Multiple Beneficial Applications and Modes of Action of Herbs in Poultry Health and Production-A Review
Shyma K. Latheef,
Hari Abdul Samad,
Rifat Ullah Khan,
Mayada R. Farag,
Gazi Mahabubul Alam,
Herbal medicine or herbalism is a time-honored practice of natural medicine that is older than mankind itself. The practice of using traditional herbal medicine based therapy is nowadays gaining more attention worldwide in both human and animal health care systems. Among the livestock sectors, poultry production systems are the most intensively reared with developments especially in the areas of nutrition, disease control, genetic improvement, management and organization of dietary requirements along with the pressure of increasing demand for poultry products as well as threats of emerging pathogens. So this sector is badly in need of sustainable therapeutic and production aids especially based on herbs because of the advantages like, low cost, easy availability, no residual effect, free from the threat of antibiotic resistance etc. Many herbs have been recorded to be fruitfully used by veterinarians to treat a variety of disease conditions in animals. The present study discusses the various useful and practical applications of the rich heritage of herbal wealth for safeguarding poultry health in general, combating infectious as well as non-infectious diseases caused by microbes and parasites )both ecto-and endo parasites( along with immunomodulatory actions for countering immunosuppressive diseases. Moreover, highlighting herb-based poultry growth promoters for increasing production performances use of herbs as antioxidants and their role in organic egg and meat production is a special attraction of the review that will draw the attention of the poultry specialists as well as farming community. The information will be useful to increase poultry production and protect the health of birds in a better way from traditional ways towards modern perspectives and also would promote and popularize usage of herbs amongst poultry producers.
to cite this article:
Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K. Latheef, Saminathan Mani, Hari Abdul Samad, K. Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Rifat Ullah Khan, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mayada R. Farag, Gazi Mahabubul Alam, Vito Laudadio and Vincenzo Tufarelli, 2015. Multiple Beneficial Applications and Modes of Action of Herbs in Poultry Health and Production-A Review. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11: 152-176.
Received: December 22, 2014;
Accepted: February 18, 2015;
Published: March 04, 2015
Due to the emergence of drug resistance microorganisms, side effects of antimicrobials and the harmful residual toxicity effects of drugs observed in the food chain, there is an increasing trend towards the use of alternative or complementary medicines for the general health maintenance, immunomodulation and therapeutic purposes for treating various diseases and disorders including cancers. Particularly, the utilization of the plants, herbs, fruits and vegetables, nutritional immunomodulators, panchgavya element of cow urine (cowpathy) are becoming popular due to their low toxicity, fewer side effects, being cost-effective and other beneficial advantages for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals including poultry (Mahima et al., 2012, 2013; Dhama et al., 2013a, b; Tiwari et al., 2013a, b; Rahal et al., 2014a). Apart from these, novel and emerging immunomodulatory as well as therapeutic modalities like bacteriophages, probiotics, cytokines and others are also being explored (Tiwari et al., 2011; Dhama et al., 2011, 2013c, 2013d; Karthik et al., 2014).
Ethno-medicinal plants, the valuable sources of medicines are currently in increasing demand and popularity on which about 80% of people in developing countries still rely for their primary health care. Since antiquity herbal medicines have been used extensively in traditional medical practices as the major remedy and these practices continue today because of several merits like great contribution towards maintaining the health of human and animal, biomedical benefits as well as place in cultural beliefs and also due to the toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines (Agarwal, 2005; Verma and Singh, 2008; Mahima et al., 2012). Herbal medicines are widespread throughout the world and have been used by all cultures for centuries with the best known practices being Ayurvedic medicine from the Indian sub-continent, traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal herbs from African tradition, native North American herbal lore and western herbal medicine, derived from Europe and the Arabic culture. India, possessing one of the richest treasures of herbalism in the world, accounts around 20,000 medicinal plant species where about 800 plant species have been used by different medicinal communities for curing different diseases (Kamboj, 2000; Hashemi and Davoodi, 2012; Mahima et al., 2012).
Herbs, traditional/indigenous plants and ethno-veterinary medicines, having multiple beneficial advantages, have been used since long for strengthening body and its immune system and to keep away or fight against diseases (Rios and Recio, 2005; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012). Ethno-veterinary medicine deals with knowledge, expertise, methods, performs and beliefs of the people about the care of their animals and to keep them healthy which are acquired through practical experience and has traditionally been passed down orally from one generation to another (Toyang et al., 2007). People around the world are now aware of the limitations of synthetic drugs and chemicals in terms of higher cost, anticipated toxicity and adverse effects (Okitoi et al., 2007; Adu et al., 2009). On the other hand, the natural medicines are more suitable for animal and human health care with the benefits of low cost and total safety. Some of them are studied scientifically by in vitro and in vivo studies but most of them are yet to be scientifically validated. In this era of food safety concern, emerging antibiotic resistance and residual effects in food products, these can play wonderful role for safeguarding health of humans and animals. But unfortunately, these medical traditions are being mislaid mostly as they are communicated only orally from generation to generation and are largely undocumented (Okitoi et al., 2007; Adu et al., 2009; Hashemi and Davoodi, 2012; Mahima et al., 2012). Herbal therapy needs to be practiced in poultry industry as growth promoters and also for fighting against various infections. The shortcomings are that they are bulky substances which cannot be used as such, most of the herbs have poor bioavailability and hence needs a good carrier. Nanotechnology has revolutionized the world and this technology can also be applied safely for the delivery of herbal drugs (Patel et al., 2013). Various types like dendrimers, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles, colloidal micelles, polymeric micelles, etc are available (Ansari et al., 2012a). Herbal drugs are already available as nano drugs in market like NanoCurc TM (Mathur and Vyas, 2013).
Nature has always had its own medicine for animals as well as birds and herbs have been the medicine and food since their life emerged. Animals as well as birds are instinctively able to self-medicate with herbs, known as the zoo pharmacognosy and early man would almost certainly have been just as capable, later refining it to the ancient art that still have today (Patwardhan and Gautam, 2005; Adu et al., 2009). Having originated in the same environment as plants, it is not surprising that animals have an inherent instinct for herbal medication of their health problems, whether horses, dogs, cats, cattle, rabbits, birds or other species. Herbal medicines are being practiced in the form of therapy for livestock among resource poor smallholder farmers worldwide and in a therapeutic aspect; many herbs are being used by veterinarians fruitfully to treat a variety of conditions of animals. Improvements have been shown or reported with those suffering from flu, allergies, colds, rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial/viral infections, hepatitis, heart disease, asthma, chemical intoxication etc. and even effective in treating cancers (Mills and Bone, 2000; Umashanker and Shruti, 2011). Apart from infectious and systemic diseases, topical botanical/herbal application is also effective for specific conditions like ageing, skin infections, ear infections, wounds, burns and skin irritations (Patwardhan et al., 2004; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012).
India is a rich source of medicinal plants and a number of plant extracts are being used against diseases in various systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Ayurveda is the traditional Indian system of medicine from ancient times, mostly using herbal preparations, to prevent or cure various tumors. The first written records on the medicinal uses of plants appeared in about 2600 BC from the Sumerians and Akkadians. The best known Egyptian pharmaceutical record, "Ebers Papyrus" recorded more than 700 drugs, represents the history of Egyptian medicine dated from 1500 BC. Thousands of herbal and traditional compounds are being screened worldwide to validate their use and several of them find their application in poultry production as well (Liu et al., 1998; Wynn, 2001; Diwanay et al., 2004; Premalatha and Sachdanandam, 1999; Rehman et al., 2011; Khan et al., 2012a).
The present study discusses the multiple beneficial applications of herbs for protecting poultry health in general, countering infectious as well as non-infectious diseases, immunomodulatory effects, increasing production performances, potential to be used as growth promoters, antioxidant usage and their role in organic egg and meat production. The valuable and updated information in the review paper regarding herbs and their various beneficial applications in poultry will be helpful to increase production and safeguard the health of birds in a better way from traditional ways towards modern perspectives and also would promote and popularize usage of herbs amongst poultry producers.
BENEFICIAL APPLICATIONS OF HERBS IN POULTRY
Among all other classes of livestock, poultry industry has been growing persistently over years around the globe with more developments in the last fifty years by providing globally important sources of animal proteins (Byarugaba, 2007). Globally, production of the primary poultry products (meat and eggs( has been rising rapidly. Over a 10 year period between 1995 and 2005, consumption and hence production, has increased globally with the following percentage increases for chicken meat (53%), turkey meat (13%), duck meat (67%), goose meat (53%), chicken eggs (39%) and other eggs (27%) (Scanes, 2007). They are amongst the most intensively reared of all livestock species with the developments especially in the areas of nutrition, disease control, genetic improvement, management and organization of dietary requirements (in precise terms of energy, amino acids, minerals and vitamins), selection and cross-breeding techniques, along with large scale poultry production and vertical integration (Smith, 1990; Adu, 1997; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012). But, the intensity of husbandry can only be done by controlling many infectious diseases and growth and production disturbances that would otherwise inflict severe losses or even thwart intensive poultry sector. The emergence of new pathogens or one variant of an old pathogen has the potential to spread rapidly and devastate the entire flocks (Byarugaba, 2007; Scanes, 2007).
Since time immemorial, plants and plant parts have been serving as an indispensable source of medicine for indigenous poultry production systems. Conventional disease prevention methods are geared towards birds in confinement and not free range in an indigenous poultry production system. However, the existing indigenous technical knowledge inherited from past generations has sustained the local poultry production system (Hashemi and Davoodi, 2012; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012). This knowledge is passed on verbally and is hardly documented. Due to high cost of conventional medicines and vaccines coupled with the lack of knowledge on their use, these drugs are usually out of reach of the small-scale farmers. There is, therefore, need for cheap, easy to use and sustainable local poultry disease control programs (Okitoi et al., 2007; Adu et al., 2009; Mahima et al., 2012). The inherent utility and practical applications of indigenous medicinal herbs/plant extracts (garlic, cinnamon, tulsi, ginger, turmeric, lemon, neem, yucca, thyme, rosemary, etc.) are being explored for improving poultry health as well as production with fruitful results (Sudarshan et al., 2010; Umashanker and Shruti, 2011; Mahima et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012a-c; Sridhar et al., 2014).
Herbal medicines as antimicrobials for poultry: The practice of pharmacological treatment of disease conditions began with the use of herbs (Tyler, 2000) and most of the drugs in vogue to treat bacterial and other infections were first isolated from ethno-medicinal plants and other natural sources (Coe and Anderson, 1996). Antimicrobials based on herbal origin represent a vast untapped source of medicines with tremendous therapeutic potential (Cowan, 1999). The indiscriminate use of conventional antimicrobials has led to a steady increase in the drug resistance and the low-income countries, home to the majority of the worlds population are particularly affected by this phenomenon (Radyowijati and Haak, 2003). Antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria are an increasing threat to animal and human health with resistance mechanisms having been identified and described for all known antimicrobials in vogue (McDermott et al., 2002). This, therefore, necessitates a newer alternative for antimicrobial substances and many plants have been shown to possess antimicrobial traits which are chiefly synthesized during secondary metabolism of the plant (Kokoska et al., 2002; Radyowijati and Haak, 2003; Rusenova and Parvanov, 2009).
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the most prominent herbal medicines with different biologically active principles like azadirachtin, nimbin, salanin, meliacin etc. and many other derivatives of these principles which belong to natural products called triterpenoids (NRC., 1992; Ansari et al., 2012b). The A. indica leaf exhibits potent antimicrobial action as it has proven its, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-malarial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant properties in various experimental studies in poultry (Chakraborty et al., 1989; Subapriya and Nagini, 2005; Ansari et al., 2012a). Neem oil selectively activates the cell mediated immune response by activating macrophages and lymphocytes have been reported effective as a potent bio-insecticide. Apart from this, it exhibits a wide range of other pharmacological activities viz., anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-ulcer, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory and various other properties without showing any adverse effects (Ganju et al., 2003; Chauhan, 2010; Chakraborty and Pal, 2012).
Essential oils derived from plants have provided enough evidences to suggest as a tool in defending bacterial diseases in poultry (Dorman and Deans, 2000; Rota et al., 2004; Gopi et al., 2014). They consist of complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites like phenylpropenes and terpenes, they are particularly associated with characteristic plant fragrances and essences. Essential oils can be applied as potential feed additives for the prophylactic action against microbial infections (Mourey and Canillac, 2002; Cabuk et al., 2006; Brenes and Roura, 2010). Among the various essential oils, thyme, oregano and garlic have shown to be the most pronounced antimicrobial activity (Williams and Losa, 2001; Iten et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2012b). Thyme oil and its components (thymol and carvacrol) demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against most of the poultry pathogens that include Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, S. typhimurium etc. (Smith-Palmer et al., 1998; Al-Bayati, 2008; Bolukbasi et al., 2008; Sokovic et al., 2010; Levic et al., 2011). The essential oil from Origanum vulgare which is obtained by steam-distillation of its leaves and flowers is well known for its antimicrobial activity along with potent antifungal, antioxidant and insecticidal activities (Florou-Paneri et al., 2005; Marcincak et al., 2008; Bozkurt et al., 2012a). Oregano has shown to be an excellent alternative for ionophore antibiotics thereby providing protection against E. tenella infection in birds (Giannenas et al., 2004). A study conducted in live birds showed that certain primary components namely curcumin, piperin, thymol and eugenol of the Curcuma longa (turmeric), Piper nigrum (black pepper), Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), respectively are effective in the control of Clostridium perfringens, an important enteropathogenic bacteria (Mitsch et al., 2004). Garlic (Allium sativum) possesses excellent antimicrobial properties which have been proven by various researchers (Rajendhran et al., 1998; Kim et al., 2009; Jacob and Pescatore, 2011; Rehman et al., 2011). The aqueous extract of garlic has been shown to inhibit E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in vitro (Singh and Shukla, 1984; Kumar and Berwal, 1998). In vitro antimicrobial activity against E. coli has been shown by cinnamon oil that necessitates further in vivo studies for possible benefits in poultry production (Friedman et al., 2004; Griggs and Jacob, 2005). A variety of other plant based remedies have been proven to possess antimicrobial effect and an important one among them is the aqueous extract of the seeds of Carica papaya which lyse bacteria using the enzyme papain (Fajimi and Taiwo, 2005; Pushpangadan, 2006; Adu et al., 2009).
Herbs as antiviral agents for poultry: Herbal preparations are gaining more importance in the search for anti-viral agents because of their wide spread availability and easy incorporation in the diet (Kitazato et al., 2007). Deva-5 is a herb formulation composed of five herbs namely Momordica cochinchinensis L., Gentiana decumbens L., Polygonum bistorta L., Hypecoum erectum L. and Terminalia chebula Retz showed in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8 (Rajasekaran et al., 2013; Oyuntsetseg et al., 2014). Makau et al. (2013) reported that Alchemilla mollis extract showed potent anti-influenza activity against influenza A virus subtypes namely H1N1 and H5N1 by inhibiting influenza virus replication. A. mollis extract synergistically potentiates the anti influenza effect of zanamivir. Many phyto-chemicals such as pentagalloyl glucose (PGG( and oligonol a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit extract showed strong anti-influenza activity by inhibiting virus entry into host cells, inhibits reactive oxygen species-dependent ERK phosphorylation, blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation results in inactivation of the virus (Gangehei et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2011). Watanabe et al. (2011) demonstrated that valtrate from Valerianae radix and 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate from Alpina galangal showed anti-influenza activity by preventing the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein results in inhibition of virus replication.
Ou et al. (2013) investigated the therapeutic effects of the combined extracts of Rhizoma Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis and Fructus Mume (RDCFM) against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) infection. They reported that the herbal extracts increased the survival rate, antibody levels and relative body gain and significantly decreased the virus loads in bursa of Fabricius. The active substances namely proto catechuic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid isolated from Fructus Mume (FM) were established as effective against infectious bursal disease virus by enhancing the protection and increasing the immune response for chickens (Ou et al., 2011, 2012; Okwor et al., 2012). Liu et al. (2009) reported that sweet wormwood (Artemisia annual L.) extracts inhibited the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) proliferation in chicken embryos without causing side effects. Most of the herbal preparations contain various bioactive molecules namely flavonoids, polyphenols, lignans and alkaloids which shows many pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and analgesic properties. Sood et al. (2012) reported that Eugenia jambolana extracts showed 100% virucidal activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in chicken embryonated eggs (ECE) inoculated in-ovo and in tissue culture. Eucalyptol, menthol and ormosinine showed anti-influenza activity due to its potent interactions with the viral HA protein (Gangopadhyay et al., 2011). Essential oils derived from peppermint and eucalyptus showed protective action in broilers against multiple respiratory pathogens mainly Mycoplasma gallisepticum and H9N2 influenza virus infections (Barbour et al., 2006, 2011). Lee et al. (2012a) reported that supplementation of lyophilized green tea by-product extract namely, catechins in feed or drinking water decreases replication and excretion of H9N2 virus from chickens in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-influenza activity of catechins is mainly due to direct interaction with viral HA and inhibition of viral RNA synthesis (Song et al., 2005). Zhai et al. (2011) and Jiang et al. (2012) reported that oral administration of ginseng stem and leaf saponins and Hypericum perforatum L. in feed or drinking water significantly increased the serum antibody response to Newcastle disease, inactivated H5N1 and H9N2 vaccines in chickens.
Major disadvantages of herbal therapy are some herbal derivatives namely ginseng saponins need 4-6 years to purify and is very costly in the market (Zhai et al., 2011). Methods of the extraction and preparation of the crude extracts and its purity greatly influence the inhibition activity of some herbs against infectious organisms. Extensive works are needed to explore the herb-drug interactions, potential toxicity and methods for identifying the active components.
Herbal medicines as anti-coccidiosis in poultry: Due to vast usage of sulphanilamide, ionophorous antibiotics, amprolium or synthetic chemical compounds for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry results in emergence of drug-resistant strains and antibiotic residues in poultry meat posing serious problems to the meat consumers. To overcome this major threat, safe alternative anti-coccidial herbs preparations are required for the treatment and control of avian coccidiosis. Several herbs possess anti-coccidial effects namely Sophora flavescens Aiton, Ulmus macrocarpa, Bupleurum chinese DC, Sinomenium acutum, Artemisia asiatica, Pulsatilla koreana, Artemisia annua Linne, Quisqualis indica, Foeniculum vulgare, Torilis japonica and Galla Rhois powder increases survival rates and body weight gains of birds, reduces bloody diarrhea symptoms and oocyst excretions from birds infected by Eimeria tenella (Youn and Noh, 2001; Lee et al., 2012b; Zhang et al., 2012; Dragan et al., 2014). Chandrakesan et al. (2009) and Arczewska-Wlosek and Swiatkiewicz (2012) evaluated the anti-coccidial activity of some herbal extracts blend containing Salvia officinalis (sage), Solanum nigram, Allium sativum (garlic), Moringa indica, Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Echinacea purpurea (echinacea), Aloe vera, Mentha arvensis and Origanum vulgare (oregano) against E. tenella, Eimeria acervulina, E. necatrix and E. maxima. The extract known as febrifugine contains a quinazolinone alkaloid, halofuginone derived from Dichroa febrifuga has been reported to possess anti-coccidial and anti-malarial activity (Youn and Noh, 2001). Three plant extracts namely Tulbaghia violacea (35 mg kg-1), ch Artemisia afra (150 mg kg-1) and Vitis vinifera (75 mg kg-1) showed anti-coccidial action due to its antioxidant activity. T. violacea significantly reduced the oocysts production in birds; it can be used as prophylactic or therapeutic anticoccidial agent (Naidoo et al., 2008). Therefore, the search of herbal drugs for anti-coccidial treatment gains promise as an alternate in the control of coccidiosis.
The ethnoveterinary usage of herbs in managerial practices for countering common disease conditions of chickens is presented in Table 1.
Herbal medicines against Ecto-and Endo-parasites in poultry: Throughout the world arthropods have been found to inflict immense loss to the poultry industry. Birds are often affected by ecto-parasites which may be continuous or temporary. Continuous external parasites are those that spend all of their adult life on the host and that commonly include sticktight fleas, chicken body lice, scaly leg mites and northern fowl mites. Temporary external parasites are those which feed on the hosts but do not live on them. Common temporary external parasites of poultry include fowl ticks (also known as blue bugs), bed bugs and chicken mites (also known as red mites or roost mites). The use of chemicals viz., hydrocarbons, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids are found not to be free from adverse effects of toxicity to human, added up drug resistance by target parasites and high cost of drugs, paving the way for herbal alternatives. Commercial phytomedicinal preparation like Pestoban is found to be effective against wide variety of poultry lice viz. Cuclotogaster heterographa; Lipeurus caponis; Menopon gallinae and Menocanthus apamineus; Goniocotes gallinae (Das et al., 1993; ICAR., 2002; Fajimi and Taiwo, 2005; Adu et al., 2009). For controlling lice infestation in poultry, the stem and leaf extract of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also showed a 100% efficacy by the 2nd day of application on skin (Fajimi et al., 2001). Pawpaw leaves when burnt into ashes can be used as a topical agent to control lice in poultry (Nwude and Ibrahim, 1980). Lice can also be controlled by powdered seeds of Annona squamosa and Tephrosia vogelli. Topical application of 10% aqueous extract of garlic is shown to be an effective way to decrease mite infestation in birds (Jacob and Pescatore, 2011). Cinnamon oil has shown anti-parasitic activity against Trichomonas, Histomonas meleagridis and head lice in chicken (Zenner et al., 2003). Allium cepa (onion) has proven pronounced anti-parasitic activity against many helminthes and protozoa such as, Trichinella spiralis and Leishmania sp. For preventing lice in ducks, drop the bulb in the birds drinking water and for chickens green leaves (spring onions) can be used to be picked by the birds (Gefu et al., 2000).
Among the internal parasitic diseases in poultry, avian coccidiosis is the most wide-spread disease which is mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Now the emergence of drug-resistant strains demands the need for an alternative and potential control strategy mainly based on herbal remedies. Most widely used and proven herbal anticoccidials include Aloe vera, Aloe spicata, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Ficus burkei, Lannea stullmanni, Myrothamnus flabellifoilius, Capsicum annum etc. (Elbanna et al., 2012; Kanakaraju et al., 2013). Neem extract contains the chemical Azadirachtin which has a significant efficiency on pests, deformental effect on viruses, mites, fungal pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes, intestinal worms, bacteria, mollusks and protozoan parasites such as coccidian species (NRC., 1992; Biu et al., 2006). Dietary incorporation of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Artemisia annua at levels of 10 and 5%, respectively was shown to affect the broiler performances and possess anticoccidial potency against Eimeria tenella (Hady and Zaki, 2012). It has been proven that the latex of Carica papaya has reasonable pharmaco therapeutic properties against intestinal nematodes of poultry especially, Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinanum, Capillaria spp., etc. and a dose rate of 1200 mg papaya latex per bird is formulated as an effective anthelminthic preparation (Fajimi et al., 2001). Also the aqueous extract of the seeds of Carica papaya has shown 90% efficacy towards other helminthes like Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Trichostrongylus, because of the action of papain on them (Fajimi and Taiwo, 2005; Adu et al., 2009). Citrus aurantifolia (lime) can prevent worm infestation when its juice is mixed with drinking water (Fajimi et al., 2001). Amaranthus spinosus is a vermifuge through its ethanolic extract against Strongylus sp. and Trichuris sp. s0 (Assiak et al., 2001). Regular addition of garlic into the drinking water is an effective control measure for intestinal worms and coccidiosisin poultry (Jacob and Pescatore, 2011). Chopped seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) are shown to be good for the control of tapeworms in laying hens (Jacob and Pescatore, 2011). Herbal immunomodulators that contain holy basil (Ocimum sanctum); mango (Mangifera indica); Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica); ginseng (Withania somnifera) and Shilajit (Asphaltum puniabiunum) when used experimentally, have shown to fight caecal coccidiosis in poultry (Pangasa, 2005).
|| Common diseases of native chickens and their ethnoveterinary managerial practices
Regano, a natural extract of a specially selected cultivar of Oreganum vulgare gave effective protection against the coccidiosis challenge. The level of protection achieved by the Regano was similar to the protection provided by Salinomycin at 55 g/MT (Saini et al., 2003).
Pasture management is considered as one of the best practices to prevent parasitic infestation and pasture rotation will break the life cycle of worms. Some of the pasture plants that can be planted are: Wormwood, Peppermint, lemon grass (Citronella) etc. By planting these plants around the coop area, birds will eat and walk on the leaves assisting with internal and external parasite eradication. Also they form large clumps of aromatic long leaves keeping flies, fleas and mites away from the coop area. Birds eat the tips and brush against the bushes when planted close by around the poultry shed to control parasites.
Immunomodulatory herbs for poultry: Over the past few decades, vigorous emphasis has been made for enhancing the growth and production performances in the poultry industry which badly resulted in an adverse effect on the immunological parameters of poultry, thereby damaging the natural defensive mechanism against various microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, pathogenic fungi, ecto and endo-parasites and various toxins etc. Due to development of antibiotic resistance by the bacteria and pathogenic microbes researchers are now thinking towards immunomodulation. Nowadays, immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits (Hashemi and Davoodi, 2012). Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported with immunomodulatory effects like histamine release, modulation of cytokine and immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis etc. (Spelman et al., 2006; Mahima et al., 2012).
Modulation of immune response to alleviate diseases has since long been of great interest to researchers (Sharma, 1983; Spelman et al., 2006; Ozek et al., 2011; Mahima et al., 2012). Indian medicinal plants are a rich source of substances which are claimed to induce immunity, thereby stimulating the non-specific immunomodulation, essentially granulocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells and complement functions (Hashemi and Davoodi, 2012; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012). Immunomodulation using medicinal plants provides an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for several diseases, especially when suppression of inflammation is desired (Mahima et al., 2012). Herbal medicine relies on active plant chemicals with biological properties. Many conventional medicines are synthetic compounds designed to mimic the action of plant chemicals. Recently, there has been progress on the ethno-medicinal plants as immunomodulatory agents because of the fact that plant extracts have been widely investigated during last few decades in different parts of the world for their possible immunomodulatory properties. In due course, several studies have demonstrated the isolation of potential bioactive molecules having influence on immune system and few have been tested as herbal formulations (Ahmed and Bassuony, 2009; Akerreta et al., 2010).
There are various natural adjuvants and synthetic agents which have been used as immune stimulants (Levamisole, Thalidomide etc.) but they are proven to possess various side effects. On the other hand, the conventional plant immunomodulators are safer, cheaper and much more effective. So herbal medicines are being used as immunomodulators and have alternative potential for the conventional chemotherapy against a variety of diseases especially in relation to host defense mechanisms. Several plant extracts, compounds and formulations have also been patented and this include various polysaccharides, lectins, peptides, flavonoids and tannins which are used in various in vitro models to assess their immune responses (Cherng et al., 2008). In literature, many plants have been listed; having immunomodulatory effects and some of them have been proven using modern scientific methodologies (Barnes et al., 2007).
Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) is one of the well-known medicinal plants which has been used amply for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to increase longevity and vitality (Choudhari et al., 2006; Winters, 2006). Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this plant, among which the important one is the steroidal lactone called Withanolides, having antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor and immunomodulatory activities (Elsakka et al., 1990; Jayaprakasam et al., 2003; Shisodiya et al., 2008; Shirin et al., 2009). From the study conducted by Bani et al. (2006), it has shown that the oral administration of W. somnifera extract selectively skewed the immune response towards Th1 response cells rather than Th2 cells by increased IFN gamma and IL-2 versus IL-4 cytokines levels. Besides increasing the expression of T-helper1 (Th1) cytokines, it modulates the immune response by augmenting the CD4 and CD8 counts and Natural killer (NK) cell activity (Davis and Kuttan, 2002; Khan et al., 2006). This indicates its unique immunomodulatory profile which suggests that it is having stimulatory effect on T lymphocytes, its subsets and B-lymphocytes involved in antibody synthesis (Benacerraf, 1978; Dean et al., 1979; Luster et al., 1982; Bani et al., 2006). Bhardwaj et al. (2012) showed that the supplementation of Ashwagandha root powder at the inclusion rate of 1 percent in poultry diets is found optimum for significant effect on body weight, Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE), haematological parameters and improving the general health status of birds. Its hydro-alcoholic root extract has shown antiviral activity against IBD Virus replication (Pant et al., 2012). Administration of W. somnifera extract to broiler chick diets resulted in an increase in Hb, PCV, TLC and antibody titre against viral diseases like IB and IBD, suggesting the improvement in hematological profile and immunological status of the birds (Mushtaq et al., 2012; Pant et al., 2012). Mice treated with W. somnifera and radiation showed a 143.6% increase in bone marrow cellularity and maintained the levels of normochromic and polychromic erythrocytes compared to mice being treated with radiation therapy alone (Devi et al., 1996; Kuttan, 1996; Ganasoundari et al., 1997; Winters, 2006).
The herb Tinospora cordifolia (Family, Menispermaceae) belongs to a group of medicinal plants that grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of India (Sengupta et al., 2011). It is a large glabrous climber with succulent corky stem, sub deltoid cordate leaves, branches sending down and pendulous fleshy roots. Guduchi is also well known for its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties, activates macrophages and cytokine production and its extract has been found to have wide use in the Indian System of Medicine for a variety of diseases (Kapil and Sharma, 1997; Prince and Menon, 2003; Srinivasan et al., 2008). It can act as an immune prophylactic agent and induces disease resistance properties by boosting general immunity to fight against diseases, prevents oxidative damage, help recruitment of macrophages in response to tumor growth, increases leukocyte counts and reduces cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia (Bishayi et al., 2002; Chakraborty et al., 2010). Activation of the immune system by the novel (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan from Tinospora cordifolia occurs via the activation of macrophages that occurs through TLR6 signaling and NF kappa B translocation along with cytokine responses (Rege et al., 1999; Nair et al., 2006). The water soluble fraction of T. cordifolia leaf fraction is found as an immunoprophylactic agent due to its immunostimulatory and disease resistance properties (Alexander et al., 2010). Guduchi can be used as a good alternative to costly allopathic medicine in boosting the immune functions in intoxicated conditions and can effectively complement allopathic medicines in diseased state (Sengupta et al., 2011; Bhalerao et al., 2012). Crude extract of Tinospora cordifolia contains a polyclonal B cell mitogen which enhanced immune response in mice (Alamgir and Uddin, 2010). It also prevents oxidative damage, induced by peroxy nitrite, wherein the action was similar to selective inhibitors of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like mannitol, superoxide dismutase, sodium azide and antioxidants, GSH and vitamin C (Desai et al., 2002; Prince et al., 2004; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012). Moreover, T. cordifolia increases the leukocyte counts and reduces the neutropenia induced by single and multiple doses of cyclophosphamide (Thatte et al., 1987; Singh et al., 2006). It was reported that T. cordifolia can stimulate production of cytokines like IL-1 and TNF (Dahanukar et al., 2000) which are having important role in hematopoiesis (Mochizuki et al., 1987; Guilbert et al., 1993; Singh et al., 2006; Upadhyaya et al., 2011; Kumar et al., 2013a).
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is another immunomodulatory herb, that has shown marked influence on the haematological parameters in birds like haemoglobin, PCV and RBC indices (Khan and Zafar, 2005; Ansari et al., 2012b). It may be due to hepato-stimulatory and hepato-protective effects of neem leaves resulting in the synthesis of more haemoglobin (Hb) in the bone marrow (by erythropoietic factors released by hepatic cells), there is much more increase in the Hb concentration (Talebi et al., 2005). It has been proven to be beneficial in immunosuppressed conditions like Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), in poultry. Feeding of powdered dry leaves of A. indica was found to be effective on humoral and cell mediated immune responses, in a flock of broilers which had survived an outbreak of IBD. Renu et al. (2003) has shown that the administration of Neem leaf extract enhanced cell mediated immune response (as observed by DTH in term of increased skin thickness to 2,4-dinitro-chlorobenzene in skin contact sensitivity test) and improved humoral immune response against NDV antigen (as detected by indirect ELISA), indicating its immune potentiating effect (Haq et al., 1999; Ansari et al., 2012a). Studies conducted on the immunomodulatory potential of the above three herbs (ain W. somnifera, T. cordifolia and A. indica) against chicken infectious anaemia, an immunosuppressive viral disease of young chicks, revealed that these herbs have excellent capacity in stimulating both the cellular and humoral immune responses in chicks against the causative virus and also ameliorating effects on viral pathogenesis were observed (Latheef et al., 2013; Latheef et al., 2013). On assessing the viral load in target organs, using the real time PCR technique, it was found that the viral load in herbal treated birds reduced almost up to 50% compared to the control group, thereby resisting viral multiplication in those organs (Latheef, 2013).
Wild mint (Mentha longifolia) has been found to enhance immunity especially in broiler chicks in addition to the improvement in growth performance, feed conversion ratio and gross return. The active virtues of this particular herb depend on the abundance of volatile oil containing thymol (hydrocarbon) in addition to higher oxygenated compounds. The polysaccharides obtained from four Chinese plants (Astragalus root, Isatis root, Achyranthes root and Chinese Yam( significantly improved antibody titres in vaccinated chicken. Due to the presence of low molecular weight polysaccharides like acyranthan (ACH) and astragalan (APS), they can be used as feed additives to improve immunity of broiler birds (Alzorekya and Nakahara, 2003; Chen et al., 2003; Durrani et al., 2008; Khaligh et al., 2011; Okokon et al., 2012). In another study, herbal formulation containing extracts of Asparagus racemosus was proven effective to be recommended for use as a positive immunomodulator in normal and immuno-compromised broiler chicks (Kumari et al., 2012).
Herbs and spices rich in flavonoids, vitamin C and carotenoids generally have more beneficial effects on immune system. Those plants containing these molecules of immunostimulatory properties are Echinacea sp., Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice), Allium sativum (garlic) and Uncaria tomentosa (Cats claw) and they can improve the functions of lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells a s well as increase phagocytosis and stimulate the interferon synthesis (Frankic et al., 2009). Echinacea stimulates macrophages, cytokine production, Natural Killer (NK) cells, neutrophil and B-lymphocyte activity. Liquid preparations have been shown to have immune-stimulating property and enhance several white blood cells and phagocytosis (Burton Goldberg Group, 1999) and production of specific IgG in birds. Liquorice is also a potent immunomodulatory with anti complimentary and antioxidant activity (Ablise et al., 2004). Glabridin, one of its active principles, prevents LDL oxidation (Belinky et al., 1998). The components of its root can modulate Bcl-2/Bax (the family of apoptotic regulatory factors) which attributes for their cytoprotective activity (Jo et al., 2004). Cats claw (Uncaria tomentosaain) induces p ositive influence on IL-1, IL-6 and IFN-γ production and found to exhibit immune adjuvant activity with pneumococcal vaccine (Winkler et al., 2004). Its anti-inflammatory effects are due to negation of NF-KB activation and suppression of TNF-α synthesis (Sandoval-Chacon et al., 1998; Sandoval et al., 2000). Other actions like modulation of apoptosis, tumor cell proliferation and DNA repair, lead to cyto-protective effect (Sheng et al., 1998) and selectively induce apoptosis, leading to antitumor activity (Sheng et al., 2000). Researchers reported that broilers fed with oxidized fat showed a significantly increased concentration of tocopherols, beta-carotene, lutein and retinol in plasma and tissue. Also, essential oils extracted from medicinal plants improve the immune response and also are able to cause changes of the duodenal mucosa with beneficial effects for the animal (Stef et al., 2009).
Conflicting reports are available regarding the efficacy of herbs producing immunomodulating effects on poultry. The reason may be attributed to the mechanism of action of plant extracts, the desirable effects of these extracts mainly depend upon the structure and level used in addition to the metabolism (Barreto et al., 2008). Second, it is difficult to precisely determine the required active ingredients for exerting the positive effect due to unknown dose required to elicit a response (Khan et al., 2012d). Third, the chemical composition of the plant extracts vary with different parts of the plants as well as environmental conditions, climate, soil and harvesting time (Khan et al., 2012a-d). Rajput et al. (2007) reported that the combination of an inactivated H5N1 vaccine and Cochinchina momordica seed extract as adjuvant significantly increased the daily body weight gain and immune response in broiler chickens.
Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of two herbs viz., Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) are depicted in Fig. 1 and 2, respectively.
|| Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)
|| Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica)
HERB-BASED POULTRY GROWTH PROMOTERS
Among the major aspects of food production and safety in nowadays, reduction in the use of antibiotics and other medicinal products in the poultry production is a major concern, especially due to over bacterial resistance and possible transmission of these antibiotic residues into the human food chain (Panda et al., 2008; Sanjyal and Sapkota, 2011). Consequently, the poultry feed industry is facing increased consumer pressure to reduce the use of those antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry diets. In broiler diets, the beneficial effects of medicinal plants and their various products including plant extracts and essential oils as phytogenic feed additives are proven (Bolukbasi and Erhan, 2007; Windisch et al., 2008; Dalkilic and Guler, 2009; Bozkurt et al., 2012b). Plant extracts and various phytobiotics that originate from leaves, roots, tubers or fruits of herbs, spices and other plants have shown to be excellent growth enhancers in poultry industry (Steiner, 2009; Wallace et al., 2010). This effect may be due to the synergistic action of various active molecules in them and the greater efficiency in the utilization of feed, resulting in enhanced growth and production (Hashemi and Davoodi, 2010). The basic strategies of including these herbs in poultry diets are to impact the metabolism by combating stress and microbial activity and there are scientific evidences to prove that herbal extracts stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria and curtail pathogenic bacterial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Prevention of the colonization of the pathogens and improvement of the production and activities of digestive enzymes are the essential functions of such phytogenic components (Langhout, 2000; Wenk, 2000; Lee et al., 2003, 2004; Tekeli et al., 2006; Sanjyal and Sapkota, 2011). Several strategies have been postulated to understand the growth promoting effects of herbs in poultry. First, the improved performance has been linked with increased secretion of digestive enzymes through the production of lipase, amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin and enhanced nutrient utilization in the liver (Langhout, 2000; Khan et al., 2012d). Second, the antibacterial action of essential components of these herbs may suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria on one hand and promote the growth of probiotic (bacillus, lactobacillus and acidophilus etc.) bacteria in the gut. No doubt literature is full of the beneficial effects of herbs in improved poultry production; however, there are many reports which negate the beneficial effects of herbs. The reason may be due to the difference in experimental protocol, environmental conditions, reduced antimicrobial effect of any plant extract through altering the substrate and unavailability of bio-ingredients which are usually absent in pure conditions (Langhout, 2000; Lee et al., 2003; Barreto et al., 2008). According to some author, the improved performance may be attributed to the essential components which have antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal effects (Khan et al., 2012a). Another hypothesis suggests that commercial products of a herb may exert different effects. For example, raw garlic (allicin rich( and processed garlic (non-allicin rich( differ in term of active ingredients which may potentially elicit different response in the host (Khan et al., 2012b).
Herbs which are proven as excellent growth promoters in poultry includes Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Emblica officinalis, Aloe vera, Thymus vulgaris, Curcuma longa, Origanum vulgare, Allium sativum, horseradish, cyenne pepper, ginger, anis, onions, fenugreek, cumin etc. Herbs like alfa alfa (Medicago sativa), senna (Alexandrian senna), corn flower (Centaurea cyanus) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) when used as feed additives in broilers can also act as efficient as well as safe growth enhancers and thereby meet the demand of the poultry industry (Dharma and Tomar, 2007; Soltan et al., 2008; Khaligh et al., 2011; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012; Kumar et al., 2013b). Most of these herbs initiate activity in the feed as flavor enhancers, stimulators of digestive secretions and total feed intake etc. They enhance the digestion and absorption of lipids through the synthesis of bile in the liver. They also accelerate the digestion and reduce the time of rate of passage through the digestive tract. Herbal growth promoters also include spices like cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, laurel, mint etc. (Frankic et al., 2009; Alsaht et al., 2014). These are well-known for their appetite stimulant effect, especially through the stimulation of pancreatic and other digestive enzymes but different herbs affect digestion processes differently, due to the wide variety of active components present in them (Frankic et al., 2009; Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, 2012). Herbs can act as alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGPs) because they exhibit antimicrobial properties and thus can form integral part of poultry nutrition (Gbenga et al., 2009). Broad antimicrobial activity is possessed by many herbs and their bio-active constituents. There exists scientific evidence that herbs and plant extracts can work by stimulating growth of microbiota and minimizing the activity of pathogens in the poultry gastro intestinal tract. In comparison to other type of dietary treatments herb like garlic (Allium sativum) when supplemented with antibiotic and thyme in broiler chick diet causes significant increase in the length of the small intestine. Significant lower concentration of E. coli is also achieved by supplementation of such combination from herbal extracts in the diet (Kamel, 2001; Tucker, 2002; Cross et al., 2003; Lewis et al., 2003; Sarica et al., 2005). A study on Aloe vera gel has shown to improve the feed efficiency, increase gizzard weight, gastro-intestinal weight as well as length by increasing the size of digestive tract and also it has been found to reduce the total count of aerobic bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract in broilers (Sinurat et al., 2003).
EFFECT OF HERBAL PREPARATIONS ON GENERAL PERFORMANCE OF POULTRY
Herbs and herbal products are easily available, low cost, abundance and incorporated in poultry feeds to enhance the body weight gain and to increase the feed efficiency. Allinson et al. (2013) reported that herbal extracts enhances the performance in poultry and increases the feed: gain and weight gain ratio by significantly decreasing the bacterial and oocsyt count. Feeding Garlic Powder (GP) to broilers enhances the performance, improves digestibility, digestive organs, Crude Protein (CP), Dry Matter (DM) and Ether Extract (EE) digestibility (Issa and Abo Omar, 2012). Tollba and Hassan (2003) demonstrated that natural feed additives such as black cumin (Niglla sativa) and garlic (Allium sativum) improves the physiological and productive performance of broiler chicks, growth rate, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and decreased mortality rate under high temperature conditions. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) supplementation at 15 or 20 g kg-1 diet can increase the feed conversion ratio, body weight gain, feed intake and performance of broilers due to its active principle known as carvacrol and thymol (Abdel-Wareth et al., 2012). Incorporation of essential oils from herbs in poultry diets showed various beneficial effects, enhancing performance traits, reducing pathogenic bacteria and decreasing antibiotic residues in meat and egg products (Hertrampf, 2001). Demir et al. (2003) and Elagib et al. (2013) reported that incorporation of growth promoter such as 3% of garlic (Allium sativum) powder (250 g) causes significant increase in feed intake, body weight gain, higher feed conversion ratio, highest breast weight and growth performance. Supplementation of feed with Curcuma longa rhizome powder at the rate of 0.75-1 g kg-1 results in increased feed consumption in broilers (Al-Kassie et al., 2011). Initial body weight, final body weight, egg weight and egg yolk index, egg shell thickness, egg yolk weight, plasma glucose and triglyceride were not statistically affected by dietary garlic powder supplementation (1, 2 or 4%) in laying quails for 14 weeks (Canogullari et al., 2010). On the contrary, plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations were decreased with increasing garlic powder supplementation but the level of HDL in blood was augmented with garlic supplementation compared to the control diet. In the previous studies it was found that rabbits fed diet supplemented with Yucca schidigera extract did not affect growth performance in general but improved the immunity function, moreover, rabbits fed diet tlinesupplemented with yucca extract had lower ammonia in serum, lipid peroxidation in liver and increased hepatic antioxidant activities.
HERBS AS ANTIOXIDANTS FOR POULTRY
Nowadays, there has been an increase in demand for natural antioxidants in food due to its health benefits against oxidative stress and several diseases. Plant derived antioxidants are gaining more demand in poultry nutrition because their meat has high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and susceptible to lipid oxidation (Christaki, 2012). Many plants have been identified as excellent poultry antioxidants; important among which are rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Olive leaves (Olea europea L.) garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and so forth (Madsen and Bertelsen, 1995; Botsoglou et al., 2002, 2005, 2013; Rahal et al., 2014b). Among these, Rosemary and rosemary extracts are some of the most studied natural antioxidants in poultry products and these studies have demonstrated the ability of rosemary products to act as natural antioxidants in various poultry products (Rojas and Brewer, 2007; Karre et al., 2013). Apart from these, fruits like plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract etc. provide good alternatives to synthetic antioxidants due to the high phenolic compound in them (Brannan, 2008; Karre et al., 2013). Spices like cinnamon, cloves, marjoram, wild marjoram, caraway, peppermint, nutmeg etc., have been shown to have antioxidant properties as they contain the compounds such as polyphenolics, lignans, flavonoids and terpenoids (Craig, 1999; Botsoglou et al., 2013). Among the herbal plants, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) have been proven as an excellent adaptogen and antistress agent. It has proven to reverse the Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in chicken (Bharavi et al., 2010). Studies showed that active ingredients of plants have strong antioxidant effects including neutralization of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide either by scavenging radicals or by increasing the production of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathtion peroxidase (GPx) (Ali et al., 2006; Yarru et al., 2009). Turmeric has been shown to increase the expression of SOD gene and protects the mitochondria against premature damage (Reddy and Lokesh, 1994; Miquel et al., 2006). The beneficial antioxidant effect of turmeric has been due to the presence of tetrahydro curcumin, cinnamic acid, curlone and niacin (Khan et al ., 2012a). Ginger contains some important metabolites and alkaloids like gingerol, shogaol, gingerdione, shogaols and other phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties (Zhang et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2011). In thyme, important alkaloids isolated include carvacrol, thymol, caffeic acid, p-cymene-2, 3-diol and biphenylic (Schwarz et al., 1996; Bolukbasi et al., 2006). Regarding the mechanism of action of thymol, Lee et al. (2004) concluded that phenolic OH group of thymol acts as hydrogen donor to neutralize the peroxyl radicals which is produced during the initial step of lipid peroxidation.
EFFECT OF HERBAL PREPARATION ON ENZYMES OF POULTRY
Deshpande (2006) reported that dietary supplementation of tulsi leaf powder (Ocimum sanctum) causes significant increase in serum cholesterol and HDL levels in laying hens. However, turmeric (Curcuma longa) as nutraceutical to improve broiler performance had no significant effect on cholesterol concentration (Namagirilakshmi, 2005). Supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder to broilers considerably reduced the liver enzymes such as ALT and ALP (Emadi and Kermanshahi, 2007) and tulsi leaf powder ameliorates the lead induced toxicity in cockerels by reducing the liver enzymes (Prakash et al., 2009). Feeding of tulsi leaf powder to broilers, neutralises the toxic effects of aflatoxins by significantly reducing the enzyme activities of AST, ALT and ALP (Sapcota and Upadhyaya, 2009). Lanjewar et al. (2008) reported that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder to broilers causes significant reduction in serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides. However, Gupta and Charan (2007) reported that tulsi supplementation reduces serum SGOT levels in broilers, whereas it has no significant effect on SGPT, creatinine and uric acid. Supplementation of herbal growth promoters such as amla to broilers causes reduced cholesterol, increased SAP and SGPT levels and no effect on SGOT (Vidyarthi et al., 2008). Reddy et al. (2007) reported that feeding of broilers with tulsi leaf powder (0.5%) and selenium (0.3 ppm) significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation levels and increased the plasma GSH levels. Feeding of broilers with combination of Aloe vera and Curcuma longa had no significant effect on serum glucose, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, Reddy (2010) observed that supplementation of amla, tulsi and turmeric powder in different combinations had no significant change on serum SGOT, SGPT and cholesterol levels.
Multiple beneficial applications and overview of the usage of herbs along with their modes of actions for protecting health of poultry and increasing production performances are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 3.
|| Some of the popular herbal remedies for poultry
|| An overview of the beneficial application of herbs in poultry health and production
ROLE OF HERBS IN ORGANIC EGG PRODUCTION IN POULTRY
Recently, organic egg production is gaining more importance and needs access to forage material such as pasture/crop in the hen yard or supplemented with roughage in the form of silages and vegetables in addition to the basal diet (The Council of the European Union, 2007). Hammershoj and Steenfeldt (2012) studied the effect of feeding kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a forage material on various egg quality parameters and egg production. They reported no significant difference in forage intake and laying rate between treatment groups but kale treatment significantly increased egg weight, higher egg shell strength; lutein, β-carotene and violaxanthin content. Several studies have emphasized on the importance of forage material (whole wheat, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum and Linum usitatissimum) on egg production, calcium supplements to laying hens, carotenoids in egg yolk, various egg quality parameters, conversion of oil rich forage material into specific fatty acids to the egg yolk and supply of vitamins, essential amino acids and minerals (Horsted et al., 2006; Hammershoj and Steenfeldt, 2009; Woods and Fearon, 2009; Hammershoj et al., 2010). Moreover, different aromatic herbs, vegetables and forage material can directly transfer flavours to the egg (Tserveni-Gousi, 2001) and as a result of altered microflora composition of the intestine due to change in forage material, thereby causing new flavours to the egg (Richter et al., 2002).
ROLE OF HERBS IN ORGANIC MEAT PRODUCTION IN POULTRY
Incorporation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) root powder and mannan oligosaccharides in broiler ration as a feed supplement results in decrease in the fat percentage up to 1% (Al-Sultan, 2003) and 1.2% (Samarasinghe et al., 2003) levels over body weights. Emadi and Kermanshahi (2006) reported that supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder (0.75%) in broiler rations leads to improved carcass quality, lean meat and significant decrease in abdominal fat pad up to 57% level and heart weights to live body weight. Furthermore, turmeric powder supplementation in broiler feed causes higher dressing percent up to 57% level, increased the liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblets weight (Kurkure et al., 2002; Al-Sultan, 2003; Durrani et al., 2006). Shyama Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf preparation as a broiler feed supplementation for its growth promoter activity causes no significant change in the weights of the bursa, liver and spleen (Gupta and Charan, 2007). Singh et al. (2007b) reported that supplementation of the amla and turmeric combined powder at the rate of 5g kg-1 in broiler feed results in enhanced dressing percentage and decreased mortality in broiler chicks. Mehala and Moorthy (2008) demonstrated that combination of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and Aloe vera at different concentrations showed no significant change in the abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. A combination of tulsi, amla and turmeric at the rate of 0.5% has not shown significant difference in ready to cook yield percentage and giblet weights (Reddy, 2010).
It has been vivid that the potential of medicinal herbs as the valuable source of therapeutics aids has attained a global significant place in the health system all over the world not only for humans but also for animals as well as birds. Herbs can be used as a good alternative therapeutic aid to costly allopathic medicines/chemotherapy and boosting immune functions in intoxicated conditions and can also effectively complement allopathic medicines in diseased state. Globally, the poultry industry is going through a crucial era of increasing demand for the products at the same time, experiencing production and health problems. So the sustainable present and future of poultry sector necessitates the optimum and accurate implementation of herbal remedies which overcome the demerits of extensive allopathic drugs. The tremendous potentials of traditional, herbal, botanical and medicinal plants could be made practical with the adjunct of the recent advances in science and technologies including of molecular, biotechnological and nanotechnology. Also, there is a great need to strengthen Research and Developmental facilities for integration of these modern and novel scientific advances with herbal usages. A thorough re-evaluation and scientific validation of these valuable ancient medicines need to be redirected from current perspectives and future prospects which are in great demand in the developed world as they are able to cure many infectious diseases. These need to be much promoted to combat a variety of poultry diseases, particularly the immunosuppressive ones, safeguard poultry health and boost the productive performance of birds.
Research works and project formulations should be carried out for studying and assessing the potentials of useful medicinal properties, discovering beneficial active components, revealing mechanism of actions of individual herbs in particular, herbal metabolites and standardization of doses, purification and extracting procedures, so as to authenticate, strengthen and widen the beneficial usages of these traditional medicines. Advances in biotechnological and molecular approaches being exploited for allopathic drugs and other medicines need to be explored to their full potentials for scientific validation and promoting fruitful applications of herbs. Nanotechnology based smart drug delivery systems and nanomedicines would facilitate drug delivery in an efficient way and targeted manner which would reduce the drug doses to be administered as well as drug toxicity/side effects thereby rendering safer products. Species identification, cultivation and efforts for conserving precious herbal species also need to be taken on priority. Apart from this, strict quality control and regulatory measures need to be implemented so as to have a check on the standards and avoid adulteration of these various traditional medicines/products available. All these approaches would help to prove the medicinal and health values of herbs and their products which would make them promoted and popularized as well as accepted by mass community with dimension and practical applications for animal and human health benefits as well as poultry industry. These will all together improve prospects of this traditional wealth towards modern medicines, drugs and health care products derived from their origin to improve the market potential and commercialization aspects at global level.
Abdel-Wareth, A.A.A., S. Kehraus, F. Hippenstiel and K.H. Sudekum, 2012.
Effects of thyme and oregano on growth performance of broilers from 4 to 42 days of age and on microbial counts in crop, small intestine and caecum of 42-day-old broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 178: 198-202.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ablise, M., B. Leininger-Muller, C.D. Wong, G. Siest, V. Loppinet and S. Visvikis, 2004.
Synthesis and in vitro
antioxidant activity of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives tested with the cytochrome P450/NADPH system. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 52: 1436-1439.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Adu, O.A., 1997.
Successful feeding in poultry. Livestock News, Volume 1, Number 1, Nigeria.
Adu, O.A., K.A. Akingboye and A. Akinfemi, 2009.
Potency of pawpaw (Carica papaya
) latex as an anthelmintic in poultry production. Bot. Res. Int., 2: 139-142.Direct Link |
Agarwal, A., 2005.
Critical issues in quality control of natural products. Pharm. Times, 37: 9-11.
Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, A., 2012.
Importance of medical herbs in animal feeding: A review. Ann. Biol. Res., 3: 918-923.Direct Link |
Ahmed, A.A. and N.I. Bassuony, 2009.
Importance of medical herbs in animal feeding. World J. Agric. Sci., 5: 456-465.
Akbarian, A., A. Golian, A.S. Ahmadi and H. Moravej, 2011.
Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale
) on egg yolk cholesterol, antioxidant status and performance of laying hens. J. Applied Anim. Sci., 39: 19-21.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Akerreta, S., M.I. Calvo and R.Y. Cavero, 2010.
Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Navarra (Iberian Peninsula). J. Ethnopharmacol., 130: 369-378.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Alamgir, M. and S.J. Uddin, 2010.
Recent Advances on the Ethnomedicinal Plants as Immunomodulatory Agents. In: Ethnomedicine: A Source of Complementary Therapeutics, Chattopadhyay, D. (Ed.). Research Signpost, Kerala, India, ISBN-13: 9788130803906, pp: 227-244
Al-Bayati, F.A., 2008.
Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris
and Pimpinella anisum
essential oils and methanol extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116: 403-406.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Al-Kassie, G.A.M., A.M. Mohseen and R.A. Abd-Al-Jaleel, 2011.
Modification of productive performance and physiological aspects of broilers on the addition of a mixture of cumin and turmeric to the diet. Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1: 31-34.Direct Link |
Alexander, C.P., C.J.W. Kirubakaran and R.D. Michael, 2010.
Water soluble fraction of Tinospora cordifolia
leaves enhanced the non-specific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus
. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 29: 765-772.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ali, B.H., H. Marrif, S.A. Noureldayem, A.O. Bakheit and G. Blunden, 2006.
Some biological properties of curcumin: A review. Nat. Prod. Commun., 1: 509-521.Direct Link |
Ali, B.H., G. Blunden, M.O. Tanira and A. Nemmar, 2008.
Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale
Roscoe): A review of recent research. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46: 409-420.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Aligiannis, N., E. Kalpoutzakis, S. Mitaku and I.B. Chinou, 2001.
Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Origanum
species. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 4168-4170.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Allinson, I.B., D.A. Ekunseitan, A.A. Ayoola, I.M. Ogunade and C.P. Njoku, 2013.
Effect of herbal supplement on growth response and faecal egg counts of cockerels. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3: 68-73.Direct Link |
Alsaht, A.A., S.M. Bassiony, G.A. Abdel-Rahman and S.A. Shehata, 2014.
Effect of cinnamaldehyde thymol mixture on growth performance and some ruminal and blood constituents in growing lambs fed high concentrate diet. Life Sci. J., 11: 240-248.Direct Link |
Al-Sultan, S.I., 2003.
The effect of Curcuma longa
(Tumeric) on overall performance of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 2: 351-353.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Alzorekya, N.S. and K. Nakahara, 2003.
Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 80: 223-230.
Ansari, J., S.H. Khan, A.U. Haq and M. Yousaf, 2012.
Effect of the levels of Azadirachta indica
dried leaf meal as phytogenic feed additive on the growth performance and haemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chicks. J. Applied Anim. Res., 40: 336-345.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ansari, J., S.H. Khan, A.U. Haq, T. Ahmad and M.I. Abbass, 2013.
Effect of supplementation of Withania somnifera
(Linn.) dunal roots on growth performance, serum biochemistry, blood hematology and immunity of broiler chicks. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants, 19: 144-158.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ansari, S.H., F. Islam and M. Sameem, 2012.
Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A review. J. Adv. Pharmaceut. Technol. Res., 3: 142-146.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Arczewska-Wlosek, A. and S. Swiatkiewicz, 2012.
The effect of a dietary herbal extract blend on the performance of broilers challenged with Eimeria oocysts
. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 21: 133-142.
Ashour, E.A., M. Alagawany, F.M. Reda and M.E. Abd El-Hack, 2014.
Effect of supplementation of Yucca schidigera
extract to growing rabbit diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum biochemistry and liver oxidative status. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9: 732-742.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Assiak, I.E., M.A. Onigemo, B.E. Olufemi and L.A. Tijani, 2001. Amaranthus spinosus
as a vermifuge: A preliminary investigation in Pigs. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Nigeria Society of Animal Production, March 18-22, 2001, NAPRI, Zaria, Nigeria, pp: 60-62
Ao, X., J.S. Yoo, J.H. Lee, H.D. Jang, J.P. Wang, T.X. Zhou and I.H. Kim, 2010.
Effects of fermented garlic powder on production performance, egg quality, blood profiles and fatty acids composition of egg yolk in laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 23: 786-791.Direct Link |
Ao, X., J.S. Yoo, T.X. Zhou, J.P. Wang and Q.W. Meng et al
Effects of fermented garlic powder supplementation on growth performance, blood profiles and breast meat quality in broilers. Livestock Sci., 141: 85-89.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Badubi, S.S., M. Rakereng and M. Marumo, 2006.
Morphological characteristics and feed resources available for indigenous chickens in Botswana. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 18.Direct Link |
Balakrishnan, V., J.P. Robinson, A. Manickasamy and K.C. Ravindran, 2009.
Ethanoveterinary studies amoung farmers in Dindigul district Tamil Nadu, India. Global J. Pharmacol., 3: 15-23.Direct Link |
Balazi, A., M. Foldesiova, L. Chrastinova, A.V.S.A.V. Sirotkin and P.C.P. Chrenek, 2013.
Effect of the herbal additive yucca on rabbit spermatozoa characteristics. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Food Sci., 2: 1829-1837.Direct Link |
Bani, S., M. Gautam, F.A. Sheikh, B. Khan and N.K. Satti et al
Selective Th1 up-regulating activity of Withania somnifera
aqueous extract in an experimental system using flow cytometry. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107: 107-115.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Barbour, E.K., R.G. El-Hakim, M.S. Kaadi, H.A. Shaib, D.D. Gerges and P.A. Nehme, 2006.
Evaluation of the histopathology of the respiratory system in essential oil-treated broilers following a challenge with Mycoplasma gallisepticum
and/or H9N2 influenza virus. Int. J. Applied Res. Vet. Med., 4: 293-300.
Barbour, E.K., M.F. Saade, A.M.A. Nour, G. Kayali and S. Kidess et al
Evaluation of essential oils in the treatment of broilers co-infected with multiple respiratory etiologic agents. Int. J. Applied Res. Vet. Med., 9: 317-323.
Barnes, J., L.A. Anderson and J.D. Phillipson, 2007.
Herbal Medicine. 3rd Edn., Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp: 1-23
Barreto, M.S.R., J.F.M. Menten, A.M.C. Racanicci, P.W.Z. Pereira and P.V. Rizzo, 2008.
Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic., 10: 109-115.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Belinky, P.A., M. Aviram, S. Mahmood and and J. Vaya, 1998.
Structural aspects of the inhibitory effect of glabridin on LDL oxidation. Free Radical Biol. Med., 24: 1419-1429.CrossRef |
Benacerraf, B., 1978.
Opinion a hypothesis to relate the specificity of t lymphocytes and the activity of I region-specific Ir genes in macrophages and B lymphocytes. J. Immunol., 120: 1809-1812.Direct Link |
Bhalerao, B.M., D.M. Kasote, B.E. Nagarkar, S.D. Jagtap, K.S. Vishwakarma, P.K. Pawar and V.L. Maheshwari, 2012.
Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities of Tinospora cordofolia
growing with different supporting trees. Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 56: 65-71.Direct Link |
Bharavi, K., A.G. Reddy, G.S. Rao, A.R. Reddy and S.V. Rao, 2010.
Reversal of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in chicken by herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera
and Ocimum sanctum
. Toxicol. Int., 17: 59-63.CrossRef | PubMed |
Bhardwaj, R.K., A. Bhardwaj and S.K. Gangwar, 2012.
Efficacy of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera
) supplementation on haematological and immunological parameters of Japanese quails. Int. J. Sci. Nat., 3: 476-478.Direct Link |
Bishayi, B., S. Roychowdhury, S. Ghosh and M. Sengupta, 2002.
Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia
intoxicated mature albino rats. J. Toxicol. Sci., 27: 139-146.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Biu, A.A., S.D. Yusuf and J.S. Rabo, 2006.
Use of neem (Azadirachta indica
) aqueous extract as a treatment for poultry coccidiosis in Borno State, Nigeria. Afr. Sci., 3: 147-153.Direct Link |
Bolukbasi, S.C., M.K. Erhan and A. Ozkan, 2006.
Effect of dietary thyme oil and vitamin E on growth, lipid oxidation, meat fatty acid composition and serum lipoproteins of broilers. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 36: 189-196.Direct Link |
Bolukbasi, S.C., M.K. Erhan and O. Kaynar, 2008.
The effect of feeding thyme, sage and rosemary oil on laying hen performance, cholesterol and some proteins ratio of egg yolk and Escherichia coli
count in feces. Archiv. Geflugelkunde, 72: 231-237.Direct Link |
Bolukbasi, S.C. and M.K. Erhan, 2007.
Effect of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris
) on laying hens performance and Escherichia coli
) concentration in feces. Int. J. Nat. Eng. Sci., 2: 55-58.Direct Link |
Botsoglou, N., P. Florou-Paneri, E. Botsoglou, V. Dotas, I. Giannenas, A. Koidis and P. Mitrakos, 2005.
The effect of feeding rosemary, oregano, saffron and α-tocopheryl acetate on hen performance and oxidative stability of eggs. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 35: 143-151.Direct Link |
Botsoglou, N.A., P. Florou-Paneri, E. Christaki, D.J. Fletouris and A.B. Spais, 2002.
Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron-induced lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues. Br. Poult. Sci., 43: 223-230.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Botsoglou, E., A. Govaris, D. Fletouris and S. Iliadis, 2013.
Olive leaves (Olea europea
L.) and α-tocopheryl acetate as feed antioxidants for improving the oxidative stability of α-linolenic acid-enriched eggs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 97: 740-753.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Bozkurt, M., K. Kucukyilmaz, A.U. Catli, M. Cinar, E. Bintas and F. Coven, 2012.
Performance, egg quality and immune response of laying hens fed diets supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide or an essential oil mixture under moderate and hot environmental conditions. Poult. Sci., 91: 1379-1386.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Bozkurt, M., K. Kucukyilmaz, M. Pamukcu, M. Cabuk, A. Alcicek and A.U. Catli, 2012.
Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 11: 23-28.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Brannan, R.G., 2008.
Effect of grape seed extract on physicochemical properties of ground, salted, chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels. J. Food Sci., 73: C36-C40.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Brenes, A. and E. Roura, 2010.
Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 158: 1-14.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Burton Goldberg Group, 1999.
Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide. Future Medicine Publishing, Tiburon, CA., USA., ISBN-13: 9781887299336 pp: 263
Byarugaba, D.K., 2007.
The structure and importance of the commercial and village based poultry systems in Uganda. FAO-Consultancy Report, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, September 2007.
Cabuk, M., M. Bozkurt, A. Alcicek, A.U. Catlı and K.H. Baser, 2006.
Effect of a dietary essential oil mixture on performance of laying hens in the summer season. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 36: 215-221.Direct Link |
Canogullari, S., M. Baylan, Z. Erdogan, V. Duzguner and A. Kucukgul, 2010.
The effects of dietary garlic powder on performance, egg yolk and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying quails. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 55: 286-293.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Chakraborty, B., G.D. Sharma and M. Sengupta, 2010.
Immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia
in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Assam Univ. J. Sci. Technol., 4: 35-39.
Chakraborty, S. and S.K. Pal, 2012.
Plants for cattle health: A review of ethno-veterinary herbs in veterinary health care. Ann. Ayurvedic Med., 1: 144-152.Direct Link |
Chakraborty, T., L. Verotta and G. Podder, 1989.
Evaluation of A. indica
leaf extract for lypoglycaemic activity in rats. Phytotherapeut. Res., 3: 30-32.
Chandrakesan, P., K. Muralidharan, V.D. Kumar, G. Ponnudurai, T.J. Harikrishnan and K.S.V.N. Rani, 2009.
Efficacy of a herbal complex against caecal coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Veterinarski Arhiv, 79: 199-203.Direct Link |
Charlton, A., 2004.
Medicinal uses of tobacco in history. J. R. Soc. Med., 97: 292-296.Direct Link |
Chauhan, R.S., 2010.
Nutrition, immunity and livestock health. Indian Cow: Scient. Econ. J., 7: 2-13.Direct Link |
Chen, H.L., D.F. Li, B.Y. Chang, L.M. Gong, J.G. Dai and G.F. Yi, 2003.
Effects of Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Poult. Sci., 82: 364-370.PubMed | Direct Link |
Chen, A., J. Xu, C. Yang and Q. Hong, 2008.
Effects of cinnamon extracts on growth performance and excreta urease activity and nitrogen loss in broilers. Proceedings of the 8th International Livestock Environment Symposium, August 31-September 4, 2008, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, pp: 331-338CrossRef | Direct Link |
Chepete, H.J., H. Xin, L.B. Mendes, H. Li and T.B. Bailey, 2012.
Ammonia emission and performance of laying hens as affected by different dosages of Yucca schidigera
in the diet. J. Applied Poult. Res., 21: 522-530.Direct Link |
Cherng, J.M., W. Chiang and L.C. Chiang, 2008.
Immunomodulatory activities of common vegetables and spices of Umbelliferae and its related coumarins and flavonoids. Food Chem., 106: 944-950.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Choudhari, A.J., G.B. Deshmukh, B.N. Ramteke and A.A. Zanzad, 2006.
Effect of dietary supplementation of ashwagandha on Japanese quails during summer. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 23: 253-255.Direct Link |
Chrenkova, M., L. Chrastinova, M. Polacikova, Z. Formelova and A. Balazi et al
The effect of Yucca schidigera
extract in diet of rabbits on nutrient digestibility and qualitative parameters in caecum. Slovak J. Anim. Sci., 45: 83-88.Direct Link |
Christaki, E., 2012.
Naturally derived antioxidants in poultry nutrition. Res. J. Biotechnol., 7: 109-112.
Coe, F.G. and G.J. Anderson, 1996.
Screening of medicinal plants used by the Garifuna of Eastern Nicaragua for bioactive compounds. J. Ethnopharmacol., 53: 29-50.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Cousins, M., J. Adelberg, F. Chen and J. Rieck, 2007.
Antioxidant capacity of fresh and dried rhizomes from four clones of turmeric (Curcuma longa
L.) grown in vitro
. Ind. Crop Prod., 25: 129-135.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Cowan, M.M., 1999.
Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 12: 564-582.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Craig, W.J., 1999.
Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70: 491S-499S.PubMed | Direct Link |
Cross, D.E., K. Svoboda, R.M. McDevitt and T. Acamovic, 2003.
The performance of chickens fed diets with and without thyme oil and enzymes. Br. Poult. Sci., 44: 18-19.CrossRef |
Cross, D.E., R.M. McDevitt, K. Hillman and T. Acamovic, 2007.
The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. Br. Poult. Sci., 48: 496-506.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Cullen, S.P., F.J. Monahan, J.J. Callan and J.V. O'Doherty, 2005.
The effect of dietary garlic and rosemary on grower-finisher pig performance and sensory characteristics of pork. Irish J. Agric. Food Res., 44: 57-67.Direct Link |
Dalkilic, B. and T. Guler, 2009.
The effects of clove extract supplementation on performance and digestibility of nutrients in broilers. Fyrat Univ. Vet. J. Health Sci., 23: 161-166.Direct Link |
Daneshyar, M., H. Kermanshahi and A. Golian, 2012.
The effects of turmeric supplementation on antioxidant status, blood gas indices and mortality in broiler chickens with T3
-induced ascites. Br. Poult. Sci., 53: 379-385.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Das, S.S., B.B. Bhatia and A. Kumar, 1993.
Efficacy of Pestoban-D against common poultry lice. Indian J. Vet. Res., 2: 25-26.
Davis, L. and G. Kuttan, 2002.
Effect of Withania somnifera
on cell mediated immune response in mice. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., 21: 585-590.Direct Link |
Dean, J.H., M.L. Padarathsingh and T.R. Jerrells, 1979.
Application of immunocompetence assays for defining immunosuppression. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 320: 579-590.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Deeba, F., 2009.
Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices in urban and peri-urban areas of Faisalabad (Pakistan). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Demir, E., S. Sarica, M.A. Ozcan and M. Suicmez, 2003.
The use of natural feed additives as alternatives for an antibiotic growth promoter in broiler diets. Br. Poult. Sci., 44: 44-45.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Desai, V.R., J.P. Kamat and K.B. Sainis, 2002.
An immunomodulator from Tinospora cordifolia
with antioxidant activity in cell-free systems. J. Chem. Sci., 114: 713-719.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Deshpande, R.R., 2006.
Effect of dietary supplementation of Tulsi leaf powder (Ocimum sanctum
) on egg yolk cholesterol and serum lipid profile in commercial layers. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur.
Devi, P.U., K. Akagi, V. Ostapenko, Y. Tanaka and T. Sugahara, 1996.
Withaferin-A: A new radiosensitizer from the Indian medicinal plant Withania somnifera
. Int. J. Radiation Biol., 69: 193-197.PubMed |
Dhama, K., V. Verma, P.M. Sawant, R. Tiwari, R.K. Vaid and R.S. Chauhan, 2011.
Applications of probiotics in poultry: Enhancing immunity and beneficial effects on production performances and health: A review. J. Immunol. Immunopathol., 13: 1-19.Direct Link |
Dhama, K., S. Mani, S. Chakraborty, R. Tiwari, A. Kumar, P. Selvaraj and R.B. Rai, 2013.
Herbal remedies to combat cancers in humans and animals-A review. Int. J. Curr. Res., 5: 1908-1919.Direct Link |
Dhama, K., S. Chakraborty and R. Tiwari, 2013.
Panchgavya therapy (Cowpathy) in safeguarding health of animals and humans: A review. Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci., 3: 170-178.Direct Link |
Dhama, K., S. Chakraborty, Mahima, M.Y. Wani and A.K. Verma et al
Novel and emerging therapies safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals: A review. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 16: 101-111.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Dhama, K., S. Chakraborty, M.Y. Wani, R. Tiwari and R. Barathidasan, 2013.
Cytokine therapy for combating animal and human diseases-A review. Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci., 3: 195-208.Direct Link |
Dahanukar, S.A., R.A. Kulkarni and N.N. Rege, 2000.
Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian J. Pharmacol., 32: 81-118.Direct Link |
Dieumou, F.E., D.E. Fon, A. Teguia, J.R. Kuiate, U.D. Doma, U.S. Abdullahi and A.E. Chiroma, 2013.
Economic effect of diets supplemented with garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on growth performance and feed cost for the production of broilers. Agric. Sci. Res. J., 3: 130-135.Direct Link |
Diwanay, S., D. Chitre and B. Patwardhan, 2004.
Immunoprotection by botanical drugs in cancer chemotherapy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 90: 49-55.CrossRef |
Dorman, H.J.D. and S.G. Deans, 2000.
Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J. Appl. Microbiol., 88: 308-316.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Dragan, L., A. Gyorke, J.F.S. Ferreira, I.A. Pop and I. Dunca et al
Effects of Artemisia annua
and Foeniculum vulgare
on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella
). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Vol. 56.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Durrani, F.R., M. Ismail, A. Sultan, S.M. Suhail, N. Chand and Z. Durrani, 2006.
Effect of different levels of feed added turmeric (Curcuma longa
) on the performance of broiler chicks. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 1: 9-11.Direct Link |
Durrani, F.R., Abidullah, N. Chand, Z. Durrani and S. Akhtar, 2008.
Hematological, biochemical, immunomodulatory and growth promoting effect of feed added wild mint (Mentha longifolia
) in broiler chicks. Sarhad J. Agric., 24: 661-664.Direct Link |
Eevuri, T.R. and R. Putturu, 2013.
Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds-A review. Vet. World, 6: 172-179.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Elagib, H.A.A., W.I.A. El-Amin, K.M. Elamin and H.E.E. Malik, 2013.
Effect of dietary garlic (Allium sativum
) supplementation as feed additive on broiler performance and blood profile. J. Anim. Sci. Adv., 32: 58-64.Direct Link |
Elsakka, M., E. Grigorescu, U. Stanescu, U. Stanescu and V. Dorneanu, 1990.
New data referring to chemistry of Withania somnifera
species. Revista Medico-Chirurgicala Societatii Medici Naturalisti Iasi, 94: 385-387.PubMed |
Emadi, M. and H. Kermanshahi, 2006.
Effect of turmeric rhizome powder on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 1069-1072.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Emadi, M. and H. Kermanshahi, 2007.
Effect of turmeric rhizome powder on the activity of some blood enzymes in broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 6: 48-51.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Fajimi, A.K., A.A. Taiwo, I.O. Ayodeji, E.A. Adebowale and F.I. Ogundola, 2001.
Therapeutic trials on gastrointestinal helminth parasite of goats using pawpaw seeds as a drench. Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Crop, November 9-23, 2001, Ibadan, Nigeria -
Fajimi, A.K. and A.A. Taiwo, 2005.
Herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria: A review. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4: 303-307.Direct Link |
Florou-Paneri, P., G. Palatos, A. Govaris, D. Botsoglou, I. Giannenas and I. Ambrosiadis, 2005.
Oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 4: 866-871.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Friedman, M., R. Buick and C.T. Elliotl, 2004.
Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against antibiotic-resistant Bacillus cereus
vegetative cells and spores Escherichia coli
and Staphyloccus aureus
. J. Food Prot., 67: 1774-1778.Direct Link |
Ganasoundari, A., S.M. Zare and P.U. Devi, 1997.
Modification of bone marrow radiosensensitivity by medicinal plant extracts. Br. J. Radiol., 70: 599-602.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Gangopadhyay, A., S. Ganguli and A. Datta, 2011.
Inhibiting H5N1 hemagglutinin with samll molecule ligands. Int. J. Bioinform. Res., 3: 185-189.Direct Link |
Ganju, L., D. Karan, S. Chanda, K.K. Srivastava, R.C. Sawhney and W. Selvamurthy, 2003.
Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin. Biomed. Pharmacother., 57: 296-300.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Onibi, G.E., O.E. Adebisi, A.N. Fajemisin and A.V. Adetunji, 2009.
Response of broiler chickens in terms of performance and meat quality to garlic (Allium sativum
) supplementation. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 4: 511-517.Direct Link |
Giannenas, I., P. Florou-Paneri, M. Papazahariadou, N.A. Botsoglou, E. Christaki and A.B. Spais, 2004.
Effect of diet supplementation with ground oregano on performance of broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella
. Archiv Geflugelkunde, 68: 247-252.Direct Link |
Gopi, M., K. Karthik, H.V. Manjunathachar, P. Tamilmahan and M. Kesavan et al
Essential oils as a feed additive in poultry nutrition. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 2: 1-7.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Griggs, J.P. and J.P. Jacob, 2005.
Alternatives to antibiotics for organic poultry production. J. Applied Poult. Res., 14: 750-756.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Guilbert, L.J., B. Winkler-Lowen, A. Smith, D.R. Branch and M. Garcia-Lloret, 1993.
Analysis of the synergistic stimulation of mouse macrophage proliferation by macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (CSF-1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha). J. Leukocyte Biol., 54: 65-72.Direct Link |
Gupta, G. and S. Charan, 2007.
Exploring the potentials of Ocimum sanctum
(Shyama tulsi) as a feed supplement for its growth promoter activity in broiler chickens. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 42: 140-143.
Hady, M.M. and M.M. Zaki, 2012.
Efficacy of some herbal feed additives on performance and control of cecal coccidiosis in broilers. APCBEE Procedia, 4: 163-168.CrossRef |
Hussain, H.E.M.A., 2002.
Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination of Curcumin
from Curcuma longa
, Linn and partially purified product from Abroma augusta
, Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes. Indian J. Clin. Biochem., 17: 33-43.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Hammershoj, M. and S. Steenfeldt, 2009.
Organic egg quality parameters influenced by feed, hen line and forage material. Proceedings of the 13th European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products, May 18-22, 2009, Turku, pp: 63-63
Hammershoj, M. and S. Steenfeldt, 2012.
The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea
ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum
) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality. Br. Poult. Sci., 53: 245-256.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Hammershoj, M., U. Kidmose and S. Steenfeldt, 2010.
Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short‐term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota
) varieties as forage material for egg‐laying hens. J. Sci. Food Agric., 90: 1163-1171.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Haq, A., K.A. Meraj and S. Rasool, 1999.
Effect of supplementing Alliunz sativum
(Garlic) and Azadirachtu indica
(Neem) leaves in broiler feeds on their blood cholesterol, triglycerides and antibody titer. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 1: 125-127.
Hashemi, S.R. and H. Davoodi, 2010.
Phytogenics as new class of feed additive in poultry industry. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9: 2295-2304.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Hashemi, S.R. and H. Davoodi, 2012.
Herbal plants as new immuno-stimulator in poultry industry: A review. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 7: 105-116.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Hertrampf, J.W., 2001.
Alternative antibacterial performance promoters. Poult. Int., 40: 50-52.Direct Link |
Horsted, K., M. Hammershoj and J.E. Hermansen, 2006.
Short-term effects on productivity and egg quality in nutrient-restricted versus non-restricted organic layers with access to different forage crops. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Sect. A: Anim. Sci., 56: 42-54.CrossRef |
Handbook of Animal Husbandry. 3rd Edn., Bombay Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India, Pages: 1234
Incharoen, T. and K. Yamauchi, 2009.
Production performance, egg quality and intestinal histology in laying hens fed dietary dried fermented ginger. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8: 1078-1085.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Issa, K.J. and J.M. Abo Omar, 2012.
Effect of garlic powder on performance and lipid profile of broilers. Open J. Anim. Sci., 2: 62-68.CrossRef |
Iten, F., R. Saller, G. Abel and J. Reichling, 2009.
Additive antimicrobial effects of the active components of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris
-chemotype carvacrol. Planta Med., 75: 1231-1236.CrossRef |
Jacob, J. and T. Pescatore, 2011.
Natural remedies for poultry diseases common in natural and organic flocks. Land Grant Programs, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington.
Jafari, R.A., M. Ghorbanpoor and S.H. Diarjan, 2008.
Effect of dietary garlic on serum antibody titer against newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chicks. J. Boil. Sci., 8: 1258-1260.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Jayaprakasam, B., Y. Zhang, N.P. Seeram and M.G. Nair, 2003.
Growth inhibition of human tumor cell lines by withanolides from Withania somnifera
leaves. Life Sci., 74: 125-132.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Jiang, W., Y. Liu, H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, H. Xu and H. Lu, 2012.
Immune regulation of avian influenza vaccine in hens using Hypericum perforatum
L. methanol extraction. Plant Omics, 5: 40-45.Direct Link |
Jo, E.H., H.D. Hong, N.C. Ahn, J.W. Jung and S.R. Yang et al
Modulations of the Bcl-2/Bax family were involved in the chemopreventive effects of licorice root (Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Fisch) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52: 1715-1719.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Kamboj, V.P., 2000.
Herbal medicine. Curr. Sci., 78: 35-51.Direct Link |
Kamel, C., 2001.
Tracing Modes of Action and the Roles of Plant Extracts in Non-Ruminants. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, Garnsworthy, P.C. and J. Wiseman (Eds.). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK., pp: 135-150
Kanakaraju, P., D. Thyagarajan, A.V. Omprakash, R. Churchil, S. Rathnapraba and M. Babu, 2013.
Ethnoveterinary medcine in poultry health. Poult. Punch., 29: 45-60.
Kannan, M., A.J.A.R. Singh, T.A. Kumar, P. Jegatheswari and S. Subburayalu, 2007.
Studies on immunobioactivities of Nyctanthes arbortristis
(Oleaceae). Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 1: 88-91.Direct Link |
Kapil, A. and S. Sharma, 1997.
Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia
. J. Ethnopharmacol., 58: 89-95.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Karre, L., K. Lopez and K.J. Getty, 2013.
Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Meat Sci., 94: 220-227.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Karthik, K., N.S. Muneeswaran, H.V. Manjunathachar, M. Gopi, A. Elamurugan and S. Kalaiyarasu, 2014.
Bacteriophages: Effective alternative to antibiotics. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 2: 1-7.Direct Link |
Dey, B., S.D. Chowdhury and K.D. Ahmed, 2012.
Use of garlic as a hypocholesterolemic dietary additive in laying hens. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 6: 10-14.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Khaligh, F., G. Sadeghi, A. Karimi and A. Vaziry, 2011.
Evaluation of different medicinal plants blends in diets for broiler chickens. J. Med. Plants Res., 5: 1971-1977.Direct Link |
Khan, B., S.F. Ahmad, S. Bani, A. Kaul and K.A. Suri et al
Augmentation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and Th-1 cytokines by Withania somnifera
in stressed mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 6: 1394-1403.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Khan, R.U., S. Naz, M. Javdani, Z. Nikousefat, M. Selvaggi, V. Tufarelli and V. Laudadio, 2012.
The use of turmeric (Curcuma longa
) in poultry feed. World's Poult. Sci. J., 68: 97-103.Direct Link |
Khan, R.U., Z. Nikousefat, V. Tufarelli, S. Naz, M. Javdani and V. Laudadio, 2012.
Garlic (Allium sativum
) supplementation in poultry diets: Effect on production and physiology. World's Poult. Sci. J., 68: 417-424.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Khan, R.U., S. Naz, Z. Nikousefat, V. Tufarelli, M. Javdani, M.S. Qureshi and V. Laudadio, 2012.
Potential applications of ginger (Zingiber officinale
) in poultry diets. World's Poult. Sci. J., 68: 245-252.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Khan, R.U., S. Naz, Z. Nikousefat, V. Tufarelli and V. Laudadio, 2012. Thymus vulgaris
: Alternative to antibiotics in poultry feed. World's Poult. Sci. J., 68: 401-408.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Khan, T.A. and F. Zafar, 2005.
Haematological study in response to varying doses of estrogen in broiler chicken. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 4: 748-751.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kim, Y.J., S.K. Jin and H.S. Yang, 2009.
Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat. Poult. Sci., 88: 398-405.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Kirkpinar, F., H.B. Unlu and G. Ozdemir, 2011.
Effects of oregano and garlic essential oils on performance, carcase, organ and blood characteristics and intestinal microflora of broilers. Livest. Sci., 137: 219-225.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kitazato, K., Y. Wang and N. Kobayashi, 2007.
Viral infectious disease and natural products with antiviral activity. Drug Discov. Ther., 1: 14-22.Direct Link |
Kokoska, L., Z. Polesny, V. Rada, A. Nepovim and T. Vanek, 2002.
Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 82: 51-53.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kumar, M. and J.S. Berwal, 1998.
Sensitivity of food pathogens to garlic (Allium sativum
). J. Applied Microbiol., 84: 213-215.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Kumar, R.A., K. Sridevi, N.V. Kumar, S. Nanduri and S. Rajagopal, 2004.
Anticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculata
. J. Ethnopharm., 92: 291-295.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kumar, V., P.K. Modi and K.K. Saxena, 2013.
Exploration of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia
: An experimental study. Asian J. Pharmaceut. Clin. Res., 6: 87-91.Direct Link |
Kumar, A., A. Rahal, S. Chakraborty, R. Tiwari, S.K. Latheef and K. Dhama, 2013. Ocimum sanctum
(Tulsi): A miracle herb and boon to medical science-A review. Int. J. Agron. Plant Prod., 4: 1580-1589.Direct Link |
Kumari, R., B.K. Tiwary, A. Prasad and S. Ganguly, 2012.
Study on the immuno-modulatory effect of herbal extract of Asparagus racemosus
Willd. in broiler chicks. Global J. Res. Med. Plants Indigenous Med., 1: 1-6.Direct Link |
Kuttan, G., 1996.
Use of Withania somnifera
Dunal as an adjuvant during radiation therapy. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 34: 854-856.Direct Link |
Langhout, P., 2000.
New additives for broiler chickens. World Poult., 16: 22-27.Direct Link |
Lanjewar, R.D., A.A. Zanzad, B.N. Ramteke and G.B. Deshmukh, 2008.
Effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (O. sanctum
) leaf powder on the growth performance and serum lipid profile in broilers. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 25: 395-397.Direct Link |
Latheef, S.K., 2013.
Evaluation of immunomodulatory properties of four herbal preparations (Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Azadirachta indica
and E Care Se Herbal) against chicken infectious anaemia in chicks. M.Sc. Thesis, Deemed University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, UP., India.
Latheef, S.K., K. Dhama, M.Y. Wani, H.A. Samad and R. Barathidasan et al
Ameliorative effects of four herbs (Withania somnifera
, Tinospora cordifolia
, Azadirachta indica
and E care SE herbal) on the pathogenesis of chicken infectious anaemia virus. Int. J. Curr. Res., 5: 2327-2331.Direct Link |
Latheef, S.K., K. Dhama, M.Y. Wani, H.A. Samad, R. Tiwari and S.D. Singh, 2013.
Ameliorative effects of Withania somnifera
, Azadirachta indica
, Tinospora cordifolia
and E care SE herbal preparations on chicken infectious anaemia virus induced haematological changes in chicks and their live body weights. South Asian J. Exp. Biol., 3: 172-182.Direct Link |
Stef, L., G. Dumitrescu, D. Drinceanu, D. Stef and D. Mot et al
The effect of medicinal plants and plant extracted oils on broiler duodenum morphology and immunological profile. Romanian Biotechnol. Lett., 14: 4606-4614.Direct Link |
Lee, K.W., H. Everts, H.J. Kappert, M. Frehner, R. Losa and A.C. Beynen, 2003.
Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci., 44: 450-457.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Lee, K.W., H. Everts and A.C. Beynen, 2004.
Essential oils in broiler nutrition. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 738-752.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Lee, H.J., Y.N. Lee, H.N. Youn, D.H. Lee and J.H. Kwak et al
Anti-influenza virus activity of green tea by-products in vitro and efficacy against influenza virus infection in chickens. Poult Sci., 91: 66-73.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Lee, J.J., D.H. Kim, J.J. Lim, D.G. Kim and W. Min et al
Anticoccidial effect of supplemental dietary Galla rhois
against infection with Eimeria tenella
in chickens. Avian Pathol., 41: 403-407.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Gangehei, L., M. Ali, W. Zhang, Z. Chen, K. Wakame and M. Haidari, 2010.
Oligonol a low molecular weight polyphenol of lychee fruit extract inhibits proliferation of influenza virus by blocking reactive oxygen species-dependent ERK phosphorylation. Phytomedicine, 17: 1047-1056.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Levic, J., I. Cabarkapa, G. Todorovic, S. Pavkov, S. Sredanovic, T. Coghill-Galonja and L. Kostadinovic, 2011. In vitro
antibacterial activity of essential oils from plant family Lamiaceae
. Romanian Biotechnol. Lett., 16: 6034-6041.Direct Link |
Lewis, M.R., S.P. Rose, A.M. Mackenzie and L.A. Tucker, 2003.
Effects of dietary inclusion of plant extracts on the growth performance of male broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci., 44: 43-44.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Liu, W., M. Kato, A. Akhand, A. Hayakawa and M. Takemura et al
The herbal medicine sho-saiko-to inhibits the growth of malignant melanoma cells by upregulating Fas-mediated apoptosis and arresting cell cycle through downregulation of cyclin dependent kinases. Int. J. Oncol., 12: 1321-1326.PubMed |
Liu, Y., G. Yan, G. Chen and J. Zhang, 2009.
Efficacy trials of crude extraction from Artemisia Annul
L. against newcastle disease virus in vivo
in xinjiang. Mod. Applied Sci., 3: 176-178.Direct Link |
Liu, G., S. Xiong, Y.F. Xiang, C.W. Guo and F. Ge et al
Antiviral activity and possible mechanisms of action of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against influenza A virus. Arch. Virol., 156: 1359-1369.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Luster, M.L., J.H. Dean and G.A. Boorman, 1982.
Cell mediated immunity and its application in toxicology. Environ. Health Perspect., 43: 31-36.Direct Link |
Madsen, H.L. and G. Bertelsen, 1995.
Spices as antioxidants. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 6: 271-277.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mathur, M. and G. Vyas, 2013.
Role of nanoparticles for production of smart herbal drugs: An overview. Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour., 4: 329-338.Direct Link |
Mahima, A. Rahal, R. Deb, S.K. Latheef and H.A. Samad et al
Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 15: 754-774.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mahima, A.K. Verma, R. Tiwari, K. Karthik, S. Chakraborty, R. Deb and K. Dhama, 2013.
Nutraceuticals from fruits and vegetables at a glance: A review. J. Biol. Sci., 13: 38-47.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Makau, J.N., K. Watanabe and N. Kobayashi, 2013.
Anti-influenza activity of Alchemilla mollis
extract: Possible virucidal activity against influenza virus particles. Drug Discov. Ther., 7: 189-195.PubMed |
Mansoub, N.H., 2011.
Assessment on effect of Thyme
on egg quality and blood parameters of laying hens. Ann. Biol. Res., 2: 417-422.Direct Link |
Marcincak, S., R. Cabadaj, P. Popelka and L. Soltysova, 2008.
Antioxidative effect of oregano supplemented to broilers on oxidative stability of poultry meat. Slovenian Vet. Res., 45: 61-66.Direct Link |
McDermott, P.F., S. Zhao, D.D. Wagner, S. Simjee, R.D. Walker and D.G. White, 2002.
The food safety perspective of antibiotic resistance. Anim. Biotechnol., 13: 71-84.PubMed |
Mehala, C. and M. Moorthy, 2008.
Effect of Aloe vera
and Curcuma longa
(Turmeric) on carcass characteristics and biochemical parameters of broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 7: 857-861.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Miquel, J., A. Ramirez-Bosca, J.V. Ramirez-Bosca and J.D. Alperi, 2006.
Menopause: A review on the role of oxygen stress and favorable effects of dietary antioxidants. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 42: 289-306.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mills, S. and K. Bone, 2000.
Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK., ISBN-13: 9780443060168, pp: 34-37
Mitsch, P., K. Zitterl-Eglseer, B. Kohler, C. Gabler, R. Losa and I. Zimpernik, 2004.
The effect of two different blends of essential oil components on the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens
in the intestines of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 83: 669-675.Direct Link |
Mochizuki, D.Y., J.R. Eisenman, P.J. Conlon, A.D. Larsen and R.J. Tushinski, 1987.
Interleukin 1 regulates hematopoietic activity, a role previously ascribed to hemopoietin 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 84: 5267-5271.PubMed |
Moreki, J.C., 2012.
Use of ethnoveterinary medicine in family poultry health management in Botswana: A review. J. Vet. Adv., 2: 254-260.Direct Link |
Moorthy, M., S. Ravi, M. Ravikuma, K. Viswanathan and S.C. Edwin, 2009.
Ginger, pepper and curry leaf powder as feed additives in broiler diet. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 8: 779-782.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mourey, A. and N. Canillac, 2002.
activity of essential oils components of conifers. Food Control, 13: 289-292.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mushtaq, M., F.R. Durrani, N. Imtiaz, U. Sadique, A. Hafeez, S. Akhtar and S. Ahmad, 2012.
Effect of administration of Withania somnifera
on some hematological and immunological profile of broiler chicks. Pak Vet. J., 32: 70-72.Direct Link |
Mwale, M., E. Bhebhe, M. Chimonyo and T.E. Halimani, 2005.
Use of herbal plants in poultry health management in the Mushagashe small scale commercial farming area in Zimbabwe. Int. J. Applied Res. Vet. Med., 3: 163-170.Direct Link |
Naidoo, V., L.J. McGaw, S.P.R. Bisschop, N. Duncan and J.N. Eloff, 2008.
The value of plant extracts with antioxidant activity in attenuating coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Vet. Parasitol., 153: 214-219.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Nair, P.K.R., S.J. Melnick, R. Ramachandran, E. Escalon and C. Ramachandran, 2006.
Mechanism of macrophage activation by (1,4)-α-D-glucan isolated from Tinospora cordifolia
. Int. Immunopharmacol., 6: 1815-1824.CrossRef |
Namagirilakshmi, S., 2005.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa
) as nutraceutical to improve broiler performance. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India.
Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., Pages: 141
Nwude, N. and M.A. Ibrahim, 1980.
Plants used in traditional Veterinary medical practice in Nigeria. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther., 3: 261-273.CrossRef |
Okitoi, L.O., H.O. Ondwasy, D.N. Siamba and D. Nkurumah, 2007.
Traditional herbal preparations for indigenous poultry health management in Western Kenya. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 19.Direct Link |
Okokon, J.E., A.D. Farooq, M.I. Choudhary and B.S. Antia, 2012.
Immunomodulatory, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Telfairia occidentalis
seed extract and fractions. Int. J. Food Saf. Nutr. Public Health, 2: 72-85.Direct Link |
Okwor, E.C., D.C. Eze and K. Okonkwo, 2012.
Serum antibody levels against infectious bursal disease virus in Nigerian village chickens using indirect hemagglutination test. Pak. Vet. J., 32: 286-287.Direct Link |
Ou, C., Z. Pu, S. Li , Q. Pan and N. Hou et al
Effect of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid on chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10: 2292-2296.
Ou, C., Q. Pang, X. Chen, N. Hou and C. He, 2012.
Protocatechuic acid, a new active substance against the challenge of avian infectious bursal disease virus. Poult. Sci., 91: 1604-1609.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Ou, C., N. Shi, Q. Pan, D. Tian, W. Zeng and C. He, 2013.
Therapeutic efficacy of the combined extract of herbal medicine against infectious bursal disease in chickens. Pak. Vet. J., 33: 304-308.Direct Link |
Oyuntsetseg, N., M.A. Khasnatinov, P. Molor-Erdene, J. Oyunbileg and A.V. Liapunov et al
Evaluation of direct antiviral activity of the Deva-5 herb formulation and extracts of five Asian plants against influenza A virus H3N8. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., Vol. 14.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ozek, K., K.T. Wellmann, B. Ertekin and B. Tarim, 2011.
Effects of dietary herbal essential oil mixture and organic acid preparation on laying traits, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, blood parameters and immune response of laying hens in a hot summer season. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 20: 575-586.Direct Link |
Pangasa, A., 2005.
Comparative study on efficacy of ayurvedic and allopathic coccidiostats in immunomodulated broiler chicks infected with Eimeria tenella
. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Pant, M., T. Ambwani and V. Umapathi, 2012.
Antiviral activity of Ashwagandha extract on infectious bursal disease virus replication. Indian J. Sci. Technol., 5: 2750-2751.Direct Link |
Patel, J.S., M.M. Bhatt, F.A. Patel, M.M. Dhoru and M.M. Patel, 2013.
Nanotechnology: A new approach in herbal medicine. Am. J. PharmTech Res., 3: 275-288.Direct Link |
Patwardhan, B. and M. Gautam, 2005.
Botanical immunodrugs: Scope and opportunities. Drug Discov. Today, 10: 495-502.CrossRef | PubMed |
Patwardhan, B., A.D.B. Vaidya and M. Chorghade, 2004.
Ayurveda and natural products drug discovery. Curr. Sci., 86: 789-799.Direct Link |
Prakash, A., S.P. Singh, R. Varma, G.K. Choudhary and R. Sajan, 2009.
Ameliorative efficacy of tulsi in lead toxicity in cockerels. Indian Vet. J., 86: 344-346.
Premalatha, B. and P. Sachdanandam, 1999. Semecarpus anacardium
L. nut extract administration induces the in vivo
antioxidant defence system in aflatoxin B1
mediated hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Ethanopharmacol., 66: 131-139.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Prince, P.S., M. Padmanabhan and V.P. Menon, 2004.
Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia
root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother. Res., 18: 785-787.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Pushpangadan, P., 2006.
Important Indian Medicinal Plants of Global Interest. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Kerala, India, pp: 95-109
Radyowijati, A. and H. Haak, 2003.
Improving antibiotic use in low-income countries: An overview of evidence on determinants. Soc. Sci. Med., 57: 733-744.CrossRef |
Rahal, A., Mahima, A.K. Verma, A. Kumar and R. Tiwari et al
Phytonutrients and nutraceuticals in vegetables and their multi-dimensional medicinal and health benefits for humans and their companion animals: A review. J. Biol. Sci., 14: 1-19.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Rahal, A., A. Kumar, V. Singh, B. Yadav, R. Tiwari, S. Chakraborty and K. Dhama, 2014.
Oxidative stress, prooxidants and antioxidants: The interplay. BioMed Res. Int., Vol. 2014.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Rajasekaran, D., E.A. Palombo, T.C. Yeo, D.L.S. Ley, C.L. Tu, F. Malherbe and L. Grollo, 2013.
Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity. PloS One, Vol. 8.CrossRef |
Rajendhran, J., M.A. Mani and K. Navaneethakannan, 1998.
Antimicrobial activity of some selected medicinal plants. Geobios, 25: 208-282.
Rajput, Z.I., C.W. Xiao, S.H. Hu, A.G. Arijo and N.M. Soomro, 2007.
Improvement of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (H5N1) in chicken by using extract of Cochinchina momordica
seed (ECMS). J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B, 8: 331-337.CrossRef |
Reddy, A.C.P. and B.R. Lokesh, 1994.
Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa
) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. Food Chem. Toxicol., 32: 279-283.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Panda, A.K., S.V.R. Rao and M.R. Reddy, 2008.
Growth Promoters in Poultry: Novel Concepts. International Book Distributing Co., Lucknow, India, ISBN-13: 9788181891952, Pages: 134
Reddy, T., 2010.
Effect of herbal preparations on the performance of broilers. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupathi, India.
Rege, N.N., U.M. Thatte and S.A. Dahanukar, 1999.
Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother. Res., 13: 275-291.PubMed | Direct Link |
Rehman, S.U., F.R. Durrani, N. Chand, R.U. Khan and F.U. Rehman, 2011.
Comparative efficacy of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion on hematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks. Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1: 8-14.Direct Link |
Renu, S., N.K. Rakha, G. Sandeep and S.K. Mishra, 2003.
Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica
) leaf extract administration on immune responses of broiler chickens. J. Immunol. Immunopathol., 5: 47-50.Direct Link |
Richter, T., P. Braun and K. Fehlhaber, 2002.
[Influence of spiced feed additives on taste of hen's eggs]. Berliner Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 115: 200-202, (In German).PubMed |
Rios, J.L. and M.C. Recio, 2005.
Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100: 80-84.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Rojas, M.C. and M.S. Brewer, 2007.
Effect of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of cooked, refrigerated beef and pork. J. Food Sci., 72: S282-S288.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Rota, C., J.J. Carraminana, J. Burillo and A. Herrera, 2004. In vitro
antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens. J. Food Prot., 67: 1252-1256.Direct Link |
Rusenova, N. and P. Parvanov, 2009.
Antimicrobial activities of twelve essential oils against microorganisms of veterinary importance. Trakia J. Sci., 7: 37-43.Direct Link |
Saini, R., S. Davis and W. Dudley-Cash, 2003.
Oregano essential oil reduces the expression of coccidiosis in broilers. Proceedings of the 52nd Western Poultry Disease Conference, March 8-11, 2003, Sacramento, CA., USA., pp: 97-98
Samarasinghe, K., C. Wenk, K.F.S.T. Silva and J.M.D.M. Gunasekera, 2003.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa
) root powder and mannanoligosaccharides as alternatives to antibiotics in broiler chicken diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 16: 1495-1500.Direct Link |
Sandoval, M., R.M. Charbonnet, N.N. Okuhama, J. Roberts, Z. Krenova, A.M. Trentacosti and M.J. Miller, 2000.
Cat's claw inhibits TNFα production and scavenges free radicals: Role in cytoprotection. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 29: 71-78.Direct Link |
Sandoval-Chacoan, M., J.H. Thompson, X.J. Zhang, X. Liu and E.E. Mannick et al
Antiinflammatory actions of cat's claw: The role of NF-kB. Aliment Pharmacol. Ther., 12: 1279-1289.Direct Link |
Sanjyal, S. and S. Sapkota, 2011.
Supplementation of broilers diet with different sources of growth promoters. Nepal J. Sci. Technol., 12: 41-50.
Sapcota, D. and T.N. Upadhyaya, 2009.
Efficacy of dietary Ocimum sanctum
against aflatoxin B1 in broilers. Indian Vet. J., 86: 1163-1165.
Sarica, S., A. Ciftci, E. Demir, K. Kilinc and Y. Yildirim, 2005.
Use of an antibiotic growth promoter and two herbal natural feed additives with and without exogenous enzymes in wheat based broiler diets. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 35: 61-72.Direct Link |
Scanes, C.G., 2007.
The global importance of poultry. Poult. Sci., 86: 1057-1058.PubMed |
Schwarz, K., H. Ernst and W. Ternes, 1996.
Evaluation of antioxidative constituents from thyme. J. Sci. Food. Agric., 70: 217-223.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Sengupta, M., G.D. Sharma and B. Chakraborty, 2011.
Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia
on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4
intoxicated male albino mice. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., Vol. 11.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Shahryar, H.A., V. Gholipoor, Y. Ebrahimnezhad and H. Monirifar, 2011.
Comparison of the effects of thyme and oregano on egg quality in laying japanese quail. J. Basic Applied Sci. Res., 1: 2063-2068.Direct Link |
Sheng, Y., R.W. Pero, A. Amiri and C. Bryngelsson, 1998.
Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa
. Anticancer Res., 18: 3363-3368.PubMed |
Sheng, Y., R.W. Pero and H. Wagner, 2000.
Treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in a rat model with aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa
. Phytomedicine, 7: 137-143.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Shirin, K., S. Imad, S. Shafiq and K. Fatima, 2010.
Determination of major and trace elements in the indigenous medicinal plant Withania somnifera
and their possible correlation with therapeutic activity. J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 14: 97-100.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Shisodiya, J.M., S.S. Chpoade, A.B. Rajput, J.M. Chandankhede, K.S. Ingale and B.R. Kolte, 2008.
Comparative study of ashwagandha and commercial synthetic compound on performance of broilers during hot weather. Vet. World, 1: 310-311.Direct Link |
Singh, K.V. and N.P. Shukla, 1984.
Activity on multiple resistant bacteria of garlic (Allium sativum
) extract. Fitoterapia, 55: 313-315.
Singh, A., 2003.
Managing internal parasites in organic livestock. Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada. https://www.cog.ca/documents/Managinginternalparasitesinorganiclivestock.pdf.
Singh, S.M., N. Singh and P. Shrivastava, 2006.
Effect of alcoholic extract of Ayurvedic herb Tinospora cordifolia
on the proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in a tumor-bearing host. Fitoterapia, 77: 1-11.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Singh, G., S. Maurya, M.P. de Lampasona and C.A.N. Catalan, 2007.
A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45: 1650-1661.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Singh, N., J.P. Singh and V. Singh, 2007.
Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal formulation on dressing percentage and mortality in broiler chicks. Indian J. Field Vet., 2: 22-24.
Sinurat, A.P., T. Purwadaria, M.H. Togatorop and T. Pasaribu, 2003.
Utilization of plant bioactives as feed additives for poultry: The effect of Aloe vera gel and its extract on performance of broilers. Indonesian J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 8: 139-145.Direct Link |
Smith, A.J., 1990.
Poultry-Tropical Agriculturist Series. Macmillan Publishers, London, pp: 179-184
Smith-Palmer, A., J. Stewart and L. Fyfe, 1998.
Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Lett. Applied Microbiol., 26: 118-122.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Sokovic, M., J. Glamoclija, P.D. Marin, D. Brkic and L.J. Van Griensven, 2010.
Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro
model. Molecules, 15: 7532-7546.PubMed |
Soltan, M.A., R.S. Shewita and M.I. El-Katcha, 2008.
Effect of dietary anise seeds supplementation on growth performance, immune response, carcass traits and some blood parameters of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 7: 1078-1088.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Song, J.M., K.H. Lee and B.L. Seong, 2005.
Antiviral effect of catechins in green tea on influenza virus. Antiviral Res., 68: 66-74.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Sood, R., D. Swarup, S. Bhatia, D.D. Kulkarni, S. Dey, M. Saini and S.C. Dubey, 2012.
Antiviral activity of crude extracts of Eugenia jambolana
Lam. against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 50: 179-186.PubMed |
Spelman, K., J. Burns, D. Nichols, N. Winters, S. Ottersberg and M. Tenborg, 2006.
Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: A review of herbal immunomodulators. Altern. Med. Rev., 11: 128-150.PubMed | Direct Link |
Sridhar, M., R.U. Suganthi and V. Thammiaha, 2014.
Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., (In Press).CrossRef | Direct Link |
Srinivasan, G.V., K.P. Unnikrishnan, A.B. Shree and I. Balachandran, 2008.
HPLC estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia
and Tinospora sinensis
. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 70: 96-99.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Stanely, P., M. Prince and V.P. Menon, 2003.
Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia
roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats. Phytother. Res., 17: 410-413.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Steiner, T., 2009.
Application and Benefits of Phytogenics in Egg Production. In: Animal Nutrition: Natural Concepts to Optimize Gut Health and Performance, Steiner, T. (Ed.). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK., ISBN: 9781904761716, pp: 157-167
Subapriya, R. and S. Nagini, 2005.
Medicinal properties of neem leaves: A review. Curr. Med. Chem.-Anticancer Agents, 5: 149-156.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Sudarshan, S., N. Fairoze, S.W. Ruban, S.R. Badhe and B.V. Raghunath, 2010.
Effect of aqueous extract and essential oils of ginger and garlic as decontaminat in chicken meat. Res. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 58-61.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Talebi, A., S. Asri-Rezaei, R. Rozeh-Chai and R. Sahraei, 2005.
Comparative studies on haematological values of broiler strains (Ross, Cobb, Arbor-acres and Arian). Int. J. Poult. Sci., 4: 573-579.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tekeli, A., L. Celik, H.R. Kutlu and M. Gorgulu, 2006.
Effect of dietary supplemental plant extracts on performance, carcass characteristics, digestive system development, intestinal microflora and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Proceedings of 12th European Poultry Conference, September 10-14, 2006, Verona, Italy, pp: 307-308Direct Link |
Thatte, U.M., S.N. Chhabria, S.M. Karandikar and S.A. Dahanukar, 1987.
Protective effects of Indian medical plants against cyclophosphamide neutropenia. J. Postgraduate Med., 33: 185-188.Direct Link |
The Council of the European Union, 2007.
Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. Official J. Eur. Union, L189: 1-23.Direct Link |
Tiwari, R., K. Dhama, M.Y. Wani, V. Verma, R.K. Vaid and R.S. Chauhan, 2011.
Bacteriophage therapy: A novel tool for combating bacterial diseases of poultry-A review. J. Immunol. Immunopathol., 13: 55-66.Direct Link |
Tiwari, R., S. Chakraborty, K. Dhama, S. Rajagunalan and S.V. Singh, 2013.
Antibiotic resistance-an emerging health problem: Causes, worries, challenges and solutions: A review. Int. J. Curr. Res., 5: 1880-1892.Direct Link |
Tiwari, R., S. Chakraborty and K. Dhama, 2013.
Miracle of herbs in antibiotic resistant wounds and skin infections: Treasure of nature-a review/perspective. Pharm. Sci. Monitor, 4: 214-248.Direct Link |
Toghyani, M., M. Toghyani, A. Gheisari, G. Ghalamkari and A. Eghbalsaied, 2011.
Evaluation of cinnamon and garlic as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on performance, immune responses, serum biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicks. Livestock Sci., 138: 167-173.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tollba, A.A.H. and M.S.H. Hassan, 2001.
Using some natural additives to improve physiological and productive perform-ance of broiler chicks under high temperature conditions. 2. black cumin (Nigella sativa
) or garlic (Allium sativum
). Egypt. Poult. Sci., 23: 327-340.Direct Link |
Toyang, N.J., J. Wanyama, M. Nuwanyakpa and S. Django, 2007.
Ethnoveterinary Medicine: A Practical Approach for the Treatment of Cattle Diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. 2nd Edn., Agromisa, The Netherlands, ISBN-13: 9789290813668, Pages: 87
Tserveni-Gousi, A.S., 2001.
Sensory evaluation of eggs produced by laying hens fed diet containing flaxseed and thymus meal. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde, 65: 214-218.
Tucker, L., 2002.
Botanical broiler: Plant extracts to maintain poultry performance. Feed Int., 23: 26-29.
Tyler, V.E., 2007.
Herbal medicine: From the past to the future. Public Health Nutr., 3: 447-452.CrossRef | PubMed |
Reddy, L.S.S.V., A. Thangavel, V. Leela and K.V.S.N. Raju, 2007.
Effect of dietary supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum
) and Selenium on lipid peroxidation levels and growth rate in broiler chickens. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 3: 144-149.
Vidyarthi, V.K., K. Nring and V.B. Sharma, 2008.
Effect of herbal growth promoters on the performance and economics of rearing broiler chicken. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 43: 297-300.Direct Link |
Umashanker, M. and S. Shruti, 2011.
Traditional Indian herbal medicine used as antipyretic, antiulcer, anti-diabetic and anticancer: A review. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Chem., 1: 1152-1159.Direct Link |
Upadhyaya, R., R.P. Pandey, V. Sharma and K.V. Anita, 2011.
Assessment of the multifaceted immunomodulatory potential of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia
. Res. J. Chem. Sci., 1: 71-79.Direct Link |
Verma, S. and S.P. Singh, 2008.
Current and future status of herbal medicines. Vet. World, 1: 347-350.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wallace, R.J., W. Oleszek, C. Franz, I. Hahn, K.H.C. Baser, A. Mathe and K. Teichmann, 2010.
Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity. Br. Poult. Sci., 51: 461-487.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wanzala, W., K.H. Zessin, N.M. Kyule, M.P.O. Baumann, E. Mathias and A. Hassanali, 2005.
Ethno-veterinary medicine: A critical review of its evolution, perception, understanding and the way forward. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 17.Direct Link |
Watanabe, K., H. Takatsuki, M. Sonoda, S. Tamura, N. Murakami and N. Kobayashi, 2011.
Anti-influenza viral effects of novel nuclear export inhibitors from Valerianae Radix and Alpinia galangal
. Drug. Discov. Ther., 5: 26-31.PubMed | Direct Link |
Wenk, C., 2000.
Why all the discussion about herbs? Proceedings of the Alltech's 16th Annual Symposium of Biotechnology in the Feed Industry, (BFI'00), Alltech Technical Publications, Nottingham University Press, Nicholasville, KY., pp: 79-96
Williams, P. and R. Losa, 2001.
The use of essential oils and their compounds in poultry nutrition. World Poult., 17: 14-15.Direct Link |
Windisch, W., K. Schedle, C. Plitzner and A. Kroismayr, 2008.
Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. J. Anim. Sci., 86: E140-E148.PubMed | Direct Link |
Winkler, C., B. Wirleitner, K. Schroecksnadel, H. Schennach, E. Mur and D. Fuchs, 2004. In vitro
effects of two extracts and two pure alkaloid preparations of Uncaria tomentosa
on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Planta Med., 70: 205-210.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Winters, M., 2006.
Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera
and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11: 269-277.PubMed |
Woods, V.B. and A.M. Fearon, 2009.
Dietary sources of unsaturated fatty acids for animals and their transfer into meat, milk and eggs: A review. Livest. Sci., 126: 1-20.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wynn, G.S., 2001.
Herbs in veterinary medicine. Alternative Veterinary Medicine. http://www.altvetmed.com/articles/herbs.html.
Yan, L., Q.W. Meng, X. Ao, T.X. Zhou, J.S. Yoo, H.J. Kim and I.H. Kim, 2011.
Effects of fermented garlic powder supplementation on growth performance, blood characteristics and meat quality in finishing pigs fed low-nutrient-density diets. Livestock Sci., 137: 255-259.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Yarru, L.P., R.S. Settivari, N.K.S. Gowda, E. Antoniou, D.R. Ledoux and G.E. Rottinghaus, 2009.
Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa
) on the expression of hepatic genes associated with biotransformation, antioxidant and immune systems in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin. Poult. Sci., 88: 2620-2627.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Youn, H.J. and J.W. Noh, 2001.
Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella
. Vet. Parasitol., 96: 257-263.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Zenner, L., M.P. Callait, C. Granier and C. Chauve, 2003. In vitro
effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon
and Allium sativum
on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum
and Histomanas meleagridis
. Parasite, 10: 153-157.PubMed |
Zhai, L., Y. Li, W. Wang and S. Hu, 2011.
Enhancement of humoral immune responses to inactivated Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccines by oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins in chickens. Poult. Sci., 90: 1955-1959.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Zhang, G.F., Z.B. Yang, Y. Wang, W.R. Yang, S.Z. Jiang and G.S. Gai, 2009.
Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale
) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 88: 2159-2166.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Zhang, D.F., B.B. Sun, Y.Y. Yue, Q.J. Zhou and A.F. Du, 2012.
Anticoccidial activity of traditional Chinese herbal Dichroa febrifuga
Lour. extract against Eimeria tenella
infection in chickens. Parasitol. Res., 111: 2229-2233.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Zhao, X., Z.B. Yang, W.R. Yang, Y. Wang, S.Z. Jiang and G.G. Zhang, 2011.
Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale
) on laying performance and antioxidant status of laying hens and on dietary oxidation stability. Poult. Sci., 90: 1720-1727.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Lagu, C. and F.I.B. Kayanja, 2010.
Medicinal plant extracts widely used in the control of new castle disease (NCD) and helminthosis among village chickens of South Western Uganda. Livestock Research for Rural Development.
Frankic, T., M. Voljg, J. Salobir and V. Rezar, 2009.
Importance of medical herbs in animal feeding: A review. Acta Agric. Slovenica, 92: 95-95.
Elbanna, H., A.A.E. Latif and M. Soliman, 2012.
Anticoccidial activity of Allium sativum
and Aloe vera
in broiler chickens. Int. J. Agro Vet. Med. Sci.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Dharma, M. and S. Tomar, 2007.
Role of probiotic in improving feed efficiency in poultry. Indian J. Indigenous Med., 11: 72-75.
Gefu, J.O., P.A. Abdu and C.B. Alawa, 2000.
Ethnoveterinary practices, research and development. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Ethnoveterinary Practices, Kaduna, Nigeria, August 14-18, 2000, National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria -
Kurkure, N.V., D.R. Kalorey and M.H. Ali, 2002.
Herbal nutraceuticals: An alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Poultry Fortune, August 2002, pp: 31-32.
Sharma, P., 1983.
Chikithsasthana. In: Charaka Samhita, Tripathi, B.N. (Ed.). Chaukhambha Surbharti Publication, Varanasi, India