Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

An Examination of the P Requirements of Broiler Breeders for Performance, Progeny Quality and P Balance 2. Ca Particle Size

R.D. Ekmay and C.N. Coon
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

A 2 x 5 factorial production and balance study with 90 broiler breeders was performed to assess the effects calcium particle size and NPP levels. Cobb 500 broiler breeders, 24 wk of age, were fed 4.68 g Ca intake at peak using 2 particle sizes of dietary calcium carbonate (185.5 microns; 58.8% solubility and 3489.7 microns; 38.5% solubility) and 5 levels of dietary %NPP (0.2% to 0.4% NPP in 0.05% increments; corresponding to a daily intake of 288, 360, 432, 504 and 576 mg at peak intake). Egg production, specific gravity and egg wt were monitored from 24 to 40 wk of age and tibia relative strength at 45 weeks. A retention study was performed at 31 wk of age to determine Ca and P balance. No differences were noted in breeder bone integrity due to NPP intake, though eggs per hen housed and egg shell quality were affected. The breeders fed 288 mg NPP produced the largest number of eggs. The % P retention showed a positive linear response to increasing dietary NPP for breeders fed large particle limestone; but no response in hens fed small particle limestone. The amount of P excreted was increased with P intake but was minimized for hens fed large particle limestone. The amount of Ca excreted was significantly increased with increasing P intake. There was a significant linear increase in excreta Ca and linear decrease in % Ca retention for breeders fed increasing P intake along with small particle calcium but the amount of Ca excreted and % Ca retention was not statistically impacted by particle size. Feeding breeders large particle calcium carbonate increased the egg weight but did not significantly improve shell quality or tibia bone strength. The increased egg weight response for breeders fed large particle calcium carbonate in this short term experiment may have reduced the opportunity for large particle Ca to significantly improve egg shell quality. It can be concluded that particulate Ca sources can improve breeder performance and that dietary levels as low as 0.20% NPP (288 mg/day NPP intake) can be fed without impacting breeder performance; however dietary levels of >0.25%NPP (360 mg/day NPP intake) ensure adequate skeletal integrity.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

R.D. Ekmay and C.N. Coon, 2011. An Examination of the P Requirements of Broiler Breeders for Performance, Progeny Quality and P Balance 2. Ca Particle Size. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 760-765.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2011.760.765



1:  Boling, S.D., M.W. Douglas, R.B. Shirley, C.M. Parson and K.W. Koelkebeck, 2000. The effect of various dietary levels of phytase and available phosphorus on performance of laying hens. Poult. Sci., 79: 535-538.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Chandramoni, S., B. Jadhao and R.P. Sinha, 1998. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations on retention of these nutrients by caged layers. Br. Poult. Sci., 39: 544-548.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Cheng, T.K. and C.N. Coon, 1990. Effect of calcium source, particle size, limestone solubility in vitro and calcium intake level on layer bone status and performance. Poult. Sci., 69: 2214-2219.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Ceylan, N., S.E. Scheideler and H.L. Stillborn, 2003. High available phosphorus corn and phytase in layer diets. Poult. Sci., 82: 789-795.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Keshavarz, K., 2000. Nonphytate phosphorus requirement of laying hens with and without phytase on a phase feeding program. Poult. Sci., 79: 748-763.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Cheng, T.K. and C.N. Coon, 1990. Effect on layer performance and shell quality of switching limestones with different solubilities. Poult. Sci., 69: 2199-2203.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Kebreab, E., J. France, R.P. Kwakkel, S. Leeson, H.D. Kuhi and J. Dijkstra, 2009. Development and evaluation of a dynamic model of calcium and phosphorus flows in layers. Poult. Sci., 88: 680-689.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Ekmay, R.D. and C.N. Coon, 2010. An examination of the p requirements of broiler breeders for performance, progeny quality and p balance 1. Non-phytate phosphorus. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 1043-1049.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Ekmay, R.D. and C.N. Coon, 2010. The effect of limestone particle size on the performance of three broiler breeder purelines. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 1038-1042.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Korengay, E.T., D.M. Denbow, Z. Yi and V. Ravindran, 1996. Response of broilers to graded levels of microbial phytase added to maize-soybean meal-based diets containing three levels of non-phytate phosphorus. Br. J. Nutr., 75: 839-852.
CrossRef  |  

11:  Leske, K.L. and C.N. Coon, 1999. A bioassay to determine the effect of phytase on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis and total phosphorus retention of feed ingredients as determined with broilers and laying hens. Poult. Sci., 78: 1151-1157.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Guinotte, F. and Y. Nys, 1990. The effects of a particulate calcium source in broiler breeder hens upon their egg quality, reproductive traits, bone reserves, chick weight and tibia strength characteristics. Arch. Geflugelk., 55: 170-175.

13:  Miles, R.D., R.B. Christmas and R.H. Harms, 1982. Dietary and plasma phosphorus in hens with fatty liver syndrome. Poult. Sci., 61: 2512-2516.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Plumstead, P.W., H. Romero-Sanchez, R.O. Maguire, A.G. Gernat and J. Brake, 2007. Effects of phosphorus level and phytase in broiler breeder rearing and laying diets on live performance and phosphorus excretion. Poult. Sci., 86: 225-231.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Roland, D.A. Sr., 1986. Eggshell quality IV. Oyster shell versus limestone and the importance of particle size or solubility of calcium source. Worlds Poult. Sci., 42: 166-171.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Scheideler, S.E. and J.C. Sell, 1987. Utilization of phytate P in laying hens as influenced by dietary phosphorus and calcium. Nutr. Rep. Int., 35: 1073-1081.

17:  Sibbald, I.R. and R.M. Hamilton, 1977. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and strain of bird on the apparent metabolizable energy content of a laying hen diet. Poult. Sci., 56: 378-380.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Viveros, A., A. Brenes, I. Arija and C. Centeno, 2002. Effects of microbial phytase supplementation on mineral utilization and serum enzyme activities in broiler chicks fed different levels of phosphorus. Poult. Sci., 81: 1172-1183.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

19:  Zhang, B.F. and C.N. Coon, 1997. The relationship of calcium intake, source, size, solubility in vitro and in vivo and gizzard limestone retention in laying hens. Poult. Sci., 76: 1702-1706.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved