Research Article

Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Piliostigma reticulatum Leaf Extract

M.A. Aderogba, E.K. Okoh, I.N. Okeke, A.O. Olajide and A.O. Ogundaini
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the extraction method employed in traditional herbal medicine by comparing the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf extracts of Piliostigma reticulatum and Piliostigma thonningii. The suitability of the two species as substitute was also determined. The agar dilution method was employed to compare the activity of crude leaf extracts of the two species against sixty bacterial and fungal isolates selected from diverse genera. The antimicrobial spectra of the extracts from both species were very similar. In 44 (73.3%) of the test strains, MIC values for the two extracts were identical and in 6 (10.0%) the MIC values differed by only one dilution factor. Chlorocresol was used as standard. The crude extract and solvent fractions obtained from the leaf of P. reticulatum were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The aqueous fraction at 100 mg kg-1 produced the highest inhibition of oedema (61.2%), while the crude extract at 100 mg kg-1 exerted a low anti-inflammatory effect (13.2%). Indomethacin at 5 mg kg-1 inhibited oedema by 86.2%. This study has established that P. reticulatum and P. thonningii have similar antimicrobial spectra and anti-inflammatory activity. The traditional extraction method is not effective in extracting the antimicrobial agents from the plants.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

M.A. Aderogba, E.K. Okoh, I.N. Okeke, A.O. Olajide and A.O. Ogundaini, 2006. Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Piliostigma reticulatum Leaf Extract. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2: 70-74.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2006.70.74



  1. Assi, L.A. and S. Guinko, 1991. Plants used in Traditional Medicine in West Africa. Swiss Centre for Scientific Research in Ivory Coast and Roche Africa Research Foundation, Abidjan, pp: 17-18

  2. Ibewuike, J.C., A.O. Ogundaini, F.O. Ogungbamila, M. Martins, J. Gallard, L. Bohlin and M. Pais, 1996. Piliostigmin, a new phenoxychromone and C-methyl flavonols from Piliostigma thonningi. Phytochemistry, 43: 687-690.

  3. Ibewuike, J.C., F.O. Ogungbamila, A.O. Ogundaini, I.N. Okeke and L. Bohlin, 1997. Antiinflammatory and antibacterial activities of C-methylflavonols from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytother. Res., 11: 281-284.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  4. Burkill, H.M., 1995. The Useful Plants of West Africa. 2nd Edn., Royal Kew Botanical Gardens, Kew, London, pp: 144-146.

  5. Aderogba, M.A., E.K. Okoh, A.O. Ogundaini and B.M. Abegaz, 2003. 6-C-Methylquercetin B3, 3, 4-trimethyl ether from the leaves extract of Piliostigma reticulatum DC. Hochst. Nig. J. Natl. Prod. Med., 07: 37-38.

  6. Gibson, L.F. and J.T. Khoury, 1986. Storage and survival of bacteria by ultra-freeze. Lett. Applied Microbiol., 3: 127-129.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  7. Murray, P., E. Baron, M. Pfaller, F. Tenover and R. Yolken, 1995. Manual of Microbiology. 6th Edn., ASM Press, Washington, DC., pp: 1327-1341

  8. Winter, C.A., E.A. Risley and G.W. Nuss, 1962. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Exp. Biol. Med., 111: 544-547.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

  9. Okeke, I.N., A. Lamikanra, H. Steinruck and J.B. Kaper, 2000. Characterization of Escherichia coli strains from cases of childhood diarrhea in provincial South-Western Nigeria. J. Clin. Microbiol., 38: 7-12.
    Direct Link  |  

  10. Czeczulin, J., T. Whittam, I. Henderson, F. Navarro-Garcia and J. Nataro, 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of virulence genes in enteroaggregative and diffusely-adherent Escherichia coli. Infect. Immunity, 67: 2692-2699.
    Direct Link  |  

  11. O'Brien, A.D., T.A. Lively, T.W. Chang and S.L. Gorbach, 1983. Purification of Shigella dysenteriae 1 Shiga-like toxin from Escherichia coli O157: H7 strain associated with hemorrhagic colitis. Lancet, 2: 573-573.

  12. Levine, M.M., E.J. Bergquist, D.R. Nalin, D.H. Waterman, R.B. Hornick, C.R. Young and S. Sotman, 1978. Escherichia coli strains that cause diarrhoea but do not produce heat- labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and are non-invasive. Lancet, 1: 1119-1122.

  13. Okeke, I.N., O. Ojo, A. Lamikanra and J.B. Kaper, 2003. Etiology of acute diarrhea among adults in South-West Nigeria. J. Clin. Microbiol., 41: 4525-4530.
    Direct Link  |  

  14. Okeke, I.N., A.B. Abudu and A. Lamikanra, 2001. Microbiological investigation of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Niger State, Nigeria. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 7: 514-516.
    Direct Link  |  

  15. Eloff, J.N., 1998. Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants? J. Ethnopharmacol., 60: 1-8.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2023 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved