Background and Objective: The dairy industry consumes great amounts of water and generates large quantities of wastewater. The study problem is the lack of available water resources which reflected in decreased average per capita water. The main objective of this study was to study the efficiency of water use in the production units, estimate the cash yield of the water unit and finally study the factors that affect them. Materials and Methods: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Quantitative data were presented as Means±SD. The independent sample- ANOVA was used with two-way analysis of variance, with Post-hoc (LSD) test was used to analyze mean difference. Probability values (P) of less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Results: The most important results of the study suggested to the low average per capita average annual attrition rate of about 1.29% and rising share of water resources industry with a growth rate of approximately 15.1% during the study period have been measuring the significance differences between the sample in the water-use efficiency, proven statistical model significant at level p<0.05. Also, suggest the disparity in the percentage of the cost of employing and run water to an average of about 5% of total operating costs, as well as indicate low efficiency rate. Conclusion: The study concluded that a clear plan Inspection Department on how to deal with these facilities over the long term and anaerobic biological treatment in processing the high organic content industrial pollutants.
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Water is a precious resource. There are a number of strategies to achieve a sustainable water security1. Also, water has a key role in the development process, which is the main source of food security. So, the states is caring about water development, good governance and economic optimization. This problem became scarce resources according to World Bank estimates by 2035 (http://worldbank.org/ida) and per capita is expected to arrive in the next generation in developing countries of fresh water to a 3rd of what it is now.
All countries seeking to secure water resources in order to achieve its national security and hence food security. In this regard, the Egyptian State seeks to reorient and streamline the various water uses to achieve maximum satisfaction is possible in light of the scarcity of water resources and those resources are about 65.55 Billion m3, while some uses 76.25 billion m3 water gap amounting to 10.75 billion m3 for the year 20162-4. Per capita has dropped water from 1672 m3 in 1970 to about 828 m3 a year by 2016 down 50.66%, affecting the population increase dramatically on average per capita water to low water scarcity phase is called2.
Milk processing industry consumes large quantities of energy and water, each milk industry step is accompanied by formation of by-products, waste, pollutants and a potential impact on the environment. In milk industry, the biggest quantities of water are used in equipment washing processes, as well as in sanitation, cooling, pumps, package processing, utilities and auxiliary wants5,6.
The Arab Organization for Industrial Development (AOAD) has studied the rationalization of water use in the dairy industry of some countries, including India and Saudi Arabia7. India is one of the world's largest producers of milk and its products in the world, with a production of 135 million tons. The Indian experience in water supply has been supported by the government. The exemption of different rates of taxes according to the amount of water being rationalized, as well as the provision of facilities to obtain the necessary funding to improve the efficiency of water use in factories, the provision of programs that help improve the efficiency of dairy products. The use of resources, including water resources and the improvement of the quality of dairy products, especially for export and to achieve greater competitiveness in the global markets.
In dairy factories in Saudi Arabia7 during the season 2007/2008 daily production reached about 400,000 L of milk pasteurized daily. But the company was suffering from the rising cost of providing water crisis to manufacturing process which was up daily for about 2000 m3 daily spends about 1.4,00 m3 per day. The most important results are that the amount of water savings is about 160,000 m3 per year and financial savings about 153,000 dollars. The most important methods used to reduce and reuse and rationalization of washing water using equipment and machine guns equipped. The most important factors of success are experience, management support in the factory, worker’s awareness and involvement and effective control.
The problem of this study is the lack of available water resources from different sources, with the inability to meet the increasing water needs and the demands of the population increase in Egypt until we are below the level of the water poverty line1. In view of the repercussions of the Nile water resource shortage in Egypt's share of that resource To establish the Ethiopian dam, especially because the Nile water resource is the lifeblood, which requires the Egyptian state to adopt rational methods to bridge the current and future water gap associated with the construction of the dam, necessitating the need to follow mechanisms to rationalize available water8.
To achieve the primary objective of the study, several sub-objectives should be studied: First, assessing the relative distribution of water uses. Second, estimation of water per capita compared to some countries in the world. Third, water use efficiency in production units, estimate water unit cash used in the productive process and measure the percentage of operating costs and the use of water for total costs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sources of data: The study relies on two sources of data, the first source is published and unpublished secondary data issued by the stakeholders represented in each of the Central Department of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Agriculture, Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, Ministry Resources Irrigation and Water. The second source was the initial data obtained through the questionnaire prepared for this purpose represented a random sample was collected from some dairy factories in some provinces lower Egypt and Upper Egypt and Grater Cairo in 2017. To learn how efficient water use in dairy factories in Egypt, as some research was adopted universal data indicative of average water use efficiency in dairy factories and compare it with the sample vocabulary research.
Sample study: it was necessary to identify the water use efficiency in dairy factories in Egypt, to provide the necessary data to conduct this research through a questionnaire specially prepared for this purpose dairy and especially soft cheese in various regions of the Republic.
|Table 1:||Geographical distribution for the sample of the study throughout the republic|
|Source: Compiled and calculated from the research questionnaire|
With regard to the sample used in the research sample was intentional method when selecting small and micro production units producing soft cheese for a 33 unit spread over various regions of the Republic and the preview process them through a personal interview and was described in the Table 1, the maritime provinces face (in the provinces of Damietta, Eastern) by 39.4% of the study sample and the provinces of upper Egypt (in the provinces of Fayoum and Asuit) by 30.3% of the study sample and Grater Cairo (in the provinces of Giza and Qaliubiya) by 30.3% of the sample, where the dairy plants in those provinces combined about 77.2% of total dairy factories registered with the authorities in Egypt within the framework of small and medium-sized enterprises data in Egypt as an average for the period (2007-2016)9.
Sample key indicators: Through the results of a study it was drawn a set of conclusions on the use of water in the production process in small dairy factories producing soft cheese. Those results can be summarized as follows:
|||About 67% of the sample vocabulary not using water filters and about 33% use these filters, indicating a lack of adequate awareness among producers. The importance of specifications and requirements which should be available in the water used in the manufacturing process|
|||About 39.4% of the study sample gets water through without using Government counters and a codified form, while it gets about 60.4% of sample water legally through Government connections. Therefore, implicitly refers to increasing the size of the informal sector in making products dairy|
|||About 63.4% of the study sample drains the resulting from the manufacturing process directly into the drain without treatment and increased levels of salinity resulting from the production of soft cheese|
Analysis of sample’s data: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Quantitative data were presented as Means±SD. The independent sample- ANOVA was used with Two-way analysis of variance, with Post-hoc (LSD) test was used to analyze mean difference. Probability values (P) of less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Research on using descriptive analysis and quantitative methods to achieve the objectives of the research and the research method is as follows10.
|||Calculate cash yield water unit used in the manufacture of soft cheese:|
|CRW||=||Cash dividend on unit water used in the manufacture of soft cheese (Pound L1)|
|SP||=||Sales volume (Pound t1)|
|LWM||=||Liters of water involved in the manufacturing process|
|||The efficiency of water use in the manufacture of soft cheese in particular units of study:|
|WECH||=||Water use efficiency in soft cheese|
|TWS||=||Total water used in the plant during the manufacturing process|
|NLM||=||Liters of milk within the manufacturing process|
|||Contribution to the cost of employing and run water for total costs at the factory:|
|PCUW||=||Contribution to the costs of using and running water|
|COW||=||Cost of employing and run water during production|
|TCP||=||Total costs of the production process|
Factors that determine the efficiency of water use: To identify the most important factors that contribute to determining how efficient water use in dairy factories in Egypt has been tested multiple regression analysis. Where, it is assumed that, the most important independent factors affecting water use efficiency of dairy factories in Egypt as the dependent variable is the amount of dairy production in tons (x1) and a way to get water from the original sources (x2), the educational and cultural level of the owner of the facility and its staff (x3), the total cost of water in dairy factories (x4) and the number of workers in the factory (x5), as independent variables.
Relative distribution of water uses in Egypt: Table 2 showed that the water used include the needs of agricultural resources available, as well as losses to evaporation from the Nile and canals, drinking water and health and industrial uses and power generation those uses approximately 81.5, 3.29, 13.64 and 1.58%, respectively of the total shown and uses about 76.25 billion m3 represents the total available resources2-4 of 2015/2016.
Evolution of water per capita in Egypt: By estimating the parameters of the estimated per capita directivity in Egypt of total available water resources during the study period, Table 3 shows that the linear image was best images to estimate the equation of yearly general time trend for per capita. Where, the average trend was decreasing and informed 11.95 m3/year, showed that it decline by a statistical significant annual amount at 0.01 level, an annual decline rate of about 1.29% of the annual average of about 922.97 m3/year and an operand (R-2) indicated that approximately 93% of the changes in total per capita available water resources time interpreted:
Current state of water use in the industrial sector in Egypt and the percentage of food industries including: The industrial sector had seen an increase in water use during the period 2010-2016, reflecting data Table 4 high water use in Egyptian industry in 2016 by approximately 4.9 billion m3 compared to about 1.7 billion m3 in 2010 with a growth rate of approximately 15.1% and an average of about 3 billion m3 during that period. Regarding the food industry showed that according to some food industries accounted for field studies of water used in the industrial sector in 2010 about 33.2% of total water for the industrial sector, while the same for about 44.5% in 2016, a growth rate about 4.2% average during that period was approximately 39.2%.
Efficiency of water use in the dairy industry in Egypt: The statistical significance level 0.05 as the calculated F-value was approximately 18.3, which referred to the differences between the three regions of the Republic in the efficient use of water in the amount of water used in the manufacture of every liter of milk productive process.
|Table 2:||Proportional distribution of water uses (2015/2016) (Unit: billion m3)|
|Table 3:||Estimated directional trends of Egypt's average per capita water resources during the period (2002/2003-2015/2016)|
Where: yˆi: Estimated value of the dependent variable per annum. xˆi: Factors linked to the time period, years 1, 2, 3... 16. **Level of significance (0.01%). -: A declining annual change. Source: Compiled and calculated from Table 4
|Table 4:||Water use in the industrial sector and food industries in Egypt during the period (2010-2016)|
Source: Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources, Council of Industry and Innovation Technology, Technological Council for Food Industries, Field Studies Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS)11
|Table 5:||Statistical analysis of water consumption indicators in dairy plants|
|Source: Compiled and calculated from the research questionnaire|
Economic indicators of water use in the dairy factories: Cash yield water unit used in the manufacture of soft cheese: Through data of the study sample the return on a liter of water used in production processes for sample was calculated as shown in Table 5. As the yield was about 19 pounds per liter as a minimum and 70 pounds per liter as upper limit, averaging about 37 pounds per liter water.
Efficiency of water use in the manufacture of soft cheese production units in the study sample: Through the questionnaire data turns out sample factories focused on soft cheese industry. So, the results of the study showed that the rate of consumption of water per liter of milk goes into the production process of soft cheese in the study sample ranges between minimum reached 1.5 L of water, a higher limit 3.6 L of water, averaging approximately 2.1 L of water Table 5.
Contribution to the cost of employing and run water for total costs at the factory: Table 5 showed that the contribution use and costs of running water in the samples were ranging from 3-8% of the total operating costs, with an average of about 5% in the study sample, which demonstrates the disparity in the efficient use of water as a resource economically between sample.
Factors that determine the efficiency of water use in dairy factories in Egypt: The following general formula was applied to describe water consumption per unit of final productized groups of dairy plants in view of various factors:
|||Educational level of the factory with the production quantity|
|||Number of workers in addition to, the production quantity and level of education|
Through the review of the results showed that the statistical model ICH statistical significance level at 0.01 and 0.05, averaging 85% coefficient of determination about any to those factors that the study assumed responsible for about 85% efficient use. While, the factors of costs of obtaining water (X2) and obtained from main sources (X4), there is no moral impact on water use efficiency in dairy plants in the study sample.
Water conservation in the dairy industry in Egypt
Importance of saving water in dairy factories in Egypt: Limiting environmental impacts of poor water use in dairy factories is one of the most important reasons for the conservation at the national level. Where, the wastewater from industrial processes often contaminated due to the presence of solid component in milk and as a result of salting activities during the production of soft cheese may increase salinity levels in wastewater12. It can explain the most important environmental effects resulting from the misuse of water in dairy factories13 in the Table 6.
Relative distribution of water uses in Egypt: Aweida and Abdel Rahman3 mentioned that in the fallout from a Renaissance dam and its effect on Egypt's share of Nile waters will go down as a result of about 10.75 billion m3. This lack has been divided among different uses according to the proportions of representation in total uses before building the dam, then the amount of loss in some uses 8.41 billion m3 in agriculture, 0.35 billion m3 as unconscious evaporation from the Nile and canals, 1.82 billion m3 of drinking and health uses 0.17 billion m3 for industry and electricity generation boil respectively. Therefore, appreciates the amount of water available for use after construction of the dam about 53.74, 2.15, 8.58 and 1.03 billion m3, respectively of total uses of about 65.5 billion m3 excluding Egypt share inferiority of the Nile after construction of the dam.
Evolution of water per capita in Egypt: Table 7 showed the evolution of per capita in Egypt of the Nile and of total available water resources during the period7 2002-2016, with an average per capita per year of Nile waters approximately in total 817.38 m in 2002, below about 603.5 m3 in 2016. As an average share some 703.36 m3 on average for the period, judging from a study the same table that the per capita water resources total available culminated about 1005.3 m3 in 2002 and reached below about 828.8 m3 in 2016, as approximately 922.97 m3 on average for the period, notes from the table for Nile water per capita represents about 76.21% of the total share of total available water resources from different sources.
The study of AFED1 provides that, if the average per capita water availability of less than 500 m3/year, it reflects the situation of shortage of water in those States. While, if that average is less than 1000 m3/year, water is a constraint on economic and social development (there are Eight Arab countries, Bahrain, Djibouti, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen "facing water shortages as water per capita less than 500 m3/year. Whereas, four other Arab countries, Algeria, Egypt, Somalia, Tunisia, suffering from water shortage as a constraint on Economic development with an estimated per capita water with less than 1000 m/year).
|Production processes in dairy plants and the field of impact of pollutants in water used in manufacturing processes|
|Source: Ministry of Environment, Self-Monitoring Manual for the Dairy Industry15|
|Table 7:||Evolution of per capita income in Egypt of Nile water and the total available water resources during the period (2002-2016)|
|Source: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS)9|
A study of AFED 1 has shown that, most of the Middle East and North Africa suffer from acute water scarcity and half the population lives in the area under water stress conditions. The water demand rises, combined with increasing population and changing lifestyles and economic development. As well as, it is consistent with the study conducted by the World Bank14, with an expected decrease the amount of renewable fresh water in half by 2050 compared with 2007.
Current state of water use in the industrial sector in Egypt and the percentage of food industries including: Water uses are many and vary in general of the Egyptian industry between use as production requirements or cleaning and waste collection problem and other various uses. Often these showed increase in water usage rates in the food industry in particular, it is not compatible with growth rates in the food industry, where increasing water use in the food processing industry growth volatility nutrients as indicated in the Table 5, which showed that the increase in water use is not accompanied by growth in the production. This is indicative of the inefficient use of this resource and gives an indication of poor water use efficiency as a production requirement in Egypt during the study. This proves that the use of the preparation industry by 70-80% of the treated water (water in the product), cleaning activities represent about 70% of water use in the dairy sector15.
Efficiency of water use in the dairy industry in Egypt: Water efficiency indicator for the relationship between the amounts of water needed for a particular purpose and the amount of water provided16. It is necessary that the water used in the production process is valid and in accordance with the environmental and operational requirements approved by the General Authority for Standardization and Quality of Egypt14,17.
Before examining the efficient use of water in a sample study measuring the significant differences between the sample in water use efficiency and impact of divergence in the geographical territory. As well as, the existence of modern machines to rationalize water use in production units as independent variables on the quantity consumed water per liter of milk in the production process as a dependent variable, using the analysis of variance test in two directions (Two-way analysis of variance), which aims to determine the effect of the independent variable dependent variable, also known as the interactive effect is the result of the interaction of variables and there is an interaction between them if the differential impact of any of them varies depending on the other levels. Statistical analysis of the results shows the significant differences between the upper and lower Egypt and Greater Cairo by another, where the lack of efficiency in the use of water in upper compared and Cairo, as showing lack of moral differences between the efficient use water and Cairo.
Economic indicators of water use in the dairy factories:
|||Cash yield water unit used in the manufacture of soft cheese: This point is to the importance of water as a production input in the manufacture of dairy products and refers to the great disparity between the samples in the efficient use of water as an economic resource|
|||Efficiency of water use in the manufacture of soft cheese production units in the study sample: The global average and the guiding for manufacturing soft cheese ranges between 1.4-2 L of water per liter of milk. The results of some previous studies have shown that the milk industry uses the largest quantities of water in production. It was determined that 2.0-2.5 L of sewage are located on average on 1 L milk production5,6. According to published research results, most dairy plants consume from 1 to 10 m3 of water per every cubic meter of milk production. Water is used in various areas of business and industry; with regard to the industry, the food sector has one of the highest water consumption and is one of the biggest producers of effluent per unit of production17. Vickers16 and Daufin et al.18 reported that water consumption in Europe has been reported to range from 0.2-11 L L1 milk, with effluent volumes per raw milk intake in the same range, while ratios for Australian processors producing any combination of white milk, cheese, powders or yoghurts range from 0.07-2.90 L L1 milk, with the average being around 1.5 L L1 milk19, an increase in milk processing output in summer by 1000 L could increase daily water consumption (WD) by around 2.62 m3 in summer and around 4.54 m3 in winter12,19. Ajiero and Campbell20 mentioned that the average water consumption rates for dairy products against their corresponding best practice values, the average water use for skimmed milk is 3.6 m3 t1; whereas, the best practice water consumption is 2.1 m3 t1. Also, in butter production, typical water use ranges from 1.5–6.7 m3 t1, while the benchmark or best practice value is 1.3 m3 t1, comparing these values clearly reveals great potentials for water savings in each milk process|
|Fig. 1:||Breakdown of water use of a market milk processor|
|Fig. 2:||Providing water in the food industry according to some experiences in different countries of the world|
Figure 1 showed the range of ratios for factories producing white or flavored milks20, cheese and whey products and powdered products. For factories that produce powdered products. The range in water to milk intake ratios indicates there is potential for some dairy processing plants to decrease water consumption significantly. This confirms the study undertaken by Arab Organization for Industrial Development7. Arabic industrial development which shows that high rates of efficiency of water resource used globally in the field of food industry through various actions to rationalize often leads to significant percentages of consumption reduction ranging between 15-90% as shown in Fig. 2.
|||Contribution to the cost of employing and run water for total costs at the factory: A (T) test is in the direction of one of the most important statistical tests designed to detect statistical differences between the moral and the sample mean and the overall average of society, through a (T) test and described in Appendix a statistical research to see how much of a moral difference between the average global water use efficiency in production of soft cheese production units, between the average sample shows that (F) value intangible moral level statistical 0.05%, which suggested a moral difference between the pilot and the global average water consumption in Egypt. These results indicated clearly to low water use efficiency mode in Egypt about global rate, as well as lack of awareness of producers the importance of saving water and the importance to educate stakeholders interested in this issue to rationalize the use of water as an important economic resource in the productive process. Al-Ashmawi21 illustrated that the cost of desalination of cubic meter of sea water can reach approximately 3.34 Egyptian pounds. Growing water scarcity and higher cost obtained from conventional sources on the one hand and the progress of science to discover non-traditional sources of cheap energy and technological methods, on the other hand, since the cost of desalination depends on the type of energy and the technology used and the size of the project but even with cheaper cost available currently keep desalination process very expensive. This consistent is agreement with Wojdalski, et al.12. Which proved that it could not determine indicators of water consumption per unit of final product|
Factors that determine the efficiency of water use in dairy factories in Egypt: Coefficient (r) can also be used to determine the analyzed factors’ influence (described as coefficient of determination (R2)) on water consumption per unit of final product (WU). Stepwise regression equations were developed in the statistical analysis process. A multiple regression model was used due to a high number of factors of varied significance. This results agreement with Wojdalski et al.12 who reported that water consumption was most highly correlated (r>0.868) with equipment profiles. The indicators of water consumption per unit of the final product were correlated (at 0.820>|r|>0.663) with equipment profiles, the degree of process automation and employment. Variations in water consumption per unit of the final product were best explained in small plants supplying several products. The presented equations can be used to optimize water demand of various types of equipment and to determine the correlations with energy consumption for wastewater treatment.
Water conservation in the dairy industry in Egypt
Importance of saving water in dairy factories in Egypt: The sweet whey form the most polluting effluent by its biochemical composition rich in organic matter (lactose, protein, phosphorus, nitrates, nitrogen) and is from 60-80 times more polluting than domestic sewage5,6. The environmental impact of wastewater depends on the quality of the receiving media; Ministry of Irrigation (MOI) has set maximum pollution loads in the drainage water, canals and drains, the River Nile (Ministerial Decree 8 of 1983), because of its harmful effects on agriculture. With respect to the dairy industry, the most important indicators of pollution are biotic and chemical oxygen. Contaminated water causes high percentages of oxygen on lakes and seas on the phenomenon of water bodies and Egon negatively affects biodiversity13. Based on the idea that dairy products can cause negative impacts on the environment, it is appropriate to use techniques to avoid and minimize these impacts, propitiate production efficiency, economic gains and a better working environment. Thus, the application of preventive techniques such as Cleaner Production (CP) may be appropriate to achieve these objectives22. In order to successfully reduce the waste load in the wastewater stream23.
Proposal for mechanisms to improve the efficiency of water use in dairy factories in Egypt
At the Government level: The governmental role in rationalizing the use of water in industry in the dairy industry in is particularly pivotal. Where the US Environmental Protection Agency reports that any Government role for water rationing should be based on several pillars is an effective system for determining the amount of water entering the plant, compare the water consumption in fact estimates the plant and water losses, cost estimation and educating factory owners the importance of rationalization. The matrix of key policies and governmental mechanisms to rationalize the use of water in dairy factories as shown in Table 8.
At the private sector level: The private sector contributes to the rational use of water in dairy factories to achieve many benefits for both of the economic level or social level, where it is expected when the factory to rationalize the use of water to achieve many of the benefits is the most important in reducing cost of water consumption and disposal of industrial wastewater from manufacturing processes. As well as, achieving a better of water use in the factory and then improve the reputation of the factory as a result of better environmental performance, can put an indicative guide to the private sector about the steps to improve the efficiency water use in dairy factories in Egypt in Table 9.
Finally, desalination is one of the options being formulated to address water scarcity expected their uses in the drinking water sector, the ministry of water resources water deficit forecast of about 7.4 billion m3/year, will rise to 11.59 m3/year in 2050, according to a study of National Specialized Councils24.
|Table 8:||Proposing policies and government mechanisms that can be followed to rationalize the use of water in dairy plants|
|Source: Setting research team|
|Table 9:||Guidance proposal about steps to improve water use efficiency in dairy factories in Egypt|
|Source: Setting research team|
Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the dairy sector adopt more water efficient systems and processes and annually conduct bench marking exercises, with the intention of helping know how they are performing, inclusion of factories in the formal sector, which leads to the rationalization of water use in all levels of productivity, reduce as far as possible from water consumed in the production process using automatic taps closing or high pressure water reusing water cooling and heating in the stages of production. Also, the inspection department has to have a clear plan on how to deal with these facilities over the long term, as well as recommends to have anaerobic biological treatment in dealing with high organic content industrial pollutants, where contaminants probably milk plants organic origin where many Recent research into success.
This study focused on the efficiency of the use of water resources in small and medium-sized dairy factories in some governorates of Egypt during the various stages of production and the costs of water use and operation and studies the factors that affect them. It also directed officials to rationalize water consumption and wastewater treatment and reuse. It also explained the role of the Inspection Department in dealing with these factories in the long term and follow up the quantities of water consumed and training the workers on the modern mechanisms to rationalize water consumption. This study will also help researchers and workers in the dairy sector to discover the most important causes of water loss and methods of conservation and rationalization of consumption and especially in the coming years after the construction of the dam and the decline of Egypt's share of water and thus the per capita water.
- Dvarionienė, J., J. Kruopienė and J. Stankevičienė, 2012. Application of cleaner technologies in milk processing industry to improve the environmental efficiency. Clean Technol. Environ. Policy, 14: 1037-1045.
- Shete, B.S. and N.P. Shinkar, 2013. Dairy industry wastewater sources, characteristics and its effects on environment. Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol., 5: 1611-1615.
- Engle, R.F. and C.W.J. Granger, 1987. Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation and testing. Econometrica, 55: 251-276.
- Wojdalski, J., B. Drozdz, J. Piechocki, M. Gaworski, Z. Zander and J. Marjanowski, 2013. Determinants of water consumption in the dairy industry. Polish J. Chem. Technol., 15: 61-72.
- Rad, S.J. and M.J. Lewis, 2014. Water utilisation, energy utilisation and waste water management in the dairy industry: A review. Int. J. Dairy Technol., 67: 1-20.
- Boguniewicz-Zablocka, J., I. Klosok-Bazan and V. Naddeo, 2017. Water quality and resource management in the dairy industry. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.
- Daufin, G., J.P. Escudier, H. Carrere, S. Berot, L. Fillaudeau and M. Decloux, 2001. Recent and emerging applications of membrane processes in the food and dairy industry. Food Bioprod. Process., 79: 89-102.
- Ajiero, I. and D. Campbell, 2018. Benchmarking water use in the UK food and drink sector: Case study of three water-intensive dairy products. Water Conserv. Sci. Eng., 3: 1-17.
- Santos, F.F., R.D.C.S. de Queiroz and J.A.D.A. Neto, 2018. Evaluation of the application of cleaner production techniques in a dairy industry in Southern Bahia. Gestao Producao, 25: 117-131.