Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of Protein and Amino Acid Levels on Bone Formation in Diets Varying in Calcium Content



C. Coto, Z. Wang, S. Cerrate, F. Perazzo, A. Abdel-Maksoud, F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The effect of different dietary levels of amino acids, calcium and phosphorus as influenced by phytase supplementation was evaluated in broiler chickens. The experimental design consisted of a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of digestible lysine (1.10, 1.30 and 1.50%), four levels of calcium (0.50, 0.70, 0.90 and 1.1%) and diets containing 0.35% AP with and without phytase for a total of 24 treatments. Remaining amino acids levels were adjusted with respect to the digestible lysine level using the ideal ratios suggested by Rostagno et al. (2005). Each experimental diet was fed to six replicates pens of five male chickens during 21 days. Body weight, FCR, feed intake, bone development (TD), bone mineralization (toe ash), and phosphorus excretion as Total Phosphorus in excreta (TP), Water Soluble Phosphorus in excreta (WSP) and the WSP/TP ratio were evaluated. Birds fed lysine levels higher than 1.1% expressed better body weight in a non-linear trend. Feed intake was decreased by increasing the lysine level while feed conversion improved as lysine level increased. Increasing levels of Ca decreased feed intake, the 1.1% Ca level was detrimental for body weight. Phytase supplementation was effective to alleviate widened-suboptimal Ca:P ratios in terms of feed intake and body weight. The 1.5 % digestible lysine level improved toe ash; however, high levels of lysine were also related to a higher incidence of TD. Ca levels equal or greater than the NRC (1994) recommendation were adequate for optimum bone mineralization. Increasing levels of Ca reduced the incidence and severity of TD. Moreover, Ca levels greater than those suggested by NRC (1994) were adequate to assimilate higher lysine levels without compromising bone development. The higher lysine levels fed reduced TP in excreta but increased the WSP/TP ratio. The supplementation of phytase increased WSP and the WSP/TP ratio. Increasing levels of Ca reduced WSP and the WSP/TP ratio in excreta. Furthermore, high levels of Ca were also effective to overcome the increased WSP and WSP/TP ratio caused by the supplementation of phytase.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

C. Coto, Z. Wang, S. Cerrate, F. Perazzo, A. Abdel-Maksoud, F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup , 2009. Effect of Protein and Amino Acid Levels on Bone Formation in Diets Varying in Calcium Content. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8: 307-316.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2009.307.316

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2009.307.316

REFERENCES
Al-Masri, M.R., 1995. Absorption and endogenous excretion of phosphorus in growing broiler chicks, as influenced by calcium and phosphorus ratios in feed. Br. J. Nutr., 74: 407-415.
Direct Link  |  

Allen, L.H., R.B. Bartlett and G.D. Block, 1979. Reduction of renal calcium resorption in man by consumption of dietary protein. J. Nutr., 109: 1345-1350.
Direct Link  |  

Anand, C.R. and H.M. Linkswiler, 1974. Effect of protein intake on calcium balance of young men given 500 mg calcium daily. J. Nutr., 104: 695-700.
Direct Link  |  

Barbosa, J.J.B., O.M. Junqueira, M.O. de Andreotti and L.C. Cancherini, 2002. Broilers lysine and methionine+cystine levels in initial phase. Acta Sci., 24: 1007-1013.

Barboza, W.A., H.S. Rostagno, L.F.T. Albino and P.B. Rodrigues, 2000. Nutritional requirement of digestible lysine for broiler chickens. Rev. Bras. Zootech., 29: 1098-1102.

Bell, R.R., D.T. Engelmann, T. Sie and H.H. Draper, 1975. Effect of a high protein intake on calcium metabolism in the rat. J. Nutr., 105: 475-483.
Direct Link  |  

Bonjour, J.P., 2005. Dietary protein: An essential nutrient for bone health. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 24: 526S-536S.
Direct Link  |  

Borges, A.F., R.F.M. de Oliveira, J.L. Donzele, L.F.T. Albino, U.A.D. Orlando and R.A. Ferreira, 2002. Requirements of lysine for male broiler chicks under high temperature environment. Rev. Bras. Zootech., 31: 394-401.

Carlos, A.B. and H.M. Edwards Jr., 1998. The effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and phytase on the natural phytate phosphorus utilization by laying hens. Poult. Sci., 77: 850-858.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Catala-Gregori, P., V. Garcia, F. Hernandez, J. Madrid and J.J. Ceron, 2006. Response of broilers to feeding low-calcium and phosphorus diets plus phytase under different environmental conditions: Body weight and tibiotarsus mineralization. Poult. Sci., 85: 1923-1931.
Direct Link  |  

Costa, F.G.P., H.S. Rostagno, L.F.T. Albino, P.C. Gomes and R.S. Toledo, 2001. Dietary lysine levels for broilers chickens from 1 to 21 and 22 to 40 days of age. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 30: 1490-1497.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Coto, C., F. Yan, S. Cerrate, Z. Wang and P. Sacakli et al., 2008. Effects of dietary levels of calcium and nonphytate phosphorus in broiler starter diets on live performance, bone development and growth plate conditions in male chicks fed a wheat based diet. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 7: 101-109.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Coto, C.A., F. Yan, S. Cerrate, Z. Wang, P. Sacakli and P.W. Waldroup, 2007. Effects of dietary levels of calcium and nonphytate phosphorus in broiler starter diets on total and water-soluble phosphorus excretion as influenced by phytase and addition of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 6: 937-943.
Direct Link  |  

Edwards, Jr. H.M. and J.R. Veltmann, 1983. The role of calcium and phosphorus in the etiology of tibial dyschondroplasia in young chicks. J. Nutr., 113: 1568-1575.
Direct Link  |  

El-Maraghi, N.R.H., B.S. Platt and R.J.C. Stewart, 1965. The effect of the interaction of dietary protein and calcium on the growth and maintenance of the bones of young, adult and aged rats. Br. J. Nutr., 19: 491-509.

Engstrom, G.W. and H.F. de Luca, 1963. Effect of egg white diets on calcium metabolism in the rat. J. Nutr., 81: 218-222.
Direct Link  |  

FASS, 1999. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. 1st Edn., Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, IL.

Franco, J.R.G., A.E. Murakami, M.A.O. Mituo and J.I.M. Fernandes, 2005. Effects of delayed placement and dietary lysine levels on performance and diameter of the skeletal muscle fibers of broiler chickens in the starting period. Proceeding of the 15th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, September 25-29, 2005, Balatonfured, Hungary, pp: 582-584.

Garcia, A. and A.B. Batal, 2005. Changes in the digestible lysine and sulfur amino acid needs of broiler chicks during the first three weeks posthatching. Poult. Sci., 84: 1350-1355.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Goulart, C.D.C., F.G.P. Costa, R.D.C.L. Neto, J.G. Souza, J.H.V. da Silva and P.E.N. Givisiez, 2008. Digestible lysine requirements for male broilers from 1 to 42 days old. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 37: 876-882.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Halton, T.L. and F.B. Hu, 2004. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: A critical review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 23: 373-385.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Han, Y. and D.H. Baker, 1991. Lysine requirements of fast-and slow-growing broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 70: 2108-2114.

Hurwitz, S., I. Plavnik, A. Shapiro, E. Wax, H. Talpaz and A. Bar, 1995. Calcium metabolism and requirements of chickens are affected by growth. J. Nutr., 125: 2679-2686.

Johnson, N.E., E.N. Alcantara and H. Linkswiler, 1970. Effect of level of protein intake on urinary and fecal calcium and calcium retention of young adult males. J. Nutr., 100: 1425-1430.
Direct Link  |  

Kerstetter, J.E., D.E. Wall, K.O. O'Brien, D.M. Caseria and K.L. Insogna, 2006. Meat and soy protein affect calcium homeostasis in healthy women. J. Nutr., 136: 1890-1895.
Direct Link  |  

Kidd, M.T. and B.I. Fancher, 2001. Lysine needs of starting chicks and subsequent effects during the growing period. J. Applied Poult. Res., 10: 385-393.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Kim, Y. and H.M. Linkswiler, 1979. Effect of level of protein intake on calcium metabolism and on parathyroid and renal function in the adult human male. J. Nutr., 109: 1399-1404.
Direct Link  |  

Labadan, Jr. M.C., K.N. Hsu and R.E. Austic, 2001. Lysine and arginine requirements of broiler chickens at two- to three-week intervals to eight weeks of age. Poult. Sci., 80: 599-606.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lana, S.R.V., R.F.M. de Oliveira, J.L. Donzele, L.T.F. Albino, R.G.M.V. Vaz and W.D.O. Rezende, 2005. Requirements of dietary digestible lysine for broilers from 1 to 21 days old on thermoneutral environment. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 34: 1614-1623.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Leytem, A.B., P.W. Plumstead, R.O. Maguire, P. Kwanyuen and J. Brake, 2007. What aspect of dietary modification in broilers controls litter Water-soluble phosphorus: Dietary phosphorus, phytase or calcium? J. Environ. Qual., 36: 453-463.

Mendes, A.A., S.E. Watkins, J.A. England, E.A. Saleh, A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup, 1997. Influence of dietary lysine levels and arginine: Lysine ratios on performance of broilers exposed to heat or cold stress during the period of three to six weeks of age. Poult. Sci., 76: 472-481.
Direct Link  |  

Penn, C.J., G.L. Mullins, L.W. Zelazny, J.G. Warren and J.M. McGrath, 2004. Surface runoff losses of phosphorus from virginia soils amended with turkey manure using phytase and high available phosphorus corn diets. J. Environ. Qual., 33: 1431-1439.
Direct Link  |  

Rath, N.C., G.R. Huff, W.E. Huff and J.M. Balog, 2000. Factors regulating bone maturity and strength in poultry. Poult. Sci., 79: 1024-1032.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Rodrigues, K.F., P.B. Rodrigues, R.T.F. de Freitas, A.G. Bertechini, L.T.F. Albino and E.J. Fassini, 2008. Digestible lysine: Ccrude protein ratios on initial broiler diets-performance and metabolism. Rev. Bras. Zootech., 37: 450-457.

Rostagno, H.R., L.F.T. Albino, J.L. Donzele, P.C. Gomes and R.F. de Olveira et al., 2005. Brazilian Tables for Poultry and Swine. Composition of Feedstuffs and Nutritional Requirements. Universidade Federal de Vocosa, Dept. Zootecnia, Vicosa, MG., Brazil.

SAS., 1991. SAS User's Guide Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Scheideler, S.E. and P.R. Ferket, 2000. Phytase in broiler rations- effects on carcass yields and incidence of tribal dyschondroplasia. J. Applied Poult. Res., 9: 468-475.
Direct Link  |  

Schutte, J.B. and W. Smink, 1998. Requirement for apparent faecal digestible lysine of broiler chicks in the starting, growing and finishing phase. Arch. Gefluegelkunde, 62: 254-259.
Direct Link  |  

Silva-Conhalato, G., J.L. Donzele, H.S. Rostagno, L.F.T. Albino and R.F.M. de Oliveira, 1999. Levels of digestible lysine for male broilers in the phase from 1 to 21 days. Rev. Bras. Zootechnol., 28: 91-97.

Skinner, J.T., J.N. Beasley and P.W. Waldroup, 1991. Effects of dietary amino acid levels on bone development in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 70: 941-946.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Sohail, S.S. and D.A. Roland Sr., 1999. Influence of supplemental phytase on performance of broilers four to six weeks of age. Poult. Sci., 78: 550-555.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Stevens, V.I. and R.E. Salmon, 1988. Effects of dietary protein on leg disorders in turkeys. Nutr. Rep. Int., 38: 915-925.
Direct Link  |  

Takeara, P., 2006. Digestible lysine for M broilers. I. 12 to 22 days of age; II. 37 to 49 days of age. M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootechnia, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Vadas, P.A., J.J. Meisinger, L.J. Sikora, J.P. McMurtry and A.E. Sefton, 2004. Effect of poultry diet on phosphorus in runoff from soils amended with poultry manure and compost. J. Environ. Qual., 33: 1845-1854.
Direct Link  |  

Valerio, S.R., R.F.M. de Oliveira, J.L. Donzele, L.F.T. Albino, U.A.D. Orlando, R.G.M.V. Vaz, 2003. Digestible lysine levels in diets maintaining or not the relationship of amino acids for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age kept under heat stress. Rev. Bras. Zootech., 32: 361-371.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Vazquez, M. and G.M. Pesti, 1997. Estimation of the lysine requirement of broiler chicks for maximum body gain and feed efficiency. J. Applied Poult., 6: 241-246.
Direct Link  |  

Viveros, A., A. Brenes, I. Arija and C. Centeno, 2002. Effects of microbial phytase supplementation on mineral utilization and serum enzyme activities in broiler chicks fed different levels of phosphorus. Poult. Sci., 81: 1172-1183.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Waldroup, P.W., J.H. Kersey, E.A. Saleh, C.A. Fritts and F. Yan et al., 2000. Nonphytate phosphorus requirement and phosphorus excretion of broiler chicks fed diets composed of normal or high available phosphate corn with and without microbial phytase. Poult. Sci., 79: 1451-1459.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Weiss, R.E., A. Gorn, S. Dux and M.E. Nimni, 1981. Influence of high protein diets on cartilage and bone formation in rats. J. Nutr., 111: 804-816.
Direct Link  |  

Whitehead, C.C., H.A. McCormack, L. McTeir and R.H. Fleming, 2004. High vitamin D3 requirements in broilers for bone quality and prevention of tibial dyschondroplasia and interactions with dietary calcium, available phosphorus and vitamin A. Br. Poult. Sci., 45: 425-436.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Williams, B., D. Waddington, S. Solomon and C. Farquharson, 2000. Dietary effects on bone quality and turnover and Ca and P metabolism in chickens. Res. Vet. Sci., 69: 81-87.
CrossRef  |  

Yan, F., C.A. Fritts and P.W. Waldroup, 2003. Evaluation of modified dietary phosphorus levels with and without phytase supplementation on live performance and fecal phosphorus levels in broiler diets. 1. Full-term feeding recommendations. J. Applied Poult. Res., 12: 174-182.
Direct Link  |  

Yan, F., C.A. Keen, K.Y. Zhang and P.W. Waldroup, 2005. Comparison of methods to evaluate bone mineralization. J. Applied Poult., 14: 492-498.
Direct Link  |  

Yan, F., J.H. Kersey and P.W. Waldroup, 2001. Phosphorus requirements of broiler chicks three to six weeks of age as influenced by phytase supplementation. Poult. Sci., 80: 455-459.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Yan, F., J.H. Kersey, C.A. Fritts and P.W. Waldroup, 2006. Effect of phytase supplementation on the calcium requirement of broiler chicks. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 112-120.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Zaghari, M., M. Shivazad, A. Kamyab and A. Kniihah, 2002. Digestible lysine requirement of Arian male and female broiler chicks at 6 to 21 days of age. J. Agric. Sci. Technol., 4: 111-117.
Direct Link  |  

Zhang, D., X. Li, H.K. Huang, H.T. Hoai, N.G.A. Mulyantini, A. Kumar, and W.L. Bryden, 2006. The response of broilers to dietary digestible lysine levels in the starter phase. Proc. Aust. Poult. Sci. Symp., 18: 66-66.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved