Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Determination of Chemical Composition and Ant-nutritive Components for Tanzanian Locally Available Poultry Feed Ingredients

S.K. Mutayoba, E. Dierenfeld, V.A. Mercedes, Y. Frances and C.D. Knight
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Information on nutritive value of locally available feed ingredients is scarce, therefore chemical composition, TAA, ANF and OSI for eleven feed ingredients commonly used in Tanzania were determined. Standard AOAC Official Methods were performed at the US headquarters of Novus International, Inc. The ingredients were cereals/byproducts (BR, RS, WS1, WS2 and MB), leaf meals (MOLM, GLM and LLM) and oil seed meals/by products (SBM, SCM and CSM). Significant differences for CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, TAA and ANF were observed between nutrient groups. Apart from energy most of the chemical components were lower in cereals; CP and TAA were highest in SBM. CSM contained the highest fat content (35.82%) with high oleic (22.63%) and linoleic (50.59%). The observed chemical differences between (BR and MB) were probably due to their differences in physical composition. Low levels (Ca, Na and P) and EAA were noted in all groups emphasizing the need of using synthetic sources during feed formulation. Total phenols and tannins were (7.71-7.26%) and (2.55-1.02%) for GLM and RS, respectively, but negligible in other feed ingredients. Both HCN and OSI were highest in leaf meals but negligible in other feed ingredients. The chemical composition of ingredients obtained in this study was comparable to values reported elsewhere. This means that optimum diets for livestock can be formulated using ingredient values from established tables and other sources. The present results show that feed ingredients of plant origin vary in their chemical composition therefore they complement each other when used in mixtures of animal diets.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

S.K. Mutayoba, E. Dierenfeld, V.A. Mercedes, Y. Frances and C.D. Knight, 2011. Determination of Chemical Composition and Ant-nutritive Components for Tanzanian Locally Available Poultry Feed Ingredients. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 350-357.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2011.350.357



1:  AOAC., 2006. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC. 18th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA

2:  Ayssiwede, S.B., A. Dieng, C. Chrysostome, W. Ossebi, J.L. Hornick and A. Missohou, 2010. Digestibility and metabolic utilization and nutritional value of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) leaves meal incorporated in the diets of indigenous senegal chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 767-776.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Achu, M.B., E. Fokou, C. Tchiegang, M. Fotso and F.M. Tchouanguep, 2005. Nutritive value of some Curcubitae oil seeds from different regions in Cameroon. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4: 1329-1334.

4:  Amata, I.A. and L. Bratte, 2008. The effect of partial replacement of soybean meal with gliricidia leaf meal on the performance and organ weights of weaner rabbits in the tropics. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 3: 169-173.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 200-210
Direct Link  |  

6:  Bernard, J.K., 2010. Using By-Products Feed. The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension. CAES. Publications. B1320.

7:  Broin, M., 2007. The nutritional value of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves: What we can learn from figures. Moringa News Network.

8:  Bryden, W.L., P.H. Selle, D.J. Cadogan, D. Li and N.D. Muller et al., 2009. A review of the nutritive value of sorghum for broilers. RIDRC Puplication No. 09/077, Rural Industry Development Corporation, Kingston, Australia, pp: 1-57.

9:  Chumpawadee, S., A. Chantiratikul and P. Chantiratikul, 2007. Chemical compositions and nutritional evaluation of energy feeds for ruminant using in vitro gas production technique. Pak. J. Nutr., 6: 607-612.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Djakalia, B., B.L. Guichard and D. Soumaila, 2011. Effect of Moringa oleifera on growth performance and health status of young post-weaning rabbits. Res. J. Poult. Sci., 4: 7-13.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Donkoh, A. and V. Attoh-Kotoku, 2009. Nutritive value of feedstuffs for poultry in Ghana: Chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy and ileal amino acid digestibility. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 21.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Doyoe, W., D.B. Parrish and C.W. Deyoe, 1966. Nutritive value of protein in high and low protein content sorghum grain as measured by rat performance and amino acid assays. J. Nutr., 88: 370-374.

13:  Dykes, L., L.W. Rooney, R.D. Waniska and W.L. Rooney, 2005. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of sorghum grain of varying genotypes. J. Agric. Food. Chem., 53: 6813-6816.

14:  Dykes, L. and L.W. Rooney, 2006. Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants. J. Cereal Sci., 44: 236-251.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Ebadi, M.R., J. Pourreza, J. Jamalian, M.A. Edriss, A.H. Samie and S.A. Mirhadi, 2005. Amino acid content and availability in low, medium and high tannin sorghum grain for poultry. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 4: 27-31.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Hamito, D., 2010. Considerations in buying feed for sheep and goat production. Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program (ESGPIP), Pages: 13.

17:  Leisteine, I., M. Buison, V. Lulleien-Pellerin, C. Picq and S. Treche, 2005. Processing of feed ingredients reduces valuable nutrients from grains and other feed ingredients. Food Chem., 100: 1316-1323.

18:  Leeson, S. and J.D. Summers, 2005. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. 3rd Edn., University Books, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, ISBN-13: 9780969560050, Pages: 398

19:  Ter Meulen, U., S. Struck, E. Schulke and E.A. El-Harith, 1979. A review on the nutritive value and toxic aspects of Leucaena leucocephala. Trop. Anim. Prod., 4: 113-126.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Alfawaz, M.A., 2004. Chemical composition and oil characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed kernels. Food Sci. Agric. Res. Bull., 129: 5-18.
Direct Link  |  

21:  Nalwanga, R., D.M. Liti, H. Waidbacker, J. Munguti and W.J. Zollitsch, 2009. Monitoring the nutritional value of feed components for aquaculture along the supply chain-an East African case study. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 21.
Direct Link  |  

22:  NRC., 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780309048927, Pages: 155
Direct Link  |  

23:  Nieves, D., S. Basilia, O. Teran, C. Gonzalez and J. Ly, 2004. A note on the chemical composition and feeding characteristics of diets containing Leucaena leucocephala and Arachis pintoi for growing rabbits. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 16.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Olugbemi, T.S., S.K. Mutayoba and F.P. Lekule, 2010. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusion in cassava chip based diets fed to laying birds. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 22.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Perez-Maldonado, R.A. and H.D. Rodriguez, 2007. Nutritional characteristics of sorghums in Queensland and New South Wales for chicken meat production. RIRDC Publication No. 07. Rural Industry Res. Dev. Corp. Barton, ACT.

26:  Ravindran, G. and V. Ravindran, 1988. Changes in the nutritional composition of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves during maturity. Food Chem., 27: 299-309.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Tiwari, M.R., S. Khanal, Shrestha and R.K. Jha, 2006. Nutritional variation of different feed ingredients and compound feed in different parts of Nepal. Nepal Agric. Res. J., 7: 75-81.

28:  Waldroup, W.P. and K. Smith, 2008. Fact sheet: Soybean use-poultry. Soybean Meal Information Center.

29:  Watson, S.A., 1987. Structure and Composition of Maize. In: Corn: Chemistry and Technology, Watson, S.A. and P.E. Ramstad (Eds.). St. Paul Press, Minnesota, USA., pp: 53-82

30:  Goering, H.K. and P.J. van Soest, 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 379, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 1-20.

31:  Medugu, C.I., I.D. Kwari, J. Igwebuike, I. Nkama, I.D. Mohammed and B. Hamaker, 2010. Performance and economics of production of broiler chickens fed sorghum or millet as replacement for maize in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. North. Am., 1: 321-325.
Direct Link  |  

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved