Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

A Nutritional Approach to the Use of Anticoccidial Vaccines in Broilers: Glutamine Utilization in Critical Stages of Immunity Acquisition



F.J. Mussini, S.D. Goodgame, C. Lu, C.D. Bradley, S.M. Fiscus and P.W. Waldroup
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The utilization of vaccines has proven to be a good strategy to prevent coccidiosis but the process of immunity acquisition needs to be approached from a nutritional point of view as well if complete success in broiler performance is to be achieved. It has been reported that Glutamine (GLU) plays a key role both in the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system and its utilization could be beneficial to cocci-vaccinated broilers. In this study, twelve hundred one-day-old male chicks were vaccinated at a commercial hatchery with a coccidiosis vaccine and randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had six replications with 50 birds per pen. Birds were maintained in pens with built up wood shavings litter. Each treatment consisted of the same basal diet that met average nutrient levels in the U.S. poultry industry with four different inclusion rates of GLU (0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Birds were fed the experimental diets from 1 to 28 days of age and a common unsupplemented diet to 42 d. Body weights were significantly improved at 21 and 28 days for all the treatments where the GLU was included. Feed conversion was not significantly affected by the inclusion of GLU. There were no significant differences in body weight and feed conversion at 42 days but the numerical difference in weight between the control and the treatments with GLU observed earlier were maintained. At 43 days, eight birds per pen were processed in a pilot processing plant. Breast meat yield was not significantly different among treatments. Glutamine proved to be beneficial during the process of immunity acquisition improving broiler performance significantly until 28 days and maintaining the body weight difference until the end of the experiment.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

F.J. Mussini, S.D. Goodgame, C. Lu, C.D. Bradley, S.M. Fiscus and P.W. Waldroup, 2012. A Nutritional Approach to the Use of Anticoccidial Vaccines in Broilers: Glutamine Utilization in Critical Stages of Immunity Acquisition. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11: 243-246.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2012.243.246

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2012.243.246

REFERENCES

1:  Ban, K. and R.A. Kozar, 2010. Glutamine protects against apoptosis via down regulation of Sp3 in intestinal epithelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointestinal Liver Physiol., 299: G1344-G1353.
PubMed  |  

2:  Barelee, S.M. and A.B. Batal, 2007. The effect of supplemental glutamine on growth performace, development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune response of broilers. Poult. Sci., 86: 1940-1947.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Calder, P.C. and P. Yaqoob, 1999. Glutamine and the immune system. Amino Acids 17: 227-241.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Da Silva, A.V.F., A. Maiorka, S.A. Borges, E. Santin, I.C. Boleli and M. Macari, 2007. Surface area of the tip of the enterocytes in small intestine mucosa of broilers submitted to early feed restriction and supplemented with glutamine. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 6: 31-35.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Dalloul, R.A. and H.S. Lillehoj, 2005. Recent advances in immunomodulation and vaccination strategies against coccidiosis. Avian Dis., 49: 1-8.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Danforth, H.D., 1998. Use of live oocyst vaccines in the control of avian coccidiosis: Experimental studies and field trials. Int. J. Parasitol., 28: 1099-1109.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

7:  Darmaun, D., D.E. Matthews and D.M. Bier, 1986. Glutamine and glutamate kinetics in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 251: E117-E126.
PubMed  |  

8:  Eliasen, M.M., M. Brabec, C. Gerner, J. Pollheimer and H. Auer et al., 2006. Reduced stress tolerance of glutamine-deprived human monocytic cells is associated with selective down-regulation of Hsp70 by decreased mRNA stability. J. Mol. Med., 84: 147-158.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

9:  FASS., 2010. Guide for Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. 3rd Edn., Federation of Animal Science Societies, Champaign, IL., USA

10:  Fritts, C.A. and P.W. Waldroup, 2006. Modified phosphorus program for broilers based on commercial feeding intervals to sustain live performance and reduce total and water-soluble phosphorus in litter. J. Applied Poult. Res., 15: 207-218.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Giraldo, C. and L.L. Southern, 1988. Role of compensatory gain in Eimeria acervulina induced liver copper accumulation in chicks. J. Nutr., 118: 871-876.
PubMed  |  

12:  Lee, J.T., C. Broussard, S. Fitz-Coy, P. Burke and N.H. Eckert et al., 2009. Evaluation of live oocyst vaccination or salinomycin for control of field-strain Eimeria challenge in broilers on two different feeding programs. J. Applied Poult. Res., 18: 458-464.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Newsholme, P., 2001. Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection? J. Nutr., 131: 2515S-2522S.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Nieto, R. and G.E. Lobley, 1999. Integration of protein metabolism within the whole body and between organs. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Protein metabolism and Nutrition, September 1-4, 1999, EAAP Publication, pp: 69-99

15:  Rhoads, J.M., R.A. Argenzio, W. Chen, R.A. Rippe and J.K. Westwick et al., 1997. L-glutamine stimulates intestinal cell proliferation and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases. Am. J. Physiol., 272: G943-G953.
PubMed  |  

16:  Soltan, M.A., 2009. Influence of dietary glutamine supplementation on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, immune response and some blood parameters of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8: 60-68.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Williams, R.B., 2002. Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: Pathways to success. Avian Pathol., 31: 317-353.

18:  Williams, R. and L. Gobbi, 2002. Comparison of an attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and an anticoccidial drug programme in commercial broiler chickens in Italy. Avian Pathol., 31: 253-265.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

19:  Windmueller, H.G., 1982. Glutamine utilization by the small intestine. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol., 53: 201-237.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved