Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Seasonal Epidemiological Surveillance on Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Broiler Farms in Egypt



Essam S. Soliman, Mohamed A.A. Sobeih, Z.H. Ahmad, M.M. Hussein, H. Abdel-Latiff and A.A. Moneim
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

A total of 1664 environmental samples (litter, water, swabs and air) were collected from commercial broiler farms located in Ismailia and Zagazig Governorates, Egypt. The bacterial and Fungal isolates that were identified included: Citrobacter Sp, E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aureuginosa, Salmonella Sp, Shigella Sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fecalis and Streptococcus pneumonie, Yeast Sp, Pencillium Sp, Aspergillus niger, Aspegillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Mucour and Candida albicans Prevalence and frequencies of the microorganisms were calculated to detect the most predominant microorganisms. Litter samples showed that Pseudomonas areuginosa (24%) and Yeast Sp (37.5%) predominated in closed houses; Klebsiella oxytoca (12%) and Penicillium Sp (28.57%) predominated in open houses in winter, Klebsiella oxytoca (33.33%) and Aspergillus nidulans (22.73%) predominated in closed houses; E. coli (50%) and Penicillium Sp (21.40%) in open houses in spring, Shigella Sp (34.5%); (47.62%) and Aspergillus niger (26.92%); (8.69%) predominated in closed and open houses respectively in summer, Klebsiella oxytoca (55.56%) and Aspergillus niger (12%) predominated in closed houses; Klebsiella oxytoca (41.67%) and Candida albicans (59.1%) predominated in open houses in autumn. Water samples showed that E. coli (39.47%) and Candida albicans (50%) predominated in closed houses; E. coli (60.97%) and Penicillium Sp (60%) predominated in open houses in winter, E. coli (67.57%) and Penicillium Sp (37.5%) predominated in closed houses; E. coli (89.29%) and Aspergillus nidulans (15.83%) predominated in open houses in spring, Shigella Sp (42.55%) and Penicillium Sp (37.5%) predominated in closed houses; Shigella Sp (36.67%) and Yeast Sp (66.6%) predominated in open houses in summer, Klebsiella oxytoca (36.59%) and Candida albicans (33.3%) predominated in closed houses; Klebsiella oxytoca (47.22%) and Candida albicans (47.62%) predominated in open houses in autumn. Swab samples showed that Pseudomonas areuginosa (62.5%) and Penicillium Sp (29.41%) predominated in closed houses; Pseudomonas aureuginosa (47.06%) and Candida albicans (17.64%) predominated in open houses in winter, Klebsiella oxytoca (36.49%) and Aspergillus flavus (43.48%) predominated in closed samples; E. coli (43.48%) and Aspergillus flavus (46.51%) predominated in open houses in spring, Klebsiella oxytoca (28.98%) and Penicillium Sp (34.48%) predominated in closed houses; E. coli (35.17%) and Aspergillus niger (35.14%) predominated in open houses in summer, Pseudomonas areuginosa (31.75%); (42.31%) and Canidada albicans (40.32%); (61.4%) predominated in closed and open houses respectively in autumn. Air samples showed that staphylococcus aureus (51.72%-45.45%, 52%-56.17%, 59.52-69.44 and 48.78-75%) was predominating in closed and open houses respectively in winter, spring, summer and autumn respectively, while the fungal growth showed that Aspergillus niger (66.6%) predominated in closed houses in winter, Aspergillus niger (100%) predominated in closed houses; Aspergillus favlus (100%) predominated in open houses in spring, Aspergillus niger (100%) predominated in closed houses in summer, Aspergillus niger (100%) predominated in closed and open houses in autumn.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Essam S. Soliman, Mohamed A.A. Sobeih, Z.H. Ahmad, M.M. Hussein, H. Abdel-Latiff and A.A. Moneim, 2009. Seasonal Epidemiological Surveillance on Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Broiler Farms in Egypt. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8: 720-727.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2009.720.727

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2009.720.727

REFERENCES
1:  Bean, N.H. and P.M. Griffin, 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-1987: Pathogens, vehicles and trends. J. Food Protect., 53: 804-816.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Bialy, W.B. and E.G. Scott, 1978. Diagnostic Microbiology. 4th Edn., Mosby Co., St. Louis, USA.

3:  Blair, E.R., J.S. Emerson and A.H. Tull, 1967. A new medium, salt mannitol plasma agar, for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 47: 30-39.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Cherry, W.B., J.B. Hank, B.M. Thomson and A.M. Murlin, 1972. Salmonella as an index of pollution of surface water. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 1: 324-334.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Collins, C.H., P.M. Lyne and J.M. Grange, 1991. Microbiological Methods. 6th Edn., Butterworth-Heinemann Publ., Oxford, UK., pp: 127-140.

6:  Cruickshank, R., J.P. Duguid, B.P. Marimion and R.H. Swain, 1975. Medical Microbiology, the Practice of Medical Microbiology. 12th Edn., Vol. 11, Churchill Livingstone Ltd., Edinburgh, London and New York.

7:  Cruickshank, R., J.P. Daguid, B.P. Marnion and R.H.A. Swain, 1980. Medical Microbiology. 12th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, pp: 180-188.

8:  Davies, H.L., 1976. Medical Important Fungi a Guide to Identification. Harper and Row Publishers, Maryland, New York, San Francisco and London.

9:  Edward, P.R. and W.H. Ewing, 1982. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. 2nd Edn., Burgress Publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota.

10:  Fingegold, S.M. and W.T. Martin, 1982. Diagnostic Microbiology. 6th Edn., Mosby Co., St. Louis, USA.

11:  Gross, W.B., 1994. Diseases Due to Escherichia coli in Poultry. In: Escherichia coli in Domesticated Animals and Humans, Gyles, C.L. (Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK., ISBN: 0-85198-921-7, pp: 237-259.

12:  Henson, S., 1997. Estimating the incidence of food borne Salmonella and the effectiveness of alternative control measures using the Delphi method. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 35: 195-204.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Koneman, E.W., S.D. Allen, W.M. Janda, P.C. Schreckenberger and W.C. Jr. Winn, 1997. Color Atlas and Text Book of Diagnostic Microbiology. 5th Edn., William and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp: 171-230.

14:  Keith, H.L., 1988. Principles of Environmental Sampling. 3rd Edn., ACS, UK., pp: 171-172.

15:  Lynch, M., J. Painter, R. Woodruff and C. Braden, 2006. Surveillance for food-borne diseases outbreaks-United States, 1998-2002. Morbid Mortal Weekly Rep., 55: 1-34.

16:  Patrick, M.E., P.M. Adcock, T.M. Gomez, S.F. Altekruse, B.H. Holland, R.V. Tauxe and D.L. Swerdlow, 2004. Salmonella enteritidis infection, United States, 1985-1999. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 10: 1-7.

17:  Persson, U. and S.I. Jendteg, 1992. The economic impact of poultry borne Salmonellosis: How much should be spent on prophylaxis? Int. J. Food Microbiol., 15: 207-213.

18:  Raper, K.B. and C. Thom, 1949. A Manual of the Penicillia. 1st Edn., Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Maryland.

19:  Raper, K.B. and D.I. Fennell, 1965. The Genus Aspergillus. 1st Edn., Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD., USA.

20:  Mallenson, J.E.W. and G.H. Soeynebos, 1975. Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens. ASAP, UK.

21:  Zycha, H., R. Siepmann and G. Linnemann, 1969. Muconales Eine Beschreibung Aller Gattuungen Und Arten Dieser Pilzgruppe. Verlag Von J. Cramer, Stuttgart, Germany.

22:  Calnek, B.W., H.J. Barnes, C.W. Beard, L.R. McDougald and Y.M. Saif, 1997. Diseases of Poultry. Iowa State University Press, Iowa State, pp: 721-737.

23:  Gordon, R.F. and F.T.W. Jordan, 1982. Poultry Diseases. 2nd Edn., American Association of Avian Pathologiest, UK.

24:  Hargis, B.M., D.J. Caldwell and J.A. Byrd, 2001. Microbial Pathogens of Poultry live Bird Considerations. In: Poultry Meat Processing, Sams, A.R. (Ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

25:  Marth, E.H., 1990. Mycotoxines in Food-borne Diseases. Academic Press, New York.

26:  Ward, L.R., J. Threlfall, H.R. Smith and S.J.O. Brein, 2000. Salmonella enteritidis epidemic. Science, 287: 1753-1754.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved