Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats



Y. Raji , S.O. Ifabunmi , O.S. Akinsomisoye , A.O. Morakinyo and A.K. Oloyo
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water). Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01) at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05) at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio) and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01) at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01) at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01). The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Y. Raji , S.O. Ifabunmi , O.S. Akinsomisoye , A.O. Morakinyo and A.K. Oloyo , 2005. Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology, 1: 287-292.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2005.287.292

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijp.2005.287.292

REFERENCES

1:  Scaramuzzi, R.J., J.A. Downing, S. Williamson and J. Poll, 1997. The circulating concentration of FSH LH and Prolactin in the questradiol-Implanted ovariectomised ewe treated with caffeine. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 45: 273-282.

2:  Soliman, G.A. and A. Abd-El- Megind, 1999. The effect of antipsychotic drugs-carbamazepine and sodium valproate on fertility of male rats. DTW Deutische Tierazithchue Wochenseechift, 106: 110-113.

3:  Petty, R.G., 1999. Prolactin and antipsychotic medications: Mechanism of action. Schizophrenia Res., 35: S67-S73.

4:  Zemjanis, R., 1970. Collection and Evaluation of Semen in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Technique in Animal Reproduction. 2nd Edn., The Williams and Wilkikins Co., Baltimore

5:  World Health Organisation, 1985. WHO Laboratory Manual for Examination of Human Semen and Semen-cervical Mucus Interaction. 2nd Edn., Cambridge University Press, London

6:  Raji, Y., U.S. Udoh, O.O. Mewoyeka, F.C. Ononye and A.F. Bolarinwa, 2003. Implication of reproductive endocrine malfunction in male antifertility efficacy of Azadirachta indica extract in rats. Afr. J. Med. Sci., 32: 159-165.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Bloom, E., 1973. The Ultra structure of some characteristic sperm defects. Nord Vet. Med., 25: 283-287.

8:  Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran, 1980. Statistical Method. 7th Edn., Amess Iowa State University, USA., Pages: 215

9:  Baldessarini, R.J., 1980. Drugs and the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Depression and Anxiety Disorders. In: Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Hardman, J.G. and L.E. Limbird (Eds.). MacMillan Publ. Co., New York, USA., pp: 301-417

10:  Simons, J.E., R.S.H. Yang and E. Berman, 1995. Evaluation of the nephrotoxicity of complex mixtures containing organics and metal: Advantages and disadvantages of the use of real-world complex mixtures. Environ. Health Perspect, 103: 67-71.

11:  Orgebin-Christ, M.C., B.J. Denzo and J. Davier, 1975. Hand Book of Physiology. Vol. 7, Am. Physiol. Sec., Washington, DC., pp: 319-338

12:  Mitchell, J.E. and M.K. Popkin, 1982. Antipsychotic drug therapy and sexual dysfunction in men. Am. J. Psychiatry, 139: 633-637.

13:  Nishikawa, T., M. Tanaka, I. Koga and Y. Uchida, 1985. Prophylatic effects of neuroleptics in symptom-free schizophrenics: Role of doparminergic and noradrenergic blockers. Biol. Psychiatry, 20: 1161-1166.

14:  Ghadirian, A.M., G. Chouinard and L. Annable, 1982. Sexual dysfunction and plasma prolactin levels in neuroleptic-treated outpatients. J. Nerv Ment Dis., 170: 463-467.

15:  Baptista, T., D. Reyes and L. Hernandez, 1999. Antipsychotic drugs and reproductive hormones: Relationship to body weight regulation. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 62: 409-417.

16:  Smith, C.G. and R.H. Asch, 1987. Drug abuse and reproduction. Fert. Sterility, 48: 355-373.

17:  Greenfield S.F. and G. O`leary, 1999. Sex differences in marijuana use in the United States. Harvard Rev. Psychiatry, 6: 297-303.

18:  Daniel, W.A., M. Syrek, A. Mach, J. Wojoikowski and J. Boksa, 1997. Pharmakokinetics of thioridazine and its metabolites in blood plasma and the brain of rats after acute and chronic treatment. Polish J. Pharmacol., 49: 439-452.

19:  Gill-Sharma, M.K., N. Balasinor and P. Parte, 2001. Effect of intermittent treatment with tamoxifen on reproduction in male rats. Asian J. Androl., 3: 115-119.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Bloom, E., 1972. The ultra structure of some characteristic sperm defects and a proposal for a new classification of bull spermiogram. Proceedings of the Ahi del 7th Symposia International de Zootechia, (SIZ`1972), Milano, pp: 125-139

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved