Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Acute Toxicity Potential of Methanolic Extract of Smilax kraussiana Leaves in Rats

Paul A. Nwafor , Memfin Ekpo , Tony Waka Udezi , Jude Okokon and Augustine L. Bassey
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Smilax kraussiana leaves was investigated in rats. The parameters studied were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, protein, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a significant (p<0.01-0.001) non dose-dependent decreases in serum levels. There were also non dose dependent decreases in cholesterol, protein and creatinine serum levels (p<0.001). The serum level of urea did not indicate a significant change. Sodium and chloride ions showed discriminatory rise in serum levels especially in high doses (p<0.05-0.001) while the potassium serum level remained statistically insignificant. The physical signs of toxicity ranged from decreased motor activity with loss of appetite to increased respiratory rate, restlessness, gasping and death. The median lethal dose was calculated to be (240.00±49.44 mg kg-1). The extract may in part possess some antihepatotoxic effects.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Paul A. Nwafor , Memfin Ekpo , Tony Waka Udezi , Jude Okokon and Augustine L. Bassey , 2006. Acute Toxicity Potential of Methanolic Extract of Smilax kraussiana Leaves in Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2: 463-466.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2006.463.466


1:  Benjamin, M.M., 1978. Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 3rd Edn., Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA., pp: 229-232.

2:  Chhabra, S.C., R.L.A. Mahunnah and E.N. Mshiu, 1993. Plants used in traditional Medicine in Eastern Tanzania vi. Angiosperms (Sapotaceae to Zingiberaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 39: 83-103.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Clarke, E.G.C., 1975. Isolation and Identification of Drugs. Vol. 2, Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp: 905.

4:  Elias, E., 1984. Jaundice. In: Oxford Textbook of Medicine ECRS, Weatherhall, D.J., J.G.G. Ledingham and D.A. Warrel (Eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.

5:  Farnsworth, N.R., A.S. Bingel and D.D. Soejarto, 1980. Prospects for higher plants as a source of useful fertility regulating agents for human use. Proceedings of Symposium on Recent Advances in Fertility Regulation, Sept. 2-5, Beijing, China, pp: 330-364.

6:  Guyton, A.C., 1981. Textbook of Medical Pathology. 6th Edn., W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA., pp: 463-474.

7:  Harper, H.A., V.W. Rodwell and P.A. Mays, 1984. Chemistry and Functions of the Hormones: Review of Physiological Chemistry. 17th Edn., Lange medical Publications, California, USA., pp: 548.

8:  Iwu, M.M. and B.N. Anyanwu, 1982. Phytotherapeutic profile of Nigerian herbs: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents. J. Ethnopharmacol., 6: 263-274.

9:  Jacks, T.W., P.A. Nwafor and A.U. Ekanem, 2004. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Pausinystalia macroceras stem- bark in rats. Nig. J. Exp. Applied Biol., 5: 59-62.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Miller, L.C. and M.L. Tainter, 1944. Estimation of the ED50 and its error by means of logarithmic-probit graph paper. Exp. Biol. Med., 57: 261-264.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Nwafor, P.A., F.K. Okwuasaba and O.O. Onoruwe, 1998. Contraceptive and non-estrogenic effects of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol., 62: 117-122.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Nwafor, P.A., T.W. Jacks and O.O. Longe, 2004. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens roots in rats. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 7: 19-21.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Odebiyi, O.O. and E.A. Sofowora, 1978. Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants-part 2. Lloydia, 41: 234-235.

14:  Recknagel, R.O., 1983. A new direction in the study of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Life Sci., 33: 401-408.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

15:  Ringler, D.H. and L. Dabich, 1979. Haematology and Clinical Biochemistry. In: The Laboratory Rat, Baker, H.J., J.R. Lindsey and S.H. Weisbroth (Eds.). Vol. 1, Academic Press, London, UK., pp: 105-118.

16:  Ruppel, G.L. and C.L. Scanlan, 1995. Solutions, Body Fluids and Electrolytes. In: Eglans Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Scanlan, C.L., S.B. Charles and S.L. Richard (Eds.). Mosby, NY., pp: 288-302.

17:  Srivastava, S., A.K. Srivastava, G.K. Patnaik and B.N. Dhawan, 1997. Effect of picroliv and silymarin on liver regeneration of carbon tetrachloride treated rats. J. Pharm. Res., 2: 9-13.

18:  Trease, G.E. and W.C. Evans, 1989. Pharmacognosy. English Language Book Society. 13th Edn., Bailliere Tindall, London, pp: 683-684.

19:  Wittwer, F.M. and L.H. Bohmwald, 1986. Manual de Patologia Clinica Veterinaria. Valdivia, Chile, pp: 53-93.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved