Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Comparison of the Virulence of Pathogenic Newcastle Disease Viruses Belonging to the Same or Different Genotypes



Ruben Merino, Hilda Villegas, Jose A. Quintana and Norma Calderon
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Virulent Newcastle disease has threatened the Mexican poultry industry since 1946. Two Mexican virulent strains belonging to the Chimalhuacan (Quail2006) and Torreon (Chicken2000) lineages of genetic group V, as well as the ancient Mexican strain named Queretaro and a Beaudette C-like US strain (genotype II) were tested by pathogenesis analysis in commercial 5 weeks old broiler chickens, comparing the lesions severity on primary and secondary lymphoid organs after 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h postinoculation (hpi). Organ samples were analyzed by light and electron microscope and by virus isolation. The Quail2006 isolate caused more severe clinical signs and microscopic lesions (p<0.05) in bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and bone marrow of 5 weeks old broiler chickens. Ultra-structural changes were seen as early as 24 hpi and the highest lesion score in different organs was reached between 72 and 96 hpi in some cases. Ultra-structural observation and virus isolation confirmed the virus presence in all evaluated organs. Quail2006 strain was more virulent than Chicken2000, tough they belong to the same genotype and is also more virulent than Queretaro and Beaudette C-like strains (genotype II). The virus effect on lymphoid organs enhances its importance in countries where vaccinated commercial poultry is protected against the death, but not against infection or virus replication in lymphoid organs, which can lead to reduced productivity and susceptibility to other infections. Full characterization of NDV should include virulence tests in susceptible animals, besides the standard indices and sequence analysis.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Ruben Merino, Hilda Villegas, Jose A. Quintana and Norma Calderon, 2011. Comparison of the Virulence of Pathogenic Newcastle Disease Viruses Belonging to the Same or Different Genotypes. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 713-720.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2011.713.720

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2011.713.720

REFERENCES
1:  Alexander, D.J. and D.A., Senne, 2008. Newcastle Disease Virus and Other Paramyxoviruses. In: A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Avian Pathogens. Dufour-Zavala, L., Swayne, D.E., J.R. Glisson, J.E. Pearson, W.M. Reed, M.W. Jackwood and P.R. Woolcock, (Eds.). The American Association of Avian Pathologists, Athens, Greece, pp: 135-141.

2:  Alexander, D.J. and D.A. Senne, 2008. Newcastle Disease, Other Avian Paramyxoviruses and Pneumovirus Infections. In: Diseases of Poultry, Saif, Y.M., A.M. Fadly, J.R. Glisson, L.R. McDougald, L.K. Nolan and D.E. Swayne (Eds.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, USA., pp: 75-100.

3:  Beard, C.W. and R.P. Hanson, 1984. Newcastle Disease. In: Diseases of Poultry, Hofstad, M.S., H.J. Barnes, B.W. Calnek, W.M. Reid and H.W. Yoder (Eds.). 8th Edn., Iowa State University Press, Ames, USA., pp: 452-470.

4:  Calderon, N.L., F. Galundo-Muniz, M. Ortiz, B. Lomniczi, T. Fehervari and L.H. Paasch, 2005. Thrombocytopenia in Newcastle disease: Haematological evaluation and histological study of bone marrow. Acta Vet. Hung., 53: 507-513.
PubMed  |  

5:  Cantin, C., J. Holguera, L. Ferreira, E. Villar and B.I. Munoz, 2007. Newcastle disease virus may enter cells by caveolae-mediated endocytosis. J. Gen. Virol., 88: 559-569.
PubMed  |  

6:  Ezema, W.S., J.O. Okoye and J.A. Nwanta, 2009. LaSota vaccination may not protect against the lesions of velogenic Newcastle disease in chickens. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41: 477-484.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Galindo-Muniz, F., N.L. Calderon, M.N. Charles, I.G. Tellez and T.I. Fortoul, 2001. Haematological and histological findings in experimental newcastle disease. Acta Vet. Brno., 70: 185-189.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Glickman, R.L., R.J. Syddall, R.M. Iorio, J.P. Sheehan and M.A. Bratt, 1988. Quantitative basic residue requirements in the cleavage-activation site of the fusion glycoprotein as a determinant of virulence for Newcastle disease virus. J. Virol., 62: 354-356.
Direct Link  |  

9:  Hamid, H., R.S.F. Campbell and L. Parede, 1991. Studies of the pathology of velogenic Newcastle disease: Virus infection in non-immune and immune birds. Avian Pathol., 20: 561-575.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Henry, C.W., R.N. Brewer, S.A. Edgar and B.W. Gray, 1980. Studies on infectious bursal disease in chickens. 2. Scoring microscopic lesions in the bursa of fabricius, thymus, spleen and kidney in gnotobiotic and battery reared White Leghorns experimentally infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Poult. Sci., 59: 1006-1017.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Kaleta, E.F. and C. Baldauf, 1988. Newcastle Disease in Free-Living and Pets Birds. In: Newcastle Disease, Alexander, D.J. (Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA., USA., pp: 197-246.

12:  Kant, A., G. Koch, D. Van Roozelaar, F. Balk and A.T. Huurne, 1997. Differentiation of virulent and non-virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus within 24 h by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol., 26: 837-849.
PubMed  |  

13:  Lam, K.M., A.C. Vasconcelos and A.A. Bickford, 1995. Apoptosis as a cause of death in chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease virus. Microb. Pathog., 19: 169-174.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Lam, K.M., 1996. Growth of Newcastle disease virus in chicken macrophages. J. Comp. Pathol., 115: 253-263.
PubMed  |  

15:  Liang, R., D.J. Cao, J.Q. Li, J. Chen, X. Guo, F.F. Zhuang and M.X. Duan, 2002. Newcastle disease outbreaks in western China were caused by the genotypes VIIa and VIII. Vet. Microbiol., 87: 193-203.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Mayo, M.A., 2002. A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV. Arch. Virol., 147: 1655-1663.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Merino, R., H. Villegas, J.A. Quintana and N. Calderon, 2009. Characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chicken, gamefowl, pigeon and quail in Mexico. Vet. Res. Commun., 33: 1023-1030.
PubMed  |  

18:  Nagai, Y., H.D. Klenk and R. Rott, 1976. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoproteins and its significance for the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. Virology, 72: 494-508.
PubMed  |  

19:  Nagai, Y. and H.D. Klenk, 1977. Activation of precursors to both glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus by proteolytic cleavage. Virology, 77: 125-134.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Nagai, Y., 1995. Virus activation by host proteinases. A pivotal role in the spread of infection, tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Microbiol. Immunol., 39: 1-9.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Nakamura, K., N. Ohtsu, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamamoto, M. Yamada, M. Mase and K. Imai, 2008. Pathologic and immunohistochemical studies of Newcastle Disease (ND) in broiler chickens vaccinated with ND: Severe nonpurulent encephalitis and necrotizing pancreatitis. Vet. Pathol., 45: 928-933.
PubMed  |  

22:  Okoye, J.O.A., A.O. Agu, C.N. Chineme and G.O.N. Echeonwu, 2000. Pathological characterization in chickens of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from guinea fowl. Rev. Elevage Med. Vet. Pays. Trop., 53: 325-330.

23:  Ojok, L. and C. Brown, 1996. An immunohistochemical study of the pathogenesis of virulent viscerotropic Newcastle disease in chickens. J. Comp. Pathol., 115: 221-227.
PubMed  |  

24:  Pedersen, J.C., D.A. Senne, P.R. Woolcock, H. Kinde and D.J. King et al., 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California and other recent outbreaks in North America. J. Clin. Microbiol., 42: 2329-2334.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Perozo, F., R. Merino, C.L. Afonso, P. Villegas and N. Calderon, 2008. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of virulent newcastle disease virus circulating in Mexico. Avian Dis., 52: 472-479.
PubMed  |  

26:  Ravindra, P.V., A.K. Tiwari, B. Ratta, U. Chaturvedi, S.K. Palia and R.S. Chauhan, 2009. Newcastle disease virus-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells is caused due to apoptosis. Virus Res., 141: 13-20.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Ravindra, P.V., A.K. Tiwari, B. Ratta, M.V. Bais and U. Chaturvedi et al., 2009. Time-course induction of Newcastle disease virus-induced extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in infected cells. Virus Res., 144: 350-354.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Seal, B.S., J.M. Crawford, H.S. Sellers, D.P. Locke and D.J. King, 2002. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein gene and phylogenetic relationships among the Paramyxoviridae. Virus Res., 83: 119-129.
PubMed  |  

29:  Sun, Q., D. Wang, R. She, W. Li and S. Liu et al., 2008. Increased mast cell density during the infection with velogenic Newcastle disease virus in chickens. Avian Pathol., 37: 579-585.
PubMed  |  

30:  Susta, L., P.J. Miller, C.L. Afonso and C.C. Brown, 2011. Clinicopathological characterization in poultry of three strains of Newcastle disease virus isolated from recent outbreaks. Vet. Pathol., 48: 349-360.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  Thompson, C.H. and O.L. Osteen, 1952. Immunological and pathological findings on a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus from Mexico. Am. J. Vet. Res., 13: 407-416.
PubMed  |  

32:  Wakamatsu, N., D.J. King, B.S. Seal, S.K. Samal and C.C. Brown, 2006. The pathogenesis of Newcastle disease: A comparison of selected Newcastle disease virus wild-type strains and their infectious clones. Virology, 353: 333-343.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved