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Research Article
 

Influence of Dietary Methionine, Folic Acid and Cyanocobalamin and Their Interactions on the Performance of Broiler Breeder



O.M. El-Husseiny, A.Z.M. Soliman and H.M.R. Elsherif
 
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ABSTRACT

Objective: The experiment was conducted to examine the response of the local broiler female line (Cairo B-2), a new strain of the native Egyptian breed White Baladi chicken females which crossed with Arbor Acres grandparent female line males, to certain dietary nutrients including methionine (Meth), folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12. Methodology: The experiment was designed in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement from 53-64 weeks of age. Seventy two females and twenty four males were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 9 hens and 3 roosters in 3 replicates each. The birds were housed individually and artificially inseminated with pooled semen every 4 weeks. Results: The results indicated that feeding diet containing 0.25% Meth, 13.0 mg kg–1 FA and 0.15 mg kg–1 B12 showed the best egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, hatchability and 1 day old chick weight followed by the diet containing 0.25% Meth, 13.0 mg kg–1 FA and 0.03 mg kg–1 vitamin B12. Neither egg quality parameters nor blood parameters were significantly affected by either levels of Meth, FA or B12 or their interactions, except for Haugh units and hemoglobin (p<0.05). The high level of FA improved Haugh units, while the high level of Meth improved hemoglobin. Conclusion: The best productive and reproductive performance were obtained when Cairo B-2 broiler breeders were fed the diet containing 0.25% Meth, 13.0 mg kg–1 FA and either 0.03 or 0.15 mg kg–1 vitamin B12.

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O.M. El-Husseiny, A.Z.M. Soliman and H.M.R. Elsherif, 2018. Influence of Dietary Methionine, Folic Acid and Cyanocobalamin and Their Interactions on the Performance of Broiler Breeder. International Journal of Poultry Science, 17: 189-196.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2018.189.196

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2018.189.196
 
Received: March 03, 2018; Accepted: April 05, 2018; Published: May 04, 2018


Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

The local broiler female line (Cairo B-2) is a new strain of the native Egyptian breed White Baladi chicken females which crossed with Arbor Acres grandparent female line males1. This strain had been started at 2003 with continuous selected generation for the high weight at 6 weeks of the progeny and now is reach to the 11th generation. Nassar et al.1 started a selection improvement program at the Poultry Farm, Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, to develop the Cairo B-2 line as a local broiler female line. The phenotypic selection of this line was based on the individual’s 6 weeks body weight. Male and female broilers with the highest body weight were selected as parents of the next generation. Production of fertile eggs and obtain the highest hatchability are considered the main target for efficient and profitable chicken breeding. Furthermore, the production of fertile eggs and hatched chicks are affected by both parents and the environment2. Several micronutrients had inter-relationships and may affect the productive and reproductive performance of hens, especially during the last period of production3. Hence, the nutrient requirements for this strain should be investigated. This is the first try to investigate the effect of some nutrient on performance of Cairo B-2 broiler breeders. Homocysteine may be converted back to Meth after addition of a methyl group by folate-vitamin B12-dependent Meth synthase4. Therefore, the experiment was designed to study the effect of different levels of Meth, FA or cyanocobalamin (B12) and their interactions on productive and reproductive performance of Cairo B-2 broiler breeders from 53-64 weeks of age.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experimental work of the present study was carried out at the Poultry Farm, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, from February-June, 2012. The chemical analysis was conducted at the laboratories of Animal Nutrition Branch, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. The effect of methionine (Meth), folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 and their interactions on productive and reproductive performance of the local broiler female line (Cairo B-2) were examined and studied. The experiment was designed in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement from 53-64 weeks of age. The nutrients, after supplementation to the female diet, were Meth (0.25 and 0.35%), FA (2.6 and 13.0 mg kg–1) and B12 (0.03 and 0.15 mg kg–1). The supplemented levels to the female and male control diets were: Meth (0.0 and 0.1%), FA (0.0 and 10.4 mg kg–1) and B12 (0.008 and 0.128 mg kg–1) (Table 1).

Table 1:
Composition and calculated analysis of the basal diets#
#Chemical compositions of feedstuffs were calculated according to NIH29. 1,2Each 1 kg diet contains vitamin A 11000 IU, vitamin D3 3500 IU, vitamin E 100 mg, vitamin K3 4.4 mg, vitamin B1 6.6 mg, vitamin B2 12 mg, vitamin B6 4.4 mg, Vitamin B12 0.022 mg, pantothenic acid 15.5 mg, nicotinic acid 50 mg, folic acid 2 mg, Biotin 0.22 mg, choline chloride 2.422 g, manganese 120 mg, zinc 110 mg, iron 44 mg, copper 9 mg, iodine 1.2 mg, selenium 0.4 mg and cobalt 0.30 mg

Seventy two females and twenty four males were randomly divided into 8 groups of 9 hens and 3 roosters, in 3 replicates each. The female control diet contained 0.25% Meth, 2.6 mg kg–1 FA and 0.03 mg kg–1 B12. The experimental diets were formulated according to El-Husseiny et al.3 to be isocaloric, being 2800 or 2700 kcal kg–1 metabolizable energy (ME) and isonitrogenous, being 15 or 13% crude protein (CP) for female or male, respectively. Hens were individually housed in 2-deck batteries of clean wire-mesh cages, with cage dimensions of 25×45 cm in open system house. Feed (in mash form) were offered in a constant amount (125 g/hen/day and 130 g/rooster/day). Water was freely offered throughout the experimental period (20 weeks), under a total of 16 h light per day regimen.

Measurements: Hen day egg production (HD) percentage was calculated every 4 weeks intervals during the experimental period (20 weeks). Eggs were collected and weighed every 4 weeks during the experimental periods. Records of egg production (EP) and egg weight (EW) were used to calculate egg mass (EM) (g/hen/day), EM and feed intake (FI) were used to calculate the amount of feed (kg) which was required to produce 1 kg of eggs per hen or to calculate feed conversion ratio (FCR)5 during specific period. Shell thickness was determined using a dial pipe gauge. Haugh units (HU) were calculated based on the height of albumen determined by a micrometer and EW according to Eisen et al.6:

Dry shell weighed was measured to the nearest 0.10 g:

Egg content weight was calculated by the difference between EW and egg shell weight:

Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) titers against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were determined according to Van der Zipp et al.7. Blood hemoglobin was measured according to Henry et al.8. Reproductive performance including fertility, hatchability and 1 day old chick’s weight were calculated. Economic efficiency (EE) of either egg or chicks production were calculated from the input-output analysis which was calculated according to the price of the experimental diets, either egg or chick produced during the entire experimental period. The values of economical efficiency were calculated as the net revenue per unit of feed cost. Prices of the supplements (Meth, FA and B12) were taken into consideration. The data pooled through the experiment were proceeding by General Linear Model procedures (GLM) described in SAS User’s Guide9. The significant mean differences among treatments means were separated by Duncan's multiple range-test10.

RESULTS

Productive performance of breeder hens: Table 2 summarizes the effect of experimental treatments on egg production % (HD), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM) and FCR. No significant differences between either levels of methionine (Meth) or B12 regarding all productive performance were observed. However, the higher level of folic acid (FA) (13.0 mg kg–1) was improved (p<0.05) HD, EM and FCR.

Table 2: Effect of experimental treatments on productive performance1
a-cMeans in same column, within each factor with different superscripts are significantly (p<0.05) different.1 FCR: Feed conversion ratio and the daily amount of feed consumed was 125 g/hen.2 T1 treatment considered as control

Table 3: Effect of experimental treatments on egg quality
a-bMeans in same column, within each factor with different superscripts are significantly (p<0.05) different.1T1 considered as control

The diet contained the low level of Meth and the higher level of level of FA or B12, (T4: 0.25%+13.0 mg kg–1+0.15 mg kg–1) showed the best figures of productive performance compared to the control and other treatments.

Egg quality: The effects of experimental treatments on some either egg quality measurements or blood parameters of the hens are presented in Table 3. Neither egg quality parameters nor blood parameters were significantly affected by either levels of Meth, FA or B12 or their interactions, except for Haugh units and hemoglobin (p<0.05). The high level of FA improved the first, while the high level of Meth improved the later.

Reproductive performance: Effect of experimental treatments on reproductive performance is presented in Table 4. Meth levels had no significant effect on 1 day old chick weight, while low level recorded better (p<0.05) fertility (%) and hatchability (%) values compared to the higher level. The higher level of FA improved the hatchability (%), while fertility (%) and 1 day old chick weight was not significantly affected by FA level. The levels of B12 had no significant effect on fertility (%) and hatchability (%) values. The higher level increased 1 day old chick weight. Relative economic efficiency values were better when the low level of both Meth and B12 were used, while the higher level of FA recorded higher value of relative economic efficiency. The diet that contained the low level of Meth and the higher level of FA and B12, (T4: 0.25% +13.0 mg kg–1+0.15 mg kg–1) resulted in highest (p<0.05) 1 day old chick weight value, followed by T2 which contained the low level of both Meth and FA in addition to the higher value of B12 (0.25%+2.6 mg kg–1+ 0.15 mg kg–1) compared to the control. Relative economic efficiency values showed that the diet containing the low levels Meth in addition to the high levels of both FA and B12 (T4) showed the highest values followed by T3 (0.25% +13.0 mg kg–1+0.03 mg kg–1).

DISCUSSION

The lack of information and research about amino acids and the other nutrient requirements for Egyptian local developed strains enforced the need for more efforts to investigate this issue8. As the first-limiting amino acid in poultry diets, Meth affects poultry production parameters such as body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality11.

Table 4: Effect of experimental treatments on reproductive performance and blood parameters1
a-cMeans in same column, within each factor with different superscripts are significantly (p<0.05) different.1HT: Heamagglutination Inhibition titers against Newcastle Disease Virus and Hg: Hemoglobin content. 2T1 considered as control

The previous results of productive performance attributed mainly to egg production and egg mass values because the feed intake was constant. Only FA levels had significant effect on egg mass and consequently each of feed conversion ratios. Low Meth level is satisfied to get the best productive performance of hens. For laying ducks, 0.260 and 0.410% Meth was sufficient for egg production and egg weight, respectively12, while in duck breeders, 0.425% Meth met their needs for egg weight, egg mass, FCR, hatchability and 1 day duckling weight13. In Iranian commercial breeders, increasing Meth concentration than 0.20% affected negatively egg production, egg weight, egg mass and FCR without affecting the hatchability14. The results are in agreement with Bunchasak and Kachana15, who reported that birds fed diet supplemented with 4 mg kg–1 of FA were the most efficient in converting feed into eggs. El-Husseiny et al.16 observed that feeding diets supplemented with 0.01-0.02 ppm of vitamin B12 did not have any significant effect on egg production. Kato et al.17 found that there was no effect on feed conversion due to B12 supplementation. Bateman et al.18 reported that FCR was improved by supplemental Meth. On the other hand, Bunchasak and Kachana15 showed the effect of feeding different levels of either FA or B12 on the laying performance and egg lipid composition. The study suggests that levels of either folate (0.31-10.31 mg kg–1 diet) or B12 (0, 0.01 and 0.08 ppm) in a diet based on corn and soybeans did not affect egg production of older laying hens (64-72 weeks of age). Hebert et al.19 reported no significant differences in FCR due to FA supplementation. In the same line, it was revealed that dietary FA supplementation levels had no significant effect on EP and FCR20,21. Kato et al.17 found no effect on FCR due to B12 supplementation. Keshavarz20 reported that egg production was not reduced by FA and vitamin B12 deficiencies along with the feed intake were not significantly affected.

Supplemented diet with different levels of Meth, FA and B12 had no significant effects on different egg quality traits of the local broiler female line (Cairo B-2). These results indicated no additional effect on different egg quality parameters with increasing levels of Meth, FA and B12. This agreed with the finding of Amaefule et al.22, who reported that the supplementation of diets with Meth did not significantly influence external and internal egg quality characteristics of the layer hens. Abdalla et al.23 reported that increasing dietary Meth levels had non-significant effect on yolk, albumen and shell percentage. Jordan et al.24 observed no significant effect of different levels of Meth+cysteine in the diet on the percentage of yolk and albumen of eggs from laying hens from 20-44 weeks of age. Gomes et al.25 noticed that different levels of Meth+cysteine had no effect on the percentage of yolk and albumen and a linear increase for the average percentage of shell. Abdalla et al.23 concluded that diet supplemented with different levels of Meth had non-significant effects on different egg quality traits of Gimmizah hen. Moreover, El-Husseiny et al.16 reported that the egg quality parameters of Bovan hens represented by egg shell thickness, egg shell percentage, egg contents percentage, yolk and albumen (%), Haugh units and yolk index did not show any significant difference with either FA supplementation of corn soy based diet (at 6, 9 and 12 ppm) or vitamin B12 (0.01-0.02 ppm). Khalifah and Shahein21 concluded that increasing the diet with FA up to 32 mg kg–1 had significant (p>0.01) affect on egg shape index, egg shell thickness and yolk percentages. Whereas, albumen height, yolk index, shell and albumen percentages had not been affected significantly by dietary FA supplementation. Similar results for egg shell thickness, percent egg content and Haugh units were observed by Hebert et al.26 with 4 ppm of folate supplementation in a barley based diet. While, Balnave27 reported that decreased Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) titers against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) go parallel with increasing dietary Meth concentration. Moreover, El-Husseiny et al.16 observed no significant effect of Meth and FA levels on HI titers against NDV, while a significant difference (p<0.05) in HI titers against NDV due to B12 supplementation and significant effects (p<0.05) of Meth, FA and B12 levels were detected on blood hemoglobin.

Balanced supply of nutrients required for normal development of the embryo23, this conclusion supported that normal embryonic growth and development depends on a complete supply of all required nutrients within the egg. The consequences to the embryo may be lethal if the egg contains inadequate, excessive or imbalanced levels of nutrients. The results of the reproductive performance herein concluded that the low level of Meth and B12 is satisfied, while the high FA level gave the highest hatchability (%) compared with low level. Supplementing Gimmizah layer hen diets with different levels of Meth had insignificant effect on all reproductive performances traits23. Abdalla et al.23 observed the highest Gimmizah baby chicks at hatching weight for the birds fed 0.451 and 0.489% Meth, without significant differences with those fed 0.380% Meth. Lien et al.28 concluded that chick yields increased as dietary 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) supplementations were increased from 0-1 kg t–1. Phospholipids are essential lipids for physiological and biochemical processes and FA supplementation increased levels of phospholipids, may be physiologically beneficial to laying hens16. Folate helps to produce and maintain new cells29. Folate is most important during rapid cell division during pregnancy26. Folate prevents damage to DNA29. Moreover, Hebert et al.26 reported egg FA content is maximized when crystalline FA is supplemented to the diet at 2 mg kg–1 or higher. Khalifah and Shahein21 concluded that dietary FA levels had no significant effect on fertility (%) and hatchability (%) and noticed that significant weight of baby hatched chicks had been produced with the dose of 32 mg kg–1 FA diet, while the other used levels had numerical increase of chick body weight. Squires and Naber30 reported that as vitamin B12 level increased, hatchability (%) increased and maximum hatchability was obtained when the diet contained 8.0 μg kg–1 of vitamin B12. The results indicated that Cairo B-2 hens fed basal diet supplemented with Meth, FA and B12 levels affected the values of relative economic efficiency. This result agrees with the observation of Al-Saffar and Rose31, who reported that the levels and balance of amino acids in the diets are all important nutritional variables that affect the economic efficiency of an egg laying enterprise. Abdalla et al.23 concluded that the highest economic efficiency (EE) and relative economic efficiency (REE) were recorded for layers hen fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.380% (low level) Meth compared to all other treatments levels. El-Husseiny et al.16 concluded that interaction between low Meth level, FA level up to 12 mg kg–1 and B12 level up to 0.02 mg kg–1 gave a slight increase in REE in most treatments than diets including 0.45% Meth and generally recommended that the economic study was affected by different Meth, FA and B12 level.

CONCLUSION

Based on obtained results, it is concluded that the diet containing the low level of Meth and the higher level of FA and B12, (T4: 0.25%+13.0 mg kg–1+0.15 mg kg–1) to be used to get the best productive and reproductive performance and the economic efficiency.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study discovers the possible influence of Meth, FA and B12 combination that can be beneficial for productive and reproductive performance of Cairo B-2 broiler breeders. This study will help the researchers and producers to fulfill the genetic potential of Cairo B-2 broiler breeders. Thus, a new theory on these nutrients combination and possibly other combinations, may be arrived at.

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