Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Histological Response of Broiler’s Immune Related Organs to Feeding Different Direct Fed Microbials



Nafisa A. Abd El-Azeem, Eman F. El-Daly, H.M.A. Hassan, Amani W. Youssef and M.A. Mohamed
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding different commercial preparations of direct-fed microbials (DFM) used as growth promoters on weight and histology of immune related organs (bursa, thymus and spleen) in broilers. Two hundred unsexed 10 days old Cobb broiler chicks were individually weighed and divided into 4 groups (5 replicates of 10 chicks, each) and fed 4 different experimental diets. A mixture of Enterococcus faecium (Protexin®, DFM1), a mixture of Bacillus subtilis (Clostat®, DFM2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with its fermentation metabolites (Diamond®, DFM3) were supplemented to broiler diets and compared with the basal diet which served as control. Bursa, thymus and spleen were taken from birds at 36 days of age. The results showed significant (P<0.01) increase in spleen and bursa weight (relative to live body weight) in birds fed DFM supplemented diets compared with those fed the control diet of no supplement. Addition of DFM enhanced the activity of bursal follicles and may improve the bursa activity and caused improvement in thymus and spleen structure compared with the control. In conclusion, DFM supplemental levels have stimulated some histological change in the immune related organs which may result in improvement of chick immunity.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Nafisa A. Abd El-Azeem, Eman F. El-Daly, H.M.A. Hassan, Amani W. Youssef and M.A. Mohamed, 2015. Histological Response of Broiler’s Immune Related Organs to Feeding Different Direct Fed Microbials. International Journal of Poultry Science, 14: 331-337.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2015.331.337

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2015.331.337

REFERENCES

1:  Alkhalf, A., M. Alhaj and I. Al-Homidan, 2010. Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens. Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 17: 219-225.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Awad, W.A., K. Ghareeb, S. Abdel-Raheem and J. Bohm, 2009. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 88: 49-56.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Bai, A.P., Q. Ouyang, W. Zhang, C.H. Wang and S.F. Li, 2004. Probiotics inhibit TNF-a-induced interlukin-8 secretion of HT29 cells. World J. Gastroentrol., 10: 455-457.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Boushra, M.H., M.M. El-Hamamy, A.A. Dessouki and R.T. Hassan, 2011. Pathological study on the effect of probiotic in chickens infected with E. coli. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J., 16: 177-193.

5:  Dalloul, R.A., H.S. Lillehoj, T.A. Shellem and J.A. Doerr, 2003. Enhanced mucosal immunity against Eimeria acervulina in broilers fed a Lactobacillus-based probiotic. Poult. Sci., 82: 62-66.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  El-Sheikh, A.M.H., E.A. Abdalla and M.H. Maysa, 2009. Study on productive performance, hematological and immunological parameters in a local strain of chicken as affected by mannanoligosaccharide under hot climate conditions. Egypt Poult. Sci., 29: 287-305.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Haghighi, H.R., J. Gong, C.L. Gyles, M.A. Hayes and H. Zhou et al., 2005. Modulation of antibody-mediated immune response by probiotics in chickens. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 12: 1387-1392.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Hassan, H.M.A., A.W. Youssef, E.F. El-Daly, N.A. Abd El-Azeem and E.R. Hassan et al., 2014. Performance, caecum bacterial count and ileum histology of broilers fed different direct-fed microbials. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 8: 106-114.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Heckert, R.A., I. Estevez, E. Russek-Cohen and R. Pettit-Riley, 2002. Effects of density and perch availability on the immune status of broilers. Poult. Sci., 81: 451-457.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Hodges, R.D., 1974. The Histology of the Fowl. 1st Edn., Academic Press, New York, ISBN: 0123513502, Pages: 648

12:  Hu, Z. and Y. Guo, 2007. Effects of dietary sodium butyrate supplementation on the intestinal morphological structure, absorptive function and gut flora in chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 132: 240-249.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Ahmad, I., 2006. Effect of probiotics on broilers performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 593-597.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Katanbaf, M.N., E.A. Dunnington and P.B. Siegel, 1989. Restricted feeding in early and late-feathering chickens. 1. Growth and physiological responses. Poult. Sci., 68: 344-351.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Tarek, K., M. Mohamed, B. Omar and B. Hassina, 2012. Morpho-histological study of the thymus of broiler chickens during post-hashing age. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 11: 78-80.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Landy, N. and A. Kavyani, 2013. Effects of using a multi-strain probiotic on performance, immune responses and cecal microflora composition in broiler chickens reared under cyclic heat stress condition. Iran. J. Applied Anim. Sci., 3: 703-708.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Leblanc, J., I. Fliss and C. Matar, 2004. Induction of a humoral immune response following an Escherichia coli, O157:H7 Infection with an immunomodulatory peptidic fraction derived from Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk. Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 11: 1171-1181.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Martins, F.S., R.M. Nardi, R.M. Arantes, C.A. Rosa, M.J. Neves and J.R. Nicoli, 2005. Screening of yeasts as probiotic based on capacities to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and to protect against enteropathogen challenge in mice. J. Gen. Applied Microbiol., 51: 83-92.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Mroz, Z., S.J. Koopmans, A. Bannink, K. Partanen, W. Krasucki, M. Overland and S. Radcliffe, 2006. Carboxylic Acids as Bioregulators and Gut growth Promoters in Nonruminants. In: Biology of Nutrition in Growing Animals, Mosenthin, R., J. Zentek and T. Zebrowska (Eds.). Elsevier, London, UK., ISBN-13: 9780444512321, pp: 81-133

20:  NRC., 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780309048927, Pages: 155
Direct Link  |  

21:  Pelicano, E.R.L., P.A. Souza, H.B.A. Souza, A. Oba, E.A. Norkus, L.M. Kodawara and T.M.A. Lima, 2004. Performance of broilers fed diets containing natural growth promoters. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic., 6: 231-236.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  SAS., 1990. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Statistics. 4th Edn., Vol. 6, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC

23:  Teo, A.Y. and H.M. Tan, 2007. Evaluation of the performance and intestinal gut microflora of broilers fed on corn-soy diets supplemented with Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT). J. Applied Poult. Res., 16: 296-303.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Tollba, A.A.H., 2010. Reduction of broilers intestinal pathogenic micro-flora under normal or stressed condition. Egypt. Poult. Sci. J., 30: 249-270.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Willis, W.L., O.S. Isikhuemhen and S.A. Ibrahim, 2007. Performance assessment of broiler chickens given mushroom extract alone or in combination with probiotics. Poult. Sci., 86: 1856-1860.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

26:  Xu, Z.R., C.H. Hu, M.S. Xia, X.A. Zhan and M.Q. Wang, 2003. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers. Poult. Sci., 82: 1030-1036.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Yakhkeshi, S., S. Rahimi and N.K. Gharib, 2011. The effects of comparison of herbal extracts, antibiotic, probiotic and organic acid on serum lipids, immune response, GIT microbial population, intestinal morphology and performance of broilers. J. Med. Plants, 10: 80-95.

28:  Zhang, Z.F., J.H. Cho and I.H. Kim, 2013. Effects of Bacillus subtilis UBT-MO2 on growth performance, relative immune organ weight, gas concentration in excreta and intestinal microbial shedding in broiler chickens. Livestock Sci., 155: 343-347.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

29:  Zhang, Z.F., T.X. Zhou, X. Ao and I.H. Kim, 2012. Effects of β-glucan and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, blood profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality in broilers fed maize-soybean meal based diets. Livest. Sci., 150: 419-424.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved