Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Garcinia cambogia Fruit Extract Enhances the Shelf Life of Pork Fry in Room Temperature

K.S. Bhuvana, P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Natural preservation of meat and meat products is one of the important areas of meat science research. It was observed that the traditional pork curry (with addition of Garcinia cambogia fruit extract) of Coorg district, Karnataka, India had a longer shelf-life and higher acceptability. Hence, a study was conducted to assess the bio-preservative effect of the aqueous extract of G. cambogia fruit (Kachampuli in Coorgi). The pork cubes of 1 cm3 were marinated with salt (1.75%) and dry spice mixture (2%), shallow fried in low flame for 45 min in sunflower oil (10%) along with the green curry stuff. The aqueous extract of G. cambogia fruit was added at levels of 1 and 2%. The treated products along with a control were stored at room temperature analyzed for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality. The results indicated that the pH of the pork fry was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the treatment 1 and 2 (5.32 and 5.1) compared to the control (5.84). The Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and tyrosine values of the pork fry with 1% extract (1.65 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 and 5.57 mg kg-1) were also significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control (1.94 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 and 6.73 mg kg-1). The standard plate count remained within safe limits up to 6th day of storage in case of the treatments (3.84 log colony forming units gram-1) whereas, the control samples with SPC of 4.92 log CFU g-1 deteriorated after 48 h of preparation. The flavor, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability were better for both the treated pork fry throughout the study. The use of aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit at 1% level was optimum for the room temperature preservation of the pork fry for about six days.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

K.S. Bhuvana, P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal, 2012. Garcinia cambogia Fruit Extract Enhances the Shelf Life of Pork Fry in Room Temperature. International Journal of Meat Science, 2: 27-33.

DOI: 10.3923/ijmeat.2012.27.33

Received: May 07, 2013; Accepted: June 19, 2013; Published: October 29, 2013


The problem of food preservation has become more complex with the frequent introduction of new food products to the market, requiring a longer shelf-life. Today, consumers tend to buy ready to eat meat products that are nutritious as well as tasty. Further, awareness about food safety and health has prompted them to prefer minimal processed and naturally preserved products. Therefore, the last decade has witnessed a widespread research on natural preservatives. These include herbs, plants, fruits, vegetables and their extracts or powders that possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The antioxidant effects of curry leaf powder (Biswas et al., 2012; Najeeb, 2013), pomegranate fruit by-product powders (Devatkal and Naveena, 2010), rosemary with tea catechins (O’Grady et al., 2006) have been investigated for their use in meat products. A recent patent granted to Tyson Foods, Inc. (Baublitis and Sawyer, 2011) describes the use of celery powder for surface application on fresh meat that is packaged in vacuum or in low-oxygen modified atmosphere. The current food industry aims at reducing economic losses due to reduced shelf-life of the products. But, the major challenge includes avoiding transmission of food borne diseases while catering to the consumer demands for quality. Among the herbs and spices used as natural preservatives in various food products, scientific reports on Garcinia cambogia fruit extract as a biopreservative in meat are scanty.

Garcinia belongs to the family Guttiferae, which includes 200 tropical species distributed in tropical Asia, Africa and Polynesia. India has about 30 species of Garcinia that grow in the rain forests of Western Ghats region covering Mysore, Coorg and Wynaad. Of these, Garcinia gummi-gutta and G. indica (kokum) are distributed in the Central Western Ghat region of Karnataka. Garcinia indica is synonymous with Garcinia purpurea and is known as Murugal in Kannada, Brindon in Goa, Bhirind or Ansul in Marathi and Konkan (Sullivan et al., 1974).

In Southeast Asia and Southern India, dried rinds of G. cambogia are used as a flavoring agent, carminative and preservative in certain dishes. Especially in Southern India they are valued as a condiment, in place of tamarind or lemon, for flavoring curries, meat and seafood dishes. The fruit has also been used for centuries to make meals more ‘filling’ (Sergio, 1988). G. cambogia fruit rinds were reported to be used in the preservation of fish (Sreenivasan and Venkataraman, 1959; Clouatre and Rosenbaum, 1994) which is commercially called “Colombo curing” (Sreenivasan and Venkataraman, 1959; Lewis et al., 1964).

A polyisoprenylated benzophenone, garcinol, is present in Guttiferae (Krishnamurthy et al., 1981). Hydroxycitric acid is found in the fruit rinds of G. cambogia, G. indica (Jayaprakasha and Sakariah, 1998, 2002) and G. cowa (Jena et al., 2002). The antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Garcinia were reported to be due to the secondary metabolic compounds. These include xanthones, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic acids and benzophenones (Gustafson et al., 1992). In regions of Coorg district in Karnataka, this extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit is used in the famous, relished pork curry (pandhi curry), the flavor and acceptability of which remains high even with increased storage period. Keeping these points in view, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of the extract of this fruit in extending the keeping quality of pork fry at room temperature.


Preparation of pork fry: Pork required for the experiments were procured from the Department of Livestock Products Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research (RIVER), Pondicherry, India after the hygienic slaughter of a Large White Yorkshire pig. After deboning and separation of fat, the meat from the loin region of the carcass was cut into uniform pieces of 1 cm3 and stored at -18°C. The frozen pork cubes were thawed overnight at 6°C. After thawing, it was marinated as per recipe (Table 1) and kept in a refrigerator at 4±1°C for 1 h.

Table 1: Recipe for preparation of pork fry
Image for - Garcinia cambogia Fruit Extract Enhances the Shelf Life of Pork Fry 
  in Room Temperature

During the preparation of the pork fry, oil was heated in a pan and the green condiments (onion, garlic and ginger:3:1:1) were added at 5% level and fried until golden brown color developed. The marinated meat was added and shallow fried along with dry spice mix (added at 2% level) with intermittent stirring for about 45 min. The aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit was added at levels of 1 and 2% to the treatments 1 and 2, respectively. This was accompanied by heating for a minute followed by stirring for proper mixing. A control sample was prepared following the same method except the addition of the extract. The final moisture content in all the products was 46%. All three products were cooled, packed in sterilized glass bottles and stored at room temperature for further physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological analyses.

Evaluation of the product during storage: The pH of the products were recorded by homogenizing 5 g of meat sample in 45 mL of distilled water, using a combined electrode of a digital pH meter (ELICO-LI 120). The moisture conte nt of the pork fry was determined as per standard analytical procedure (AOAC, 2000) and expressed as percent. TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) value of the samples were assessed by distillation method following the procedure outlined by Tarladgis et al. (1960). Tyrosine values were estimated adopting the procedure of Strange et al. (1977) with minor modifications. The microbial quality of the samples was assessed by determining the standard plate count (SPC) following procedures recommended by APHA (1984) using plate count agar (Hi-Media, Mumbai) during storage of the products at room temperature. The control and treated samples of pork fry were evaluated for changes in quality at periodic intervals of 0, 3 and 6 days. A semi-trained panel consisting of faculty and post-graduate students of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, were used for organoleptic evaluation of the product on a 8 point hedonic scale (where, 8 = like extremely, 1 = dislike extremely) for attributes viz. appearance, flavour, juiciness, texture and overall acceptability (Keeton, 1983). The samples were analyzed in duplicates and the experiment was replicated thrice. Data generated were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 MSI of windows (SPSS, Chicago, USA) and levels of significance were calculated following the Least Significant Difference Test (Snedecor and William, 1967).


The data on the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of the control and treated samples of pork fry are presented in Table 2 and 3. Perusal of data revealed that the addition of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit to the pork fry resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in pH as the level of extract was increased. Treatment 2 had the lowest pH at the end of 6th day of storage 5.12 whereas control had the highest pH of 6.0. This might be due to the acidic nature of the extract causing a lower pH in the treated samples.

The TBARS and tyrosine values of the pork fry in the treatment 1 (1.65 and 5.57 mg kg-1) were also lower than that of the control (1.94 and 6.73 mg kg-1). TBARS numbers in samples of treatment 1 was the lowest on the 6th day (1.86 mg kg-1). Control and treatment 2 showed higher values of 2.27 and 3.22 mg kg-1, respectively. The major acid in the fruit of G. cambogia was identified as hydroxycitric acid (Lewis and Neelakantan, 1965; Lewis, 1969). The plant also contains hydroxycitric acid lactone, but in minor quantities (Jayaprakasha and Sakariah, 2002). These, along with the aldehydes present in the extract might be responsible for the higher TBARS (mg malonaldehyde kg-1) value.

Table 2: Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on the quality of pork fry stored under room temperature
Image for - Garcinia cambogia Fruit Extract Enhances the Shelf Life of Pork Fry 
  in Room Temperature
Means with different superscripts (capital letters in the same column and small letters in the same row) differ significantly (p< 0.05), T1: 1% aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit, T2: 2% aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit, ND: Not done

Table 3: Effect of Garcinia cambogia fruit extract on the sensory quality of pork fry stored under room temperature
Image for - Garcinia cambogia Fruit Extract Enhances the Shelf Life of Pork Fry 
  in Room Temperature
Means with different superscripts (capital letters in the same column and small letters in the same row) differ significantly (p<0.05), T1: 1% aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit, T2: 2% aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit, ND: Not done

Tyrosine value increases during storage but the increase is more evident with advanced spoilage than the changes occurring during early stages of spoilage (Pearson, 1968). Lea et al. (1969) stated that in addition to tyrosine, the value also measures the group of products produced due to microbial action like tryptophan, cysteine, phenolic groups, sulphydryl compounds, hydrogen sulphide etc. The higher tyrosine values in case of treatment 2 may be owing to the bioflavonoids (a class of polyphenolic compounds) in the fruit extract (Cadenas and Packer, 1996; Peter, 2001; Rastogi and Nayak, 2010; Yoshikawa et al., 2000).

Najeeb (2013) observed higher tyrosine values for restructured chicken slices incorporated with gooseberry powder which might be attributed due to the presence of extremely high polyphenolic contents of gooseberry (24.5±1.11 g Gallic Acid Equivalent/100 g) similar to that reported by Mishra et al. (2009). There was an increase in both TBARS and tyrosine values with the increase in storage period and both the treatments significantly (p<0.05) differed from control. However, from the sensory point of view, both the treatments were well within the acceptable range.

Standard plate count showed significant (p<0.05) differences between the control and the treatment groups and days of storage. On day 1, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the SPC in treated samples compared to control indicating that the extract had exerted antimicrobial activity on the treated samples. Thereafter SPC increased gradually with the increase in storage period for all the control and treated samples which ranged from 1.6 to 4.92 log CFU g-1. However, treatment 1 showed the lowest microbial load on day 6 (3.84 log CFU g-1). Both the treated samples had microbial counts within acceptable limit on the sixth day of ambient temperature storage.

Sensory data (Table 3) revealed that the appearance scores of all the products remained above 7 on the 8 point hedonic scale. There were no significant (p<0.05) differences in appearance for all the groups. In terms of flavor, both treatment 1 and 2 were acceptable. But samples of treatment 2 had significantly (p<0.05) lower scores throughout the study and samples belonging to treatment 1 were more preferred. This might be due to a slight bitterness imparted to the product as the level of the extract increased in the product. Texture and juiciness scores for all the products were in the range of 6 to 7. However, the texture and juiciness scores for the treatments were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control on day 1. This may be because of the hard nature of the products due to reducing moisture by frying and the low pH of these products leading to reduction in water holding capacity, hence, the lowering of juiciness. The decline in pH can cause protein denaturation resulting in additional loss of water-holding capacity (Offer, 1991). The overall acceptability varied significantly (p<0.05) for control and treatments with the increase in days of storage. However, control became unacceptable for sensory evaluation due to off odour after 48 h of preparation. Among the treatments, treatment 1 proved to be more acceptable than treatment 2.


From the observations recorded in the present study, it can be concluded that the pork fry treated with 1% aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit has the best physico-chemical properties, is microbiologically safe and has the best sensory attributes. Hence, its addition at the rate of 1% can be considered to be most effective for use as a bio-preservative in pork fry with a shelf life up to six days under room temperature.


  1. AOAC., 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA., USA
    Direct Link  |  

  2. APHA, 1984. Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. 2nd Edn., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC., USA

  3. Baublitis, R.T. and J.T. Sawyer, 2011. Method of packaging fresh meat products in a low oxygen environment, meat color improvement solution and pre-packaged food product. World Intellectual Property Organization, International Publication Number WO2011/129838A1.

  4. Biswas, A.K., M.K. Chatli and J. Sahoo, 2012. Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L.) and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage. Food Chem., 133: 467-472.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  5. Cadenas, E. and L. Packer, 1996. Hand Book of Antioxidants. Plenum Publishers, New York

  6. Clouatre, D. and M.E. Rosenbaum, 1994. The Diet and Health Benefits of HCA (Hydroxycitric Acid). Keats Publishing Co., New Canaan, CT, pp: 9

  7. Devatkal, S.K. and B.M. Naveena, 2010. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage. Meat Sci., 85: 306-311.
    CrossRef  |  

  8. O'Grady, M.N., M. Maher, D.J. Troy, A.P. Moloney and J.P. Kerry, 2006. An assessment of dietary supplementation with tea catechins and rosemary extract on the quality of fresh beef. Meat Sci., 73: 132-143.
    CrossRef  |  

  9. Gustafson, K.R., J.W. Blunt, M.H.G. Munro, R.W. Fuller and T.C. McKee et al., 1992. The guttiferones, HIV-inhibitory benzones from Symphonia globulifera, Garcinia livingstonei, Garcinia ovalifolia and Clusi rosea. Tetrahedron, 48: 10093-10102.

  10. Jayaprakasha, G.K. and K.K. Sakariah, 1998. Determination of organic acids in Garcinia cambogia (Desr.) by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr., 806: 337-339.
    CrossRef  |  

  11. Jayaprakasha, G.K and K.K. Sakariah, 2002. Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica by LC. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 28: 379-384.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  12. Jena, B.S., G.K. Jayaprakasha, R.P. Singh and K.K. Sakariah, 2002. Chemistry and biochemistry of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 10-22.
    PubMed  |  

  13. Keeton, J.T., 1983. Effect of NaCl and phosphate levels on the sensory properties of pork patties. J. Food Sci., 48: 878-881.

  14. Krishnamurthy, N., Y.S. Lewis and B. Ravindranath, 1981. On the structure of garcinol, isogarcinol and camboginol. Tetrahed. Lett., 22: 793-796.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  15. Lea, C.M., L.J. Parr and H.F. Jackson, 1969. Chemical and organoleptic changes in poultry meat resulting from the growth of psychrophilic spoilage bacteria at 1°C with 3-glutamine, glutathione, tyrosine, ammonia, lactic acid, creatine, carbohydrate, haempigment and hydrogen sulphide. Br. Poult. Sci., 10: 229-238.

  16. Lewis, Y.S., S. Neelakantan and C. Murthy, 1964. Acids in Garcinia cambogia. Current Sci., 33: 82-83.

  17. Lewis, Y.S. and S. Neelakantan, 1965. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid: The principal acid in the fruits of Garcinia cambogia desr. Phytochemistry, 4: 619-625.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  18. Lewis, Y.S., 1969. Isolation and Properties of Hydroxycitric Acid. In: Methods in Enzymology, Lowenstein, J.M. (Ed.). Vol. 13, Academic Press, New York, pp: 613-619

  19. Mishra, P., V. Srivastava, D. Verma, O.P. Chauhan and G.K. Rai, 2009. Physico-Chemical properties of Chakiya variety of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and effect of different dehydration methods on quality of powder. Afr. J. Food Sci., 3: 301-306.
    Direct Link  |  

  20. Najeeb, A.P., 2013. Efficacy of certain leaves and fruits powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken slice. M.Sc. Thesis, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Pondicherry, India.

  21. Offer, G., 1991. Modelling of the formation of pale, soft and exudative meat: Effects of chilling regime and rate and extent of glycolysis. Meat Sci., 30: 157-184.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  22. Pearson, D., 1968. Application of chemical methods for the assessment of beef quality. III. Methods related to fat spoilage. J. Sci. Food Agric., 19: 553-556.

  23. Peter, K.V., 2001. Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Vol. 3, Woodhead publishing Limited, Abington, ISBN: 185573 5628

  24. Rastogi, N.K. and C.A. Nayak, 2010. Forward osmosis for the concentration of anthocyanin from Garcinia indica Choisy. Sep. Purific. Technol., 71: 144-151.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  25. Sergio, W., 1988. A natural food, the Malabar Tamarind, may be effective in the treatment of obesity. Med. Hypotheses, 27: 39-408.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  26. Snedecor, G.W. and G.C. William, 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th Edn., The Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA

  27. Sreenivasan, A. and R. Venkataraman, 1959. Chromatographic detection of the organic constituents of Gorikapuli (Garcinia cambogia Desr.) used in pickling fish. Current Sci., 28: 151-152.

  28. Strange, E.D., R.C. Benedict, J.L. Smith and C.E. Swift, 1977. Evaluation of rapid tests for monitoring alterations in meat quality during storage. I. Intact meat. J. Food Protect., 10: 843-847.

  29. Sullivan, A.C., J. Triscari, J.G. Hamilton and O.N. Miller, 1974. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: II. Appetite. Lipids., 9: 129-134.
    PubMed  |  

  30. Tarladgis, B.G., B.M. Watts, M.T. Younathan and L. Dugan Jr., 1960. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 37: 44-48.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

  31. Yoshikawa, T., S. Toyokuni, Y. Yamamoto and Y. Naito, 2000. Free Radicals in Chemistry. Biology and Medicine OICA International, London, UK., Pages: 580

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved