palm pollen (PP) is attributed to the wide range of phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric, ferulic acid, sinapic acids, flavonoids and procyanidins2. The pits of palm pollen contain different chemical compounds, such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca) and potassium (K). Saturated fatty acids include stearic and palmitic acid and unsaturated fatty acids contain linoleic and oleic acids, which can inhibit the 5α-reductase enzyme3,4. Therefore, palm pollen can create an appropriate situation for oogenesis and maintain efficient fertility in female mice, which may be considered useful nutraceuticals for potentiation of fertility in future human studies5. Suspension of Phoenix dactylifera date palm pollen is an herbal mixture that is widely used as a folk remedy for curing male infertility in traditional medicine. Date palm pollen contains at least six vitamins, including small amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), nicotinic acid (niacin) and vitamin A6. Studies have indicated that the aqueous extracts of dates have potent antioxidant activity7. The antioxidant activity is attributed to the wide range of phenolic compounds in date palm pollen, including p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids; flavonoids; and procyanidins8. According to Shanoon et al.9, palm pollen had significant effects on all characteristics and there was no side effect observed on chicken health or egg quality. A study by Al-Farsi et al.10 revealed that palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants. Flavonoids compose the major class of phytoestrogen and they are functionally and structurally similar to estrogen, affecting spermatogenesis11. A study by Lotito and Frei12 mentioned that flavonoids also act as an antioxidant. Studies have shown that antioxidants can also protect testes13. Date pits have been included in animal feed to enhance growth, an action that has been ascribed to increase in the plasma level of testosterone14. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of PP on the productivity of broilers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ninety-six (Ross 308) 1-35-day-old chicks were distributed randomly in four treatment groups. Four replicates were completed using six chicks for each replicate. Chicks whose initial weight was 38 g were purchased from a local hatchery in the holy city of Karbala. The following treatments were used: T1 (control) birds were administered a basal diet, T2 birds were administered a 2 g kg1 PP diet, T3 birds were administered a 4 g kg1 PP diet and T4 birds were administered 6 g kg1 PP diet. Each of them was supplied diet initiator of the chicks from the age of 1-21 days and diet growth from the age of 22-35 days (Table 1) chemical composition of feeding in the diet was calculated according to NRC15. The chicks were vaccinated via drinking water with ND (La Sota) on day 10, then administered a booster dose of Newcastle virus vaccine (La Sota) on day 18 and 25 and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBDL strain) (Ceva, Hungary) on day 14.

This study was conducted at the poultry field of the Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during the period from 12/3/2016 to 16/4/2016 (35 days) to study the effect of varying dietary levels of palm pollen on humoral immunity and hematological blood of broilers.

Table 1: Composition of experimental diets prepared in this study
Image for - Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood

Blood sample and analysis: Blood samples were collected (from 5 samples of blood) from each treatment of any (one bird) of each replicate in the treatments and blood samples at the age of 21 and 35 days were collected randomly for each replicate by puncturing the wings of the brachial vein zone. Blood was collected from each bird into two sets of sterilized tubes: one containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the anticoagulant for the determination of hematological parameters and the other without an anticoagulant. Tubes were placed in a centrifuge at a speed of 300 r min1 for 5 min to separate plasma. Then, the plasma was transferred to other tubes, which were sealed and frozen under -15 to -20 degrees until testing. The antibody titers against ND and IBD16 and the concentrations of blood protein were measured17. The hemoglobin concentration (Hb) was determined using the Sahli method and the value recorded in g/100 mL18. RBC and WBC were recorded using the improved Neubauer hemocytometer as described by Dacie and Lewis19. PCV was determined by the microhematocrit method.

ELISA test (Synbiotics-USA): The procedure used in this test was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions listed in the ProFLOK ELISA Kit20, which is a rapid serologic test for the detection of antibodies in chicken serum samples. The test was developed primarily to aid in the detection of pre and postvaccination antibody levels in chickens.

Statistical analysis: A completely randomized design (CRD) was used to investigate the effect of the studied treatments on different traits. Polynomials21 were used to compare between means using Statistical Analysis System (SAS)22.

RESULTS

Figure 1 and 2 show that the administration of chicken diet with different doses of palm pollen induced a highly variable antibody titer. However, the antibody titers of all treated groups (T2, T3 and T4) revealed significant differences (p<0.05) when compared to the control group (T1). On days 21 and 35, the mean Abs titers increased significantly (p>0.05) in all groups. However, T3 (palm pollen 4 g kg1) showed the highest mean Abs titer against ND and IBD. These results indicate that palm pollen improved immunity by increasing the antibody titer against ND and IBD antibodies.

Image for - Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood
Fig. 1: Effect of treatment and day on ND titer

Image for - Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood
Fig. 2: Effect of treatment and day on IBD titier

Table 2: Effect of different levels of palm pollen on blood protein (mg/100 mL) ± the standard error in 3-5 week-old broiler chicks
Image for - Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood
The different letters appearing on the means of the same column refer to significant differences among treatment means at (p<0.05). T1: The control treatment, T2: Received palm pollen at a rate of 2 g kg1 diet, T3: received palm pollen at a rate of 4 g kg1 diet, T4: received palm pollen at a rate of 6 g kg1 diet

Table 3: Effect of different levels of palm pollen on blood composition of ± the standard error in 3-5-week-old broiler chicks
Image for - Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood
The different letters appearing on the means of the same column refer to significant differences among treatment means at (p<0.05). T1: the control treatment, T2: Received palm pollen at a rate 2 g kg1 diet, T3: Received palm pollen at a rate 4 g kg1 diet, T4: Received palm pollen at a rate 6 g kg1 diet, PVC: Packed cell volume, Hb: Hemoglobin, RBC: Red blood cells, WBC: White blood cells

Serum total protein, albumen and globulin of broiler chicks were significantly affected by dietary palm pollen supplementation (Table 2). Table 2 refers to the presence of significant differences (p<0.05) between the treated groups during the experimental period (21 and 35 days). Treated groups at 21 days produced higher levels of total protein and globulin than the other treatments, whereas no significant differences were observed in the albumin levels between the treated groups. Significant differences between the treated groups (p<0.05) were also observed during the 35 day. T3 produced higher total protein, globulin and albumin than did the other treatments.

Blood composition of broiler chicks were significantly affected by dietary palm pollen supplementation (Table 3). The values of PCV, Hb, RBC and WBC in chicks fed on the basal diet were lower than those of chicks fed palm pollen. Table 3 shows the presence of significant differences (p<0.05) between the treated groups during the experimental period (21 and 35 days). T3 (palm pollen 4 g kg1) showed the highest blood composition values.

DISCUSSION

There are few studies available on palm pollen supplementation in broilers. The serum antibody level is an indicator of humoral immunity. These results showed significantly higher (p<0.05) antibody titers in chicks receiving palm pollen with 2, 4 or 6 g kg1 diets compared with the control treatment. Palm pollen has been reported to possess many distinct nutrients in its chemical composition, including essential and nonessential amino acids, fatty acids and proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals23. Pollen contains a range of vitamins, including vitamin C, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), nicotinic acid (niacin) and vitamin A2. Additionally, palm pollen possesses nutritional qualities that resist inflammation and increase immunity24. A variety of substances that have an effect on performance levels and use of domestic birds, including flavonoids, are also antiallergic and antibacterial25 and are resistant to lipid peroxidation26. These substances inhibit the activity of a group of enzymes that include hydrolase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, phosphodiesterase, lipoxygenase, aldose reductase and α-glucosidase, which have an important role in the body’s functions. High levels of enzymes can be an indicator of disease and are involved in the decomposition of fats important to the body27. Blood protein is composed of amino acids that play a major role in the natural balance of the body. Blood protein is the carrier of many food compounds, including lipoproteins and some carbohydrates (glycoproteins), which cannot be transmitted; they can only be linked to protein molecules28. According to Al-Shagrawi29, the effect of palm pollen on fatty lipid components, total fatty lipids, triglycerides and high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on blood plasma, liver and rat brains showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol and total fats. The positive effects on PCV, Hb and RBC values could be due to minerals such as Fe and Cu contained in palm pollen and due to vitamins such as folic acid and vitamin C. These minerals and vitamins are necessary for red blood cell formation and maturation30. Hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen for energy metabolism, which may explain the relationship between palm pollen and energy. A high white blood cell count at a certain level is a good indicator of increasing immunity, suggesting that pits of palm pollen contain different chemical compounds, such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca) and potassium (K). Saturated fatty acids include stearic and palmitic acid and unsaturated fatty acids contain linoleic and oleic acids, which can inhibit the 5α-reductase enzyme3.

CONCLUSION

The supplementation of 4 g kg1 palm pollen to the diets of broiler chicks improved humoral immunity and blood hematology.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

The poultry industry is always searching for a new feed supplement to improve feed effectiveness and chicken health. This experiment demonstrates that supplementation of palm pollen to the diets of broiler chicks improved humoral immunity and blood hematology because the pollen contains effective natural substances and chemical compounds such as saponin, antioxidants, vitamins (A, B, C, D and E) and various mineral elements. Thus, a new theory on the use of palm pollen as a safe and nontoxic fodder additive to enhance the vitality, immunity and productive performance of these birds is presented.

REFERENCES

1:  Aboua, Y.G., S.S. Du Plessis, P. Reichgelt and N. Brooks, 2009. The in vitro effects of superoxide, some commercially available antioxidants and red palm oil on sperm motility. Asian J. Androl., 11: 695-702.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Ahmed, M.B., N.A. Hasona and A.H. Selemain, 2008. Protective effects of extract from dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and ascorbic acid on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Iran. J. Pharm. Res., 7: 193-201.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Shariati, M., E. Sharifi and M. Kaveh, 2007. The effect of Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm) pit powder on testosterone level and germ cells in adult male rats. J. Zanjan Univ. Med. Sci. Health Serv., 15: 21-28.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Moshfegh, F., J. Baharara, F. Namvar, S. Zafar-Balanezhad, E. Amini and L. Jafarzadeh, 2016. Effects of date palm pollen on fertility and development of reproductive system in female Balb/C mice. J. HerbMed Pharmacol., 5: 23-28.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Bahmanpour, S., T. Talaei, Z. Vojdani, M.R. Panjehshahin, A. Poostpasand, S. Zareei and M. Ghaeminia, 2006. Effect of Phoenix dactylifera pollen on sperm parameters and reproductive system of adult male rats. Iran J. Med. Sci., 31: 208-212.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Al-Shahib, W. and R.J. Marshall, 2003. The fruit of the date palm: Its possible use as the best food for the future? Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr., 54: 247-259.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Mansouri, A., G. Embarek, E. Kokkalou and P. Kefalas, 2005. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chem., 89: 411-420.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Gu, L., M.A. Kelm, J.F. Hammerstone, G. Beecher, J. Holden, D. Haytowitz and R.L. Prior, 2003. Screening of foods containing proanthocyanidins and their structural characterization using LCMS/ MS and thiolytic degradation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 7513-7521.
PubMed  |  

9:  Shanoon, A.Q., M.S. Jassim, A.H. Mohamed, M.S. Latef, A.M. Abad Al-Raheem, 2015. The effect of using different levels from date palm pollen in diet on productive performance and some eggs quality measurements for layer hens Lehman. Anim. Vet. Sci., 3: 1-4.

10:  Al-Farsi, M., C. Alasalvar, A. Morris, M. Baron and F. Shahidi, 2005. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53: 7592-7599.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Breithofer, A., K. Graumann, M.S. Scicchitano, S.K. Karathanasis, T.R. Butt and A. Jungbauer, 1998. Regulation of human estrogen receptor by phytoestrogens in yeast and human cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 67: 421-429.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Lotito, S.B. and B. Frei, 2006. Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: Cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic. Biol. Med., 41: 1727-1746.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Guo, H., C. An, Z. Gan, E. Mai, S. Xing and R. Chen, 2004. Experimental study on antioxidant and calcium channel blockade preventing testicular fibrosis in rats. Zhonghua nan ke xue Nat. J. Androl., 10: 857-863.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Ali, B.H., A.K. Bashir and G. Alhadrami, 1999. Reproductive hormonal status of rats treated with date pits. Food Chem., 66: 437-441.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  NRC., 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780309048927, Pages: 155
Direct Link  |  

16:  Henry, R.J., D.C. Cannon and J.W. Winkleman, 1974. Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Techniques. 2nd Edn., Harper and Row, USA

17:  Sturkie, P.D., 1976. Avian Physiology. 3rd Edn., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, ISBN-13: 978-3-642-96274-5, Pages: 400
Direct Link  |  

18:  WHO., 1980. Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, Pages: 360

19:  Dacie, J.V. and S.M. Lewis, 1991. Practical Hematology. 7th Edn., Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, England, pp: 37-85

20:  Synbiotic® Corporation, 2005. Newcastle disease virus antibody test kit. Proflock R. Plus, Item No. 96-95 33, Frontera, San Diego, CA., USA.

21:  Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  SAS., 2012. SAS/STAT users guide for personal computer; Release 6-12. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC., USA.

23:  Hassan, H.M.M., 2011. Chemical composition and nutritional value of palm pollen grains. Global J. Biotechnol. Biochem., 6: 1-7.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Elberry, A.A., S.T. Mufti, J.A. Al-Maghrabi, E.A. Abdel-Sattar, O.M. Ashour, S.A. Ghareib and H.A. Mosli, 2011. Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (Phoenix dactylifera) on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats. J. Inflammation, Vol. 8.
CrossRef  |  

25:  Cushnie, T.P.T. and A.J. Lamb, 2005. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 26: 343-356.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

26:  Chebil, L., C. Humeau, A. Falcimaigne, J.M. Engasser and M. Ghoul, 2006. Enzymatic acylation of flavonoids. Process Biochem., 41: 2237-2251.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Cook, N.C. and S. Samman, 1996. Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J. Nutr. Biochem., 7: 66-76.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Scanes, C.G., 1986. Pituitary Gland in Avian Physiology. 4th Edn., Springer-Verlag, New York

29:  Al-Shagrawi, R.A., 1998. Enzyme activities, lipid fractions and fatty acid composition in male rats fed palm pollen grains (Phoenix dactylifera). Res. Bull., 79: 5-18.

30:  El-Wafa, S.A., A.A. Sedki and A.M. Ismail, 2002. Response of growing rabbits to diets containing black seed, garlic or onion as natural feed additives. Egypt. J. Rabbit Sci., 12: 69-83.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved