Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Utilization of Dried Whole Eggs Processed by Different Methods with or Without Growth Promoting Mixture on Performance and Lymphoid Organs of Broiler Chicks



M.A. Al-Harthi, A.A. El-Deek and Y.A. Attia
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Rejected eggs were collected and dried at 55oC. Thereafter, Dried Whole Eggs (DWE) were processed by different methods e.g. freezing for 48 h at -18oC, freezing with boiling for 15 min at 100oC or autoclaving for 20 min at 120oC with a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. The DWE processed by different methods were fed to broiler chickens during 3-41 d of age at 0, 3.5 and 7.0%. Diets were fed without or with Growth Promoting Mixture (GPM) containing probiotic 0.5 g, Vit C 0.5, black pepper 0.5 g, red pepper 0.5 g/kg diet), thus there were fourteen experimental treatments. Growth was not affected by level of DWE and/or processing way, while GPM significantly increased growth. Feed intake significantly increased by autoclaving, whilst inclusion of DWE at either level significantly decreased feed intake and there was a significant interaction between DWE level and processing method for feed intake. DWE at either 3.5 or 7% significantly improved FCR similarly. Moreover, GPM supplementation improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) within each level. Supplementation of GPM significantly increased absolute and relative weight of bursa, while the opposite trend was shown in thymus parameters. Abdominal fat, plasma total protein, albumin significantly decreased although plasma total lipids significantly increased due to GPM supplementation. Abdominal fat significantly decreased, and plasma total lipids significantly increased due to autoclaving, whilst freezing with boiling increased plasma cholesterol. Heart and pancreas significantly increased, however skin colour significantly decreased due to inclusion of frozen with boiled DWE. Increasing DWE level resulted in significant linear increase in heart and pancreas, whilst skin colour significantly decreased due to 3.5% DWE and GPM supplementation. Plasma cholesterol exhibited a significant linear increase with increasing DWE level.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

M.A. Al-Harthi, A.A. El-Deek and Y.A. Attia, 2010. Utilization of Dried Whole Eggs Processed by Different Methods with or Without Growth Promoting Mixture on Performance and Lymphoid Organs of Broiler Chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9: 511-520.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2010.511.520

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2010.511.520

REFERENCES
1:  Abdo, Z.M.A., A.Z.M. Soliman and O.S. Barakat, 2003. Effect of hot pepper and Marjoram as feed additives on the growth performance and the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Egypt. Poult. Sci. J., 23: 91-113.

2:  Al-Harthi, M.A., 2002. Efficacy of vegetable diets with antibiotics and different types of spices or their mixtures on performance, economic efficiency and carcass traits of broilers. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 27: 3531-3545.

3:  Anton, M., F. Nau and Y. Nys, 2006. Bioactive egg components and their potential uses. World`s Poult. Sci. J., 62: 429-438.
Direct Link  |  

4:  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., Pages: 1298.

5:  Attia, Y.A., R.A. Hassan and E.M.A. Qota, 2009. Recovery from adverse effects of heat stress on slow-growing chicks in the tropics 1: Effect of ascorbic acid and different levels of betaine. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41: 807-818.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Attia, Y.A., A.E.T. El-Din and A.M. El-Sudany, 2009. Impact of dietary lecithin and oil mixture on productive and reproductive performance, egg quality and some physiological traits of dual purpose breeding hens. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41: 461-475.

7:  Awad, W.A., J. Bohm, E. Razzazi-Fazeli, K. Ghareeb and J. Zentek, 2006. Effect of addition of a probiotic microorganism to broiler diets contaminated with deoxynivalenol on performance and histological alterations of intestinal villi of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 85: 974-979.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Burley, R.W. and D.V. Vadehra, 1989. The Avian Egg Chemistry and Biology. 1st Edn., John Wiley and Sons, New York.

9:  Cavazzoni, V., S.A. Adami and C. Castrovilli, 1998. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic. Br. Poult. Sci., 39: 526-529.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Chichlowski, M., J. Croom, B.W. McBride, G.B. Havenstein and M.D. Koci, 2007. Metabolic and physiological impact of probiotics or direct-fed-microbials on poultry: A brief review of current knowledge. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 6: 694-704.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Cowan, M.M., 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 12: 564-582.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Davis, C. and R. Reeves, 2002. High Value Opportunities from the Chicken Egg: A Report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Cooperation. RIRDC Publication, Australia, pp: 69.

13:  Doumas, B.T., W.A. Watson and H.G. Biggs, 1971. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta, 31: 87-96.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  El-Deek, A.A. and M.A. Al-Harthi, 2009. Effect of dried whole eggs processed by various methods on pullets performance and egg production and quality traits. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8: 1086-1092.
Direct Link  |  

16:  El-Husseiny, O., S.M. Shalash and H.M. Azouz, 2002. Response of broiler performance to diets containing hot pepper and/or fenugreek at different metabolizable energy levels. Egypt Poult. Sci., 22: 387-406.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Fontaine, J., U. Zimmer, P.J. Moughan and S.M. Rutherfurd, 2007. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55: 10737-10743.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  FAO, 2009. FAO statistical yearbook 2007-2008, agriculture production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/publications-studies/statistical-yearbook/fao-statistical-yearbook-2007-2008/it/.

19:  Frings, C.S. and R.T. Dunn, 1970. A colorimetric method for determination of total serum lipids based on the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 53: 89-91.
PubMed  |  

20:  Gomorri, G., 1942. A modification of the colourimetric phosphorus determination for use with the photoelectric colourimeter. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 27: 955-960.

21:  Griminger, P. and H. Fisher, 1986. The effect of dried and fresh eggs on plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis in chickens. Poult. Sci., 65: 979-982.
PubMed  |  

22:  Henry, R.J., D.C. Cannon and J.W. Winkleman, 1974. Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Techniques. 2nd Edn., Harper and Row, USA.

23:  Junqueria, O.M., L.F. Arajo, C.S. Silva and A.C. Laurentiz, 1985. Performance of broilers fed dried whole eggs. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Comm., 240: 124-127.

24:  Li Chan, E.C.Y., 1998. Applications of egg immunoglobulins in immunoaffinity chromato-graphy and immunoassays-separation technology, research and industrial applications. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Egg Nutrition and Newly Emerging Ovo-biotechnologies, April 5-8, Banff, AB., Canada, pp: 32-32.

25:  Mime, Y. and M. Yoshimasu, 1998. Production of hens immunoglobulin against an enzymatic crosslinked human insulin for immunodiagnosis using a microbial transglutaminase. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Egg Nutrition and Newly Emerging Ovo-biotechnologies, April 5-8, Banff, AB., Canada, pp: 56-56.

26:  Moore, S., D.H. Spackman and W.H. Stein, 1958. Chromatography of amino acids on sulfonated polystyrene resins: An improved system. Anal. Chem., 30: 1185-1190.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Nasir, Z. and M. Grashorn, 2008. Alternatives to antibiotics: Do we really have some alternatives. World's Poult. Sci. J., 64: 165-165.

28:  NRC., 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780309048927, Pages: 155.

29:  Patrick, H. and P.J. Schaible, 1981. Energy Nutrition: Poultry, Feeds and Nutrition. 2nd Edn., Avi Publishing Company Inc., Westport, Connecticut, USA., pp: 75.

30:  Pelicia, K., A.A. Mendes, E.S.P.B. Saldanha, C.C. Pizzolante and S.E. Takahashi et al., 2004. Probiotic and prebiotic utilization in diets for free-range broiler chickens. Revista Brasileira Ciencia Avicola, 6: 99-104.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  Sahin, K., M. Onderci, N. Sahin, M.F. Gursu and O. Kucuk, 2003. Dietary vitamin C and folic acid supplementation ameliorates the detrimental effects of heat stress in Japanese quail. J. Nutr., 133: 1882-1886.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

32:  SAS, 1996. SAS Users Guide: Statistics. Version 8.0. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, New York.

33:  Schaafsma, A., I. Pakan, G.J. Hofstede, F.A. Muskiet, E. Van Der Veer and P.J. De Vries, 2000. Mineral, amino acid and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition. Poult. Sci., 79: 1833-1838.
Direct Link  |  

34:  Schmdit, L.D., B.A. Sloinski, G. Blank and W. Guenter, 1992. Application of egg by-products as high quality protein and bactericidal supplements in animal nutrition. Ann. Allergy, 69: 521-525.

35:  Sendroy, J. Jr., 1944. Determination of calcium in plasma. J. Biol. Chem., 152: 539-556.
Direct Link  |  

36:  Sparks, N.H.C., 2006. The hen's egg-is its role in human nutrition changing? World's Poult. Sci. J., 62: 308-315.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

37:  Stadelman, W.J., 1999. The incredible functional egg. Poult. Sci., 78: 807-811.

38:  Watson, D., 1960. A simple method for determination of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chim. Acta, 5: 637-643.
PubMed  |  

39:  Weichselbaum, T.E., 1946. An accurate and rapid method for the determination of proteins in small amounts in blood serum and plasma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 16: 40-47.

40:  El-Deek, A.A., M.A. Al-Harthi and Y.A. Attia, 2011. Effect of different dietary levels of dried eggs by-product without or with shell and/or premix on the performance of laying strain chicks from 2 to 8 wk of age. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde, Vol. 75.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved