Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Protective Effect of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Persea americana (Avocado) Against Paracetamol-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats



Martins Ekor , G.K.A Adepoju and Abiola Ayodeji Epoyun
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Paracetamol (PCM) is an analgesic, antipyretic drug available as an over the counter (OTC) medication which causes hepatotoxicity at high doses. The effect of Persea americana (PA) (200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight, administered for 8 days) on paracetamol-induced acute hepatic damage was studied by investigating the effects on liver function, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes - Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Acute hepatotoxicity was induced by administering 2 g kg-1 body weight of PCM orally on the eight day. All rats were sacrificed 7 h after the administration of PCM. The results show that PCM at a dose of 2 g kg-1 body weight induced acute hepatotoxicity 7 h after oral administration as evident by the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. This was also associated with depletion of hepatic GSH, decrease in GST activity and decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT). The methanol leaf extract of PA dose-dependently protected against acute hepatotoxicity induced by PCM by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and preventing GSH depletion. The results indicate that the extract protects against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity presumably via antioxidant action.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Martins Ekor , G.K.A Adepoju and Abiola Ayodeji Epoyun , 2006. Protective Effect of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Persea americana (Avocado) Against Paracetamol-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2: 416-420.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2006.416.420

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijp.2006.416.420

REFERENCES

1:  Albano, E., G. Poli, E. Chiarpotto, F. Biasi and M.U. Diantam, 1983. Paracetamol-stimulated lipid peroxidation in isolated rat and mouse hepatocytes. Chem. Biol. Int., 47: 249-263.

2:  Beutler, E., O. Duron and B.M. Kelly, 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 61: 882-888.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Devalia, J., R.C. Ogilvie and A.E.M. Mc Lean, 1982. Dissociation of cell death from covalent binding of paracetamol by flavones in a hepatocyte system. Biochem. Pharm., 31: 3745-3749.

4:  Friedel, R., F. Diederichs and J. Lindena, 1979. Release and Extracellular Turn-over of Cellular Enzyme. In: Advances in Clinical Enzymology, Schmidt, E.F., W. Schimidt, I. Transchold and R. Friedel (Eds.). Karge, Basel, pp: 70-105

5:  Haber, F. and J.J. Weiss, 1934. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by iron salts. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 147: 332-351.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Habig, W.H., M.J. Pabst and W.B. Jakoby, 1974. Glutathione S-transferases: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem., 249: 7130-7139.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Kawagishi, H., Y. Fukumoto, M. Hatakeyama, P. He and H. Arimoto et al., 2001. Liver injury suppressing compounds from avocado (Persea americana). J. Agric. Food Chem., 495: 2215-2221.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Kim, O.K., A. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, N. Takeda, H. Yoshizuma and H. Ohigashi, 2000. Novel nitric oxide and superoxide generation inhibitors, persenone A and B, from avocado fruit. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48: 1557-1563.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Kurtovic, J. and S.M. Riordan, 2003. Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity at recommended dosage. J. Int. Med., 253: 240-243.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Lee, W.M., 1993. Medical progress: Acute liver failure. N. Engl. J. Med., 329: 1862-1872.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Lee, K.J., H.J. You, S.J. Park, Y.S. Kim, Y.C. Chung, T.C. Jeong and H.G. Jeong, 2001. Hepato-protective effects of platycodon grandiflorum on acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice. Cancer Lett., 174: 73-81.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Maria, V.A. and R.M. Victorino, 1998. Immunological investigation in hepatic drug reactions. Clin. Exp. Allergy, 4: 71-77.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Misra, H.P. and I. Fridovich, 1972. The univalent reduction of oxygen by reduced flavins and quinones. J. Biol. Chem., 247: 188-192.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Moore, M., H. Thor, G. Moore, S.D. Nelson, P. Moldeus and S. Orrenius, 1985. The toxicity of acetaminophen and N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine in isolated hepatocytes is associated with thiol depletion and increased cytosolic Ca2+. J. Biol. Chem., 260: 13035-13040.
Direct Link  |  

15:  NAPRALERT (Natural Product Alert), 1990. Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences. University of Illinois, Chicago, USA

16:  Nelson, S.D., 1990. Molecular mechanism of hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen. Semin Liver Dis., 10: 267-268.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Oelrichs, P.B., J.C. Ng, A.A. Seawright, A. Ward, L. Schaffeler and J.K. MacLeod, 1995. Isolation and identification of a compound from avocardo (Persea americana) leaves which causes necrosis of the acinar epithelium of the lactating mammary gland and the myocardium. Naturl Toxins, 3: 344-349.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Reitman, S. and S. Frankel, 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 28: 56-63.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Ross, D., 1988. Glutathione, free radicals and chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanisms of free-radical induced toxicity and glutathione-dependent protection. Pharmacol. Ther., 37: 231-249.
PubMed  |  

20:  Sinha, A.K., 1972. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal. Biochem., 47: 389-394.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Van de Straat, R., J. de Vries, A.J.J. Debets and N.P.E. Vermeulen, 1987. The mechanism of prevention of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity by 3, 5-dialkyl substitution. The roles of glutathione depletion and oxidative stress. Biochem. Pharmacol., 36: 2065-2070.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Vermeulen, N.P.E., J.G.M. Bessems, R. van de straat, 1992. Molecular aspects of paracitamol-induced hepatotoxicity and its mechanism of prevention. Drug Metabol. Rev., 24: 367-407.
CrossRef  |  

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved