Manufacturing and Quality of Mozzarella Cheese: A Review
Mozzarella cheese is a soft, unripened cheese variety of the Pasta-filata family
which had its origin in the Battipaglia region of Italy. Mozzarella cheese was
traditionally made from buffalo milk. It is made all over Italy, in other European
countries and USA from cow milk, however the process needs to be modified accordingly.
The finished cheese, lightly salted, is white, soft with a very lively surface
sheen and has unique property of stretchability. Mozzarella cheese owes its
characteristics mainly to the action of lactic acid on dicalcium-para-caseinate.
Pure white color is the basic requirement of Mozzarella cheese, because of which
buffalo milk is preferred over cow milk.. The current review discusses about
the principle and chemistry of mozzarella cheese making, legal standards, mozzarella
cheese manufacture, factors affecting quality of mozzarella cheese, composition
of mozzarella cheese, value-added ingredients as additive,, equipment for mozzarella
cheese manufacture, flavour of mozzarella cheese and the recent developments
in mozzarella cheese manufacture. The microstructure and rheological characteristics
of cheese, functional properties of mozzarella cheese for use on pizza, browning/blistering
of mozzarella cheese, packaging, shelf life and storage changes of mozzarella
cheese have been discussed at length in this review. Understanding the factors
that determine the characteristics of the cheese product for its suitability
for end usage can help the cheese makers to produce tailor-made cheeses
as per the whims and wishes of the food retailers and even the varied consumers.
Received: May 18, 2011;
Accepted: September 24, 2011;
Published: November 16, 2011
Mozzarella cheese is a soft, unripened cheese variety of the Pasta-filata family
which had its origin in the Battipaglia region of Italy (Citro,
1981). Conventionally, Mozzarella cheese was made from buffalo milk. However,
these days it is being manufactured in Italy, in other European countries and
USA from cow milk which needs appropriate modifications (Ghosh
et al., 1990). The cheese is white, soft with a glossy surface and
is valued for its stretch property. This makes it suitable for the preparation
of lasagna, veal cutlet alla Parmigiana and as a topping on pizza (Kosikowski,
1982; Jana, 2001). Mozzarella cheese is used as
a topping on pizza pie owing to its inherent stretching qualities. The popularity
of pizza parlour, especially amongst youngsters has boosted the production of
Mozzarella cheese. In Italy Mozzarella and pizza cheeses accounts for 78% of
the total Italian cheese product (Merrill et al.,
|| Prevention food adulteration act (India) requirements for
Mozzarella and pizza cheese
|| Microbial specifications of PFA for Mozzarella and pizza
|| Classification of Mozzarella cheese
In Pasta filata principle of cheese making, the smooth texture
and grain of the cheese is achieved through a skillful stretching of curd in
hot water. The desirable characteristics of Mozzarella cheese is brought about
by the action of lactic acid on dicalcium-para-caseinate, viz., the rennet cheese
curd. At a pH of 5.2 to 5.4, much of this compound gets converted to mono-calcium
paracaseinate which provides the strings and sheen to the cheese (Kosikowski,
1958). In India according to Prevention of Food and Adulteration (PFA) Act,
there are two variants viz., Mozzarella and Pizza cheeses whose requirements
are depicted in Table 1 and the microbial requirements of
PFA are given in Table 2.
The Low Moisture, Part Skim Mozzarella (LMPSM) is considered suitable for use
as pizza topping. New York state in USA specifies 52.0-58.0% moisture and a
minimum fat content of 18.0% (for whole milk product) and a moisture content
of 52.0-60.0% (for part-skim product) for Mozzarella cheese (Kosikowski,
1960). A maximum moisture content of 58.0% and minimum FDM of 28.0% is prescribed
for such cheese in Sau Paulo state (Schiftan and Komatsu,
1979). In Italy, a minimum of 50% FDM and a maximum of 65.0% moisture are
specified for buffalo whole milk Mozzarella cheese. When smoked, the cheese
is marketed as Mozzarella di bufala affumicata (Anonymous,
1980; Cortesi and Maranelli, 1982). The Argentine
Food Code specifies a minimum of 40.0% Dry Matter (DM) content and minimum of
35.0% FDM for Mozzarella cheese (Dianda, 1982).
Based on moisture and Fat-on-Dry Matter (FDM) content, Breseman
(1973) suggested four classes of Mozzarella cheese as provided in Table
MOZZARELLA CHEESE MANUFACTURE
Type of milk: Pure white color is the basic requirement of Mozzarella
cheese which is lacking in cow milk cheese due to presence of carotene. Kosikowski
(1975a) suggested use of neutralizing dyes (e.g., chlorophyll), benzoyl
peroxide and titanium dioxide (@ 0.03%) to cheese milk, to overcome this problem.
Buffalo milk is reported to be more suitable than cow milk for Mozzarella cheese
due to high yield, its characteristic aroma and physical attributes (Bonassi
et al., 1982; Scott, 1986; El-Koussy
et al., 1995).
Bonassi et al. (1982) did not find any difference
in taste, aroma or texture of Mozzarella cheese made from cow milk, buffalo
milk or their combination (1:1). The cheese yield and fat content were significantly
higher for buffalo milk product but the difference in pH, Titratable Acidity
(TA), moisture, protein, soluble nitrogen and ash content were not significant.
Singh and Ladkani (1984) standardized the method for
Mozzarella cheese from cow and buffalo milk, with and without cheddaring. The
stretchability was relatively inferior in buffalo cheese. Patel
et al. (1986) standardized the Starter Culture (SC) and Direct Acidification
(DA) method for the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.
The type of milk (viz., cow, buffalo and their admixture) used for Mozzarella
had a profound influence on the cheese composition. The cheese obtained from
a blend of cow and buffalo milk had superior organoleptic quality as well as
meltability compared to those made from individual milks; buffalo cheese had
superior nutritional value (Sameen et al., 2008).
An initial fat level of 4.0% fat in buffalo milk gave best result; 0.75-0.80%
lactic acid was found to be optimal for stretching operations yielding excellent
melt and chewiness in resultant product (Anonymous, 1987).
Casillo et al. (1984) suggested criteria such
as fat content, C14/C12 fatty acid ratio and electrophoretic
mobility of αs1-casein to detect adulteration of genuine buffalo
milk Mozzarella cheese with cow milk. Buffalo milk mozzarella had higher protein
content than cows' milk cheese. Rheological properties of cows' milk cheese
were superior to those made from buffaloes milk or mixture of cow and
buffalo milk (1:1) (El-Batawy et al., 2004a).
The meltability of ripened bovine and caprine milk cheeses were similar, when made from standardized milk. Bovine cheese exhibited more free oil compared to caprine cheese.
The bovine cheese underwent greater structural degradation during storage than
the caprine cheese (Imm et al., 2003).
Standardization of milk: Satisfactory quality Mozzarella cheese can
be made from cow or buffalo milk standardized to 3.0-6.0% fat (Kosikowski,
1982; Patel et al., 1986; Anonymous,
1987). However, use of lower fat content resulted in a harder texture and
the cheese lost some of its milky, nutty flavor (Patel et
al., 1986). Sundar and Upadhyay (1990) obtained
Mozzarella cheese with best sensory quality having superior attributes as a
topping on pizza, when buffalo milk was standardized to casein/fat ratio of
0.7. The fat content, yield, meltability and fat leakage of cheese increased
with increasing milk fat levels, whereas moisture and protein content tended
to decrease. pH and stretchability were not influenced by the fat level in milk.
A milk fat level of 2.5% was considered optimum for pizza making (Venkateswarlu
et al., 1999; Valle et al., 2004).
Mozzarella cheese made from 5.0% fat standardized milk was superior to those
made from 0, 3.0 or 7.0% fat cows milk; the former had cholesterol content
of 87.51 mg/100 g of cheese on 30th day of refrigerated storage (Ali
and Abdel-Razig, 2011).
Heat treatment of milk: Traditionally, Mozzarella cheese was manufactured
from raw milk. However, pasteurization of milk is recommended for Mozzarella
cheese that is to be consumed fresh, because the plasticizing process does not
always destroy pathogens (Anonymous, 1977a; Caserio
et al., 1977). Heat treatment of milk (72°C, no hold) meant for
Mozzarella cheese making improved protein and Total Solids (TS) recovery but
decreased the fat recovery, gave soft-bodied cheese, improved flavor score and
keeping quality and ensured public health safety (Patel
et al., 1986).
Schafer (1975) and Olson (1980)
made satisfactory quality Mozzarella cheese from pasteurized and/or UHT treated
milks with increased yield compared to the one made from raw milk. Partridge
et al. (1982) did not find any significant difference in the quality
of Mozzarella cheese made from fresh or stored (0-10 days) pasteurized milk.
UHT heat treatment of milk resulted in greater recovery of the milk proteins
in directly acidified Mozzarella cheese leading to 3.4% increase in cheese yield
(Schafer and Olson, 1975).
Homogenization of cheese milk: Homogenization of milk in Mozzarella
cheese manufacture led to whiter appearance and improved flavor (Kosikowski,
1958, 1960; Ernstrom, 1965;
Jana and Upadhyay, 1992a, b),
reduced fat losses in whey and moulding water (Maxcy et
al., 1955; Breene et al., 1964; Quarne
et al., 1968a; Jana and Upadhyay, 1992a),
increased cheese yield (Schafer and Olson, 1975; Jana
and Upadhyay, 1992a,b) and reduced fat leakage during
baking of cheese on pizza (Maxcy et al., 1955;
Breene et al., 1964; Jana
and Upadhyay, 1992a). However, it necessitated some modifications in the
existing procedure of cheese manufacture (Anonymous, 1970a;
Jana and Upadhyay, 1992c) and impaired the curd stretching
(Kosikowski, 1960; Jana and Upadhyay,
1992a) as well as melting quality during baking trials (Breene
et al., 1964). Use of higher homogenization pressure (>50 kg/cm2)
resulted in greater fat recovery in cheese while protein recovery and curd stretching
property were adversely affected (Jana and Upadhyay, 1992a).
Milk homogenization (25 kg/cm2, 60°C) increased cheese moisture,
TA, Total Volatile Fatty Acid (TVFA) and cohesiveness but decreased stretchability,
meltability, hardness, gumminess and chewiness. The flavour development was
rapid in cheeses prepared from homogenized milk (El-Batawy
et al., 2004b). Homogenizing cheese milk did not exert any positive
influence on cheese whereas homogenization of standardized milk helped in retarding
free oil formation; the free oil was formed at lower temperature when cheese
was made from homogenized milk (Tunick, 1994).
Miscellaneous process: Pre-culturing of milk resulted in reduced manufacturing
time and increased yield (on DM basis) of cheese (Nilson
et al., 1979a; Radke et al., 1979).
Lactose hydrolysis of milk (>60%) in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese
resulted in reduction in period for acid development, curd treatment and ripening
as well as improved curd characteristics and yield (Anonymous,
1977b). Use of lactoperoxidase thiocyanate treated buffaloes milk
in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese increased acid production time from
6 to 8 h (Kumar and Mathur, 1986).
Traditionally used whey starters have been gradually replaced by more carefully
maintained and cultivated starters. The starter used for fresh Italian Mozzarella
is only Streptococcus thermophilus. To achieve consistent quality in
the end product, the parameters to be controlled include avoiding batch-to-batch
variation in the starter strain ratio and constant acidification (Sigsgaard,
Manufacture of high-moisture Mozzarella entails use of starters like S.
lactis, S. durans or S. faecalis, whereas for low-moisture
Mozzarella the starters recommended are S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus
and/or L. helveticus (Christensen, 1966; Anonymous,
1977a). Reinbold and Reddy (1978) reported that use
of culture composed of one or more of the species of P. cerevisiae,
L. plantarum, L. casei, S. faecalis and S. durans
in addition to the standard starter culture yielded cheese containing less than
0.3% lactose, helping in avoiding burning or blistering during baking on pizzas.
According to Ferris (1981), direct-to-vat starters
such as Superstart are used where cooking temperature does not exceed
39.4°C. For those using starters composed of S. thermophilus and
L. bulgaricus which are necessary when cooking at temperatures of ≥40°C,
the popularity of the bacteriophage-inhibiting medium Thermostar
Mozzarella cheese when made with the combination of S. thermophilus
Non-Galactose (NG) and Galactose Fermenting (GF) strains and L. helveticus
(GF) and L. bulgaricus (NG) reduced the incidence of non-enzymatic browning
of Mozzarella cheese (Johnson and Olson, 1985; Hutkins
et al., 1986).
RENNETING OF CHEESE MILK
Various types of rennet i.e. of animal origin-Calf (Richardson
et al., 1967; Micketts and Olson, 1971; Bottazzi
et al., 1974; Citro, 1981), bovine (Bottazzi
et al., 1974), porcine pepsin (Quarne et
al., 1968b; Micketts and Olson, 1974; Bottazzi
et al., 1974), of vegetable origin-Irpex lacteus (Kikuchi
et al., 1988) and of microbial origin fungal rennet i.e., Meito,
Marzyme and Surecurd (Richardson et al., 1967;
Quarne et al., 1968b; Sandoval
et al., 1969, 1972). Christensen
(1972) have been used successfully to produce Mozzarella cheese.
According to Quarne et al. (1968b) cheese made
with porcine pepsin or fungal rennet gave an organoleptically superior product
than veal rennet. Micketts and Olson (1974) found that
cheese made with porcine pepsin was slightly softer than the one made using
calf rennet. Christensen (1972) found identical result
using Marzyme and calf rennet in cheese making.
Recovery of TS of cheese decreased when using Mucor miehei rennet, while
the recovery of protein and fat content in cheese were nearly the same. Mucor
miehei rennet exhibited greater rise in Soluble Nitrogen (SN) content than
other coagulants. TVFA content increased with storage period and with increased
fat content (1.5 vs. 3.0%) of the milk. The coagulant types did not affect the
SN or TVFA. The type of coagulant had negligible effect on meltability, fat
leakage and oiling-off of cheese. Mozzarella cheese made with Mucor miehei
had the highest firmness. Mucor miehei rennet exhibited highest rate
of proteolysis during storage and such cheeses were preferred over cheese made
by other two coagulants (Ahmed et al., 2011).
Mozzarella cheese prepared by SCM, using E. parasitica protease was
softer in unmelted cheese texture, was more meltable and had lower apparent
viscosity and more free oil release on melting than the cheese made using chymosin
and Mucor miehei protease (Yun et al., 1993a).
Decreasing the concentration of chymosin coagulant by up to 40.0% had limited
impact on the composition, proteolysis and functional characteristics during
refrigerated storage of LMPSM cheese (Kindstedt et al.,
1995); the free oil formation was significantly affected.
The extract of dried berries of Withania coagulans of 0.85% strength was found
suitable (@ 15 μL mL-1 of milk at 37°C) for preparation
of Mozzarella cheese. The properties of this vegetable rennet compared well
with those of calf rennet (Nawaz et al., 2011).
The yield, composition and properties of directly acidified Mozzarella cheese
were not affected by the amount of single strength enzymes rennet or pepsin
(Schafer and Olson, 1975).
LMPSM cheeses were made with Single Culture (SC) of Streptococcus thermophilus
or Mixed Culture (MC) of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus
helveticus using chymosin or Cryphonectria parasitica (CP) coagulant.
The melt area increased by ~2 times in cheeses made with SC as against 3-4 times
for cheeses made with MC. The melt characteristics of 7 day old cheeses prepared
with MC almost corresponded to that of 30 day old cheeses made with SC, suggesting
faster ripening using MC. The degradation of total αs-casein was higher
in the chymosin cheeses and that of β-casein in the CP cheeses. Meltability
of Mozzarella cheese was better correlated to hydrolysis of β-casein and
was comparable to SN but least to αs-casein (Dave et
FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
pH of whey: Mozzarella cheese was manufactured using Starter Culture
Method (SCM) at different whey pH values viz., 6.2, 5.9, 5.6 and 5.3. Ash, calcium
and phosphorus concentration of cheese decreased as the whey pH was lowered.
A pH of 5.3 was beneficial with regard to cheese yield and calcium recovery.
The meltability of cheese was improved when the calcium content of cheese was
controlled (i.e., reduced). Fresh cheeses made by whey draining at pH 5.6 and
5.3 were preferred; the later cheese was rated inferior to the others at the
end of 56 days of refrigerated storage (Kiely et al.,
1992; Yazici and Akbulut, 2007). With regard to
sensory score, the cheese made using 0.40% LA whey acidity was superior in terms
of flavour and texture; it had maximum springiness. Cheese made from 0.50% whey
acidity at draining was least acceptable (Sundar and Upadhyay,
Coagulant concentration and composition: Mozzarella cheeses with lower
fat contents had the lowest moisture-in-nonfat-substance (MNFS) content which
led to slower rate of proteolysis. The cheeses tended to become softer with
progress of storage; the level of coagulant affected the same. There was a linear
relation between melting of cheese and the milk fat content and coagulant levels
(Dave et al., 2003b).
Cooking temperature: Higher cooking temperature (44°C vs. 38-41°C)
produced cheese with lower moisture and decreased proteolysis during 50 days
storage at 4°C. The firmness of melted cheese was greater when employing
higher cooking temperatures. Cooking temperature did not significantly affect
the meltability and free oil formation of cheese (Yun et
Milling pH: Milling pH (5.1-5.4) affected the cheese pH and TA. The
milling pH did not have any influence on the proteolysis of cheese during its
refrigerated storage (Yun et al., 1993c).
Curd acidity at stretching: The optimum curd TA for cheese stretching
was 0.8% LA. The sensory score of cheese increased with increasing curd acidity
from 0.5 to 0.8% LA. Rise in curd acidity led to a decrease in cheese moisture
and TS loss during stretching, while melting quality improved (Ghosh
and Singh, 1996).
COMPOSITION OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
The composition of Mozzarella cheese depends on the type of milk used for cheese
making and the procedure used for cheese manufacture. According to IDF
(1984) in India, the buffalo milk Mozzarella cheese contains 23.0-25.0%
fat and 50.0% moisture on fat free cheese basis. The composition of Mozzarella
cheese reported by few workers is depicted in Table 4.
|| Composition of Mozzarella cheese
VALUE-ADDED INGREDIENTS AS ADDITIVE
Concentrated buttermilk: Cheese milks were prepared by adding 0-6.0%
(w/w) of Condensed Sweet Cream Buttermilk (CSCB) (34.0% TS, 9.0% casein) to
part-skim milk and cream was added to obtain cheese milk with 11.2-12.7% TS
and casein: Fat of 1.0. Use of CSCB resulted in a significant increase in cheese
moisture. Fat and nitrogen recoveries in CSCB cheeses were slightly lower and
higher, respectively, than the control cheeses. Cheeses containing CSCB (4.0-6.0%)
showed less melt and stretch than control cheese. Addition of CSCB significantly
lowered free oil at 1 week. Addition of CSCB at low (i.e., 2.0%) levels improved
cheese yield without affecting the compositional, rheological and sensory properties
of cheese (Govindasamy-Lucey et al., 2007).
A washed, stirred-curd pizza cheese was manufactured using different types
of concentrated (Cold Ultrafiltered (UF), cold Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Evaporation
(EV)) Sweet Cream Buttermilk (SCB) as an ingredient in standardized milk. Cheese
milks of casein:fat of 1.0 and casein content of 2.7% were obtained by blending
UF-SCB retentate (19.9% solids), RO-SCB retentate (21.9% solids) or EV-SCB retentate
(36.6% solids) with partially skimmed milk and cream (34.6% fat). SCB-fortified
cheeses had 4.0-5.0% higher moisture (51.0-52.0%) than control cheese without
SCB (47.0%). Fat recoveries were significantly lower in RO-and EV-SCB cheeses
than in control or UF-SCB cheeses, when moisture was kept constant. The total
phospholipid recovered in SCB cheeses (32.0-36.0%) was lower than control (41%).
The SCB cheeses had lower meltability compared to control. The cheese made from
milk fortified with UF-SCB had minimum free oil, when baked as a topping on
pizza (Govindasamy et al., 2006).
Milk protein concentrate: Addition of Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC)
improved the yield of cheese from 10.34% for Control (C) to 14.50 and 16.65%
for cheeses made from whole milk+MPC+culture (MP culture) and whole milk+MPC+direct
acid (MP acid), respectively. TS recoveries were in the order MPculture>MPacid>C;
fat and protein recoveries were not significantly affected. MPculture cheese
had the highest Ca and lowest lactose content. MPacid cheese had the best meltability.
Control cheese initially had better meltability than MPculture; however, the
difference became insignificant after 28 days of storage at 4°C. MP directly
acidified cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when
baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in MP
culture and MP acid cheeses, respectively (Rehman et
al., 2003). Cold dispersible MPC containing 83.0% protein obtained by
ultrafiltration process was used to standardize protein content of cheese milk
to 4.0% (fat/protein = 1.0). There was an increase in the yield of cheese up
to 16.7% (vs. 13.8% in control) as a result of high recovery of TS (i.e., 48.2%)
and protein (78.3%) and slightly higher cheese moisture content (Francolino
et al., 2010).
Whey proteins: Heated (95°C at pH 4.6) whey protein homogenized
dispersions added to standardized milk and reduced fat milk was used to enhance
the yield of Mozzarella cheese. The retention of fat and yield of cheese was
enhanced upon homogenization of whey proteins. The lower yield of reduced fat
cheese was partially offset by adding whey proteins. Physical and sensory properties
of reduced fat cheeses containing such whey proteins were similar to the full
fat control (Punidadas et al., 1999).
Inclusion of 0.1 or 0.2 w/w of heat denatured whey protein had no significant
effect on the functionality of cheese compared with the control and helped in
improving the water binding capacity of cheese (Mead and
Ultrafiltration retentates: Pizza cheese were made from partially skimmed
milk blended with cold processed UF retentates (13.5 and 15.2% TS). The fortified
milk clotted faster than unfortified control milk. The fat recovery in cheese
was in decreasing order viz., UF (13.5% TS) >control>UF (15.2% TS). The
UF fortified cheese had higher nitrogen recovery too. Blending of cheese milk
with cold UF retentate is beneficial in enhancing the cheese yield (Govindasamy-Lucey
et al., 2005).
METHODS OF MANUFACTURE OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
The methods of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese varies considerably according to the market of the cheese.
Starter culture method: Traditional procedure (Starter culture technique)
for manufacture of such cheese is described by several workers (Savini,
1950; Kosikowski, 1958; Reinbold,
1963; Davis, 1965; Reinbold and
Reddy, 1978; Nilson et al., 1979b; Thalmann,
1982; Singh and Ladkani, 1984; Scott,
1986). The stepwise description for preparation of Mozzarella cheese have
also been reported by Mauk (1964), Christensen,
(1966), Weckx and Delbeke (1971), Anonymous
(1977c, 1982a), Muzzarelli (1977a,
b), Nilson (1977), Ohashi
(1981), Patel et al. (1986) and Sundar
and Upadhyay (1990). The flow chart for preparation of Mozzarella cheese
by Starter culture method is depicted in Fig. 1.
Pasteurized milk is incubated at 33°C with rennet and a starter comprising
of lactobacilli and streptococci is used. The separated curd (pH 5.2) is heated
in water at 80°C, kneaded and formed into 150-250 g balls which are cooled
in running water at 10-12°C for 30 min followed by immersion in chilled
(5°C) brine for 30 min (Weckx and Delbeke, 1971).
Direct acidification method: Direct Acidification (DA) technique has
gained considerable commercial interest, as it does not rely on starter performance
(unpredictable, risk of phage infection, milk contaminated with antibiotics)
and helps towards mechanization of production (Fox, 1978).
The manufacture of Mozzarella cheese using DA has been attempted by Schafer
(1975), Ohashi (1981), Thalmann
(1982), Demott (1983), Patel
et al. (1986), Singh and Ladkani (1984), Anonymous
(1985a) and Anonymous (1987).
The different types of acids employed in DA technique include hydrochloric
acid, phosphoric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malic, citric acid and glucono-delta-lactone
(Breene et al., 1964; Shehata
et al., 1967; Quarne et al., 1968a,
b; Larson et al., 1967,
1970; Keller et al., 1974;
Micketts and Olson, 1974; Patel
et al., 1986; Jensen et al., 1987a).
To circumvent the problem related to brine salting and to have close moisture
control (i.e., 45.0-52.0%) in Mozzarella cheese, a stirred curd, no brine method
was developed (Barbano et al., 1994).
|| Flow chart for preparation of Mozzarella cheese
Pizza cheese manufactured using citric acid as pH regulator had the highest
calcium concentration and pronounced meltability and stretchability. No significant
differences were noted with regard to fat and free oil contents when using acids
such as citric, lactic acid, acetic acid, phosphoric and hydrochloric (Jian-Qiang
et al., 2011). A twin-screw extruder, fed with chilled curd, was
used to stretch the cheese curd. The cheese made in such manner had lower meltability
but no free oil compared with that made from a conventional stretcher (Apostolopoulos
et al., 1994).
The two methods employed utilizing DA techniques are:
||Direct acidification quiescent storage method (Breene
et al., 1964; Larson et al., 1966,
1967; Quarne et al.,
1967; Patel et al., 1986; Singh
and Ladkani, 1984)
||Direct Acidification Continuous Agitation (DACA) method (Ernstrom,
1965; Larson, 1966; Larson
et al., 1970; Quarne et al., 1967;
Micketts and Olson, 1974; Kim
and Yu, 1988)
DACA method involves use of continuous mixing, cooking, drawing, plasticizing,
moulding, salting/brining and packaging machines which paves way for continuous
production of Mozzarella cheese (Anonymous, 1970b, 1971,
Keller (1978) and Wood (1987)
prepared Mozzarella cheese by DA, with or without added microorganisms which
yielded a quicker method of reaching the required pH value for stretching. Pizza
cheeses made by conventional SC and DA method were compared. The recovery of
fat and cheese yields was greater at pH 5.6 and 5.4 than at 5.9 and 5.2. Recovery
of SNF and cheese hardness decreased, while moisture content, meltability and
fat leakage increased, as pH decreased. Meltability of DA cheeses was lower
than that of SC, except for cheeses made with citric or malic acid at pH 5.2
and 5.4. Sensory scores of DA cheeses were highest at pH 5.4 and 5.6 and were
best for cheese made with lactic or acetic acid compared to use of phosphoric,
hydrochloric, malic or citric acids (Kim and Yu, 1988).
Mozzarella cheese from reconstituted milk: Cheese made with 40.0-60.0%
reconstituted skim milk (10.0% solids) as blends with cows fresh whole
milk, had the best shredding, melting and stretching characteristics without
oiling-off; highly acceptable for pizza topping. Higher substitution levels
gave significantly higher moisture content and rigid curd. None of the LMPSM
cheeses exhibited oiling-off; they had lower meltability but better shredding
and stretching properties with longer strings than full-fat milk cheese, when
baked (Davide et al., 1993).
Mozzarella cheese has been made from reconstituted low-heat dried
skim milk and cream by Flanagan et al. (1978),
Thompson (1978) and Demott (1983).
Use of low-heat powder avoided a weak curd with poor stretch and melt characteristics.
The cheese made by DA from reconstituted milk had higher protein and TS recoveries
than that made from fluid milk (Demott, 1983). Leake
and Nilson (1969) observed that fortifying part of skim milk with various
levels of Non-Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) resulted in an increased cheese yield; the
effect was marked with increasing rate of milk solids fortification. However,
the cheese made from high solids milk required longer ripening period for required
flavor development and melting qualities.
Mozzarella cheese made from recombined milk did not exhibit the characteristic
stretch and melt behaviour of fresh milk cheeses. Such difficulty could be solved
either by using low homogenization pressures in preparing recombined milk or
by coating the fat with phospholipid in recombined milk emulsion and homogenizing
at the usual pressure (Lelievre et al., 1990).
Modified method of mozzarella cheese making: An alternative method for
stretching the Mozzarella curd involved addition of 1-1.5% of emulsifying salts
(tri-sodium citrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate; 1:1 or 2:1 w/w) to curd
before heating to 65-70°C for 10-15 min, followed by moulding. Such cheese
had improved melting characteristics, flavour and texture and recovery of milk
constituents compared to control cheese made by conventional stretching in hot
moulding water (Patel and Upadhyay, 1999).
Valle et al. (1979) suggested a modified process
which overcomes the problem of curd becoming too acid for good plasticizing,
especially when the milk had high lactose content (~5.0%). Likewise, Kielsmeier
and Leprino (1970a,b) substituted the cheddaring
step in the manufacture of Pasta filata cheese by a modified step which extracted
most of the lactose and reduced the pH of the curd to 5.0-5.5, enabling the
curd to possess the necessary plastic properties during the extrusion process.
Shah et al. (2008) prepared pasteurized Mozzarella
cheese (negative Alkaline phosphatase test) from raw milk (unpasteurized) just
by employing boiling water for plasticizing the cheese curd.
Salting of cheese: The cheese maybe salted by methods such as (a) dry
salting (b) brine salting and (c) hot brine salting. Direct salting of cheese
involves stretching the cheese in hot water, draining the water followed by
sprinkling salt (~1.6%) over the cheese during mixing (Ferris,
1981). Olson (1979) employed direct injection of
salt solution (~6 MPa hydraulic pressures) into cheese. Use of dry salting,
rather than brine salting (23% NaCl, pH 5.15, 0.02% calcium) or combined salting
(dry+brine), resulted in a significantly higher cheese moisture and yield (Guinee
et al., 2000). According to Ferris (1981),
the conventional method of salt brining is very costly, requires more space,
exaggerates the problem of corrosion and poses difficulty in cleaning and disposing
off the brine.
The brine-salted cheeses exhibited gradients of decreasing moisture from center
to surface. The moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine could be
controlled through use of cold brining (Kindstedt, 2001).
Reduction in the salt content of Mozzarella cheese led to slight decrease in
the meltability and free oil of cheese.
EQUIPMENT FOR MOZZARELLA CHEESE MANUFACTURE
The mechanization in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese includes the development
of machines for forming and shaping cheese balls (Mongiello,
1957, 1959), moulding (Hannon
and De Nucci, 1959; Elder and Pontecorvo, 1962; Langford,
1966; Mongiello, 1986), automatic plasticizing and
stretching of curd (Pontecorvo and Shaffer, 1968, 1971;
Kielsmeier and Leprino, 1973; Nilson
and Samuel, 1975; Saal, 1975; Trauberman,
1975; Cosmi and De Stafeno, 1978; Meyer,
1983; Mongiello, 1985; Muzzarelli,
1985a), salting (Nilson and La Clair, 1975; Zahlaus,
1986, 1987), automatic moulder-cooling (Dzenis,
1976; Anonymous, 1979a; Volejnicek,
1981), moulding and hardening (Tomatis, 1987a, b),
cheese compacting (Muzzarelli, 1985b), automatic brining
and chilling of cheese (Anonymous, 1979b, c)
and shredding (Saal, 1976). Schwartz
and Schwartz (1957) evolved an apparatus to form strips from curd for subsequent
immersion in hot water and stretching.
Mechanical mixers with single screw or twin screws, in conjunction with steam
injection have been used for heating and stretching of the cheese. Typically,
the water temperature used in cooker-stretcher ranges from 60-85°C and the
cheese temperature as it exits the mixer ranges from 50-65°C (Renda
et al., 1997). Nilson (1977) recommended
the use of curd milling and dicing machine prior to the mixer-stretcher operation.
Continuous production lines in mozzarella cheese manufacture: Continuous
production lines for the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese involving all the
traditional steps of the process have been described by several workers (Bottazzi
et al., 1974; Mongiello, 1957; Thalmann,
1982; Wood, 1987). DACA method of Mozzarella cheese
manufacture greatly facilitates the mechanization and continuous production
of curd. The reports pertaining to this are given by Larson
et al. (1970), Nelles (1979), Kim
and Yu (1988) and Anonymous (1987). The process mainly
involves use of continuous mixing, cooking, drawing, plasticizing, moulding,
salting/brining and packaging machines. Kerrigan and Norback
(1986) have shown the utility of linear programming in the allocation of
milk resources for Mozzarella cheese making to maximize net returns and cheese
yield or minimize cost.
FLAVOUR OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Mozzarella cheese has lower Free Fatty Acids (FFA) concentration and milk flavor
and except for C4, the role of FFA in the characteristic flavor of
this cheese was not apparent. It is considered that branched short chain fatty
acids are important for the flavor of Mozzarella cheese (Lindsay,
1983; Woo and Lindsay, 1984). According to Micketts
and Olson (1971, 1974) use of reduced amount of
rennet (calf and pepsin) prevented bitter flavor in Mozzarella cheese. The key
amino acids in bitter peptides were leucine, phenylalanine, proline and valine
(Kim and Lee, 1985).
SURVIVAL OF MILK CLOTTING ENZYME IN CHEESE
Micketts and Olson (1974) and Matheson
(1981) studied the survival of milk clotting enzymes in the manufacture
of Mozzarella cheese. The residual coagulant activity of 0.004 RU g-1
and 1.0-7.7% of total activity has been reported which contributed to the overall
proteolysis in cheese (Kikuchi et al., 1988).
The casein hydrolysis by plasmin in Mozzarella cheese is less extensive than
in Cheddar or Gouda cheese (Creamer, 1976; Lawrence
et al., 1983).
KEEPING QUALITY AND STORAGE CHANGES
Rossi (1972), Matteo et al.
(1982), Patel et al. (1986) and Mikacic
(1986) studied the changes during storage of Mozzarella cheese. Mozzarella
cheese kept in brine with 1.0% NaCl had the highest sensory score and had excellent
quality, even after 12 days. Storage of Mozzarella cheese at 4°C over 4
weeks decreased the apparent viscosity; the rough fibrous texture changed to
a smooth one and changes also occurred in cheese melting and stretching characteristics
(Kindstedt and Guo, 1997a, b,
1998). Patel et al. (1986)
reported that cheeses made by DA method had lower shelf life (1 week) as compared
to those prepared by starter method (>2 weeks), when stored at 8°C. The
unsalted cheese packaged in polyethylene pouch had a shelf life of 3 months
at 8-10°C (Ghosh and Kulkarni, 1996). Soluble Nitrogen
(SN) and soluble tyrosine and tryptophan contents elevated with increasing storage
period. Advancement of cheese storage led to an increase in the meltability
of cheese (Ahmed et al., 2011).
MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHEESE
Several workers studied the microbiological aspects of Mozzarella cheese during
manufacture, as well as of market samples (Sforzolini et
al., 1956; Kosikowski, 1960; Catellani
and Giordano, 1962; Nilson and La Clair, 1976; Caserio
et al., 1977; Nieradka et al., 1979;
Ottogalli et al., 1979; Asperger,
1982; Asperger and Brandl, 1982). A decrease of
about 2 log of Listeria monocytogenes was observed after stretching of
the curd in hot water (95°C).Listeria could not survive in cheese after
24 h when stored in the conditioning liquid (skim water from stretch, pH ~4.0)
(Villani et al., 1998). Stretching of Mozzarella
cheese curd at 66°C for 5 min or 77°C for 1 min can effectively control
L. monocytogenes during the production of Mozzarella cheese; brining
too had a lethal effect but less effective than stretching treatment (Kim
et al., 1998). The US Food and Drug Administration permits addition
of mould inhibiting ingredients, upon declaration on the label, during kneading
and stretching process or applying it to the surface of the cheese (FDA,
1977). Few reports dwell on the effects of storage on the microbiological
quality of the product (Rossi, 1972; Costamagna,
1976; Asperger, 1982; Asperger
and Brandl, 1982; Mikacic, 1986).
PROCESSED MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Kosikowski (1957) and Kosikowski
and Silverman (1954) manufactured processed cheese using Mozzarella cheese
curd. The product resembled Mozzarella cheese in physical properties and flavor
but did not string out well. The young Cheddar cheese component
of the processed cheese blend could be substituted by Mozzarella cheese up to
an extent of 25.0-40.0% level, without adversely affecting the composition and
sensory characteristics of the product (Patel et al.,
1986; Jana, 1992b).
DEVELOPMENTS IN MOZZARELLA CHEESE MANUFACTURE
Membrane process in cheese production: Reviews pertaining to the manufacture
of Mozzarella cheese from ultrafiltrated milk are given by Mann
(1982), Pal and Cheryan (1987), Jensen
et al. (1987b) and Jana (1992a). Some manufacturing
lines like Firma Pasilac (Anonymous, 1982b), Ridgeway
Foods (Morris, 1984; Anonymous,
1985b), Alfa-Laval Alcurd continuous coagulator (Vincens,
1986) and Maubois, Mocquot and Vassal (M.M.V.) process (Kosikowski,
1986) utilizes the Ultrafiltration (UF) process in the manufacture of Mozzarella
cheese on commercial basis.
The principle behind the manufacture involves separation of milk, UF of skim
milk, cream concentration and mixing retentate with the cream before culturing
and renneting (Chandan, 1982). In order to obtain quality
product, the important parameters include UF of milk to 39-40% TS, followed
by conventional evaporation to 52-54% TS (Covacevich, 1981);
supplementation of cheese milk with retentate and hot brine stretching (Fernandez
and Kosikowski, 1984, 1986a), addition of freeze
dried retentate to fresh liquid retentate (Fernandez and
Kosikowski, 1984) and diafiltration with brine during UF with/without simultaneous
fermentation of the retentate (Covacevich, 1975; Kosikowski,
1975b; Covacevich and Kosikowski, 1975, 1978;
Maubois and Kosikowski, 1978; Friis,
1981). A volume concentration ratio of 1.75:1 was found optimum for Mozzarella
cheese manufacture (Fernandez and Kosikowski, 1986b,
c). UF cheeses exhibited lower stretchability, higher
oiling off and greater increase in hardness during storage than non-UF cheeses
(El-Batawy et al., 2004a).
Ultrafiltered whole milk retentates (Volume Concentration Ratio (VCR) of 1.4:1,
1.7:1 and 2:1) were made into Mozzarella cheese by DA with 10% glacial acetic
acid. Low concentrate retentates showed improved physical properties over that
of non-retentate control whole milk. Excellent melting Mozzarella cheese was
attained and increases in cheese yield were related directly to retentate concentration.
Yield efficiency, based on casein recovery, was higher in retentate cheese than
in controls (Fernandez and Kosikowski, 1986a).
Retentate supplementation (4.5:1 retentate supplementing milk to 1.2:1 fat
and 1.4:1 protein) improved LMPSM cheese yield. Retentate supplemented cheese
had higher protein and fat and lower moisture than control (Fernandez
and Kosikowski, 1986b). Increased output per vat, higher yield efficiency
and good melting properties were observed in retentate cheese made using thermophilic
starter over control; optimum retentate VCR was 1.75:1 (Fernandez
and Kosikowski, 1986a). Mozzarella cheese prepared from UF retentate (VCR
of 2.34:1) had higher total protein, ash and pH but lower fat, FDM, salt and
TA than control cheese (Pizaia et al., 2003).
Mozzarella cheese making from UF milk was advantageous with regard to yield (>20%),plant capacity and reduced usage of starter and rennet. It also facilitated fully automated continuous working with cleaning-in-place techniques,, standard cheese quality, labour saving and more rapidly developed flavor. Nonetheless, impaired stretching properties and low meltdown characteristics in the resultant cheese are the difficulties encountered.
Drying of cheese: The process of drying Mozzarella cheese has been described
by Costamagna (1976), Sozzi (1978)
and Singh and Tiwari (1986). Dried cheese can be used
for flavouring certain food items.
Low-fat Mozzarella cheese: Owing to the awareness among people regarding fat intake (especially milk fat) and health, the dairy industry has shown increasing interest in producing low-fat and fat-free dairy products, including Mozzarella cheese.
Low-fat (6.0% fat) Mozzarella cheeses was made by pre-acidification of milk
(pH 6.1) with citric acid, using encapsulated ropy exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing
Streptococcus thermophilus. Pre-acidification of milk helped in reducing
the hardness and increase meltability of low fat cheeses. Use of capsular (30.45
mg g-1 cheese) and ropy-EPS (30.55 mg g-1 cheese) aided
increased moisture retention (2.0% higher moisture) in cheese, making them softer
but exhibited lower springiness. The cheeses containing EPS exhibited improved
shred fusion, meltability and reduced surface scorching upon baking in oven
(Zisu and Shah, 2007). Low-fat (6.0%) cheese made with
the EPS starter cultures exhibited slightly higher meltability than control
cheese made using non EPS starter (Perry et al.,
Carrillo et al. (2005) prepared low fat Pasta
filata cheese from milk standardized to 1.6 and 3.2% milk fat by DA method.
Reducing the fat content in LMPSM below the US legal minimum of 30.0% FDM resulted
in a product with textural and meltability characteristics comparable to those
of a full-fat low moisture Mozzarella (Tunick et al.,
MICROSTRUCTURE AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEESE
The microstructure of Mozzarella cheese was studied by Kalab
(1977), Taranto et al. (1979) and Taranto
and Yang (1981). It basically exhibited large fat globules uniformly scattered
throughout the compact protein matrix with little aggregation.
The effects of type of milk (Masi and Addeo, 1984),
standardization of milk for fat or casein/fat (C/F) ratio (Patel
et al., 1986; Sundar and Upadhyay, 1991),
heat treatment of milk (Patel et al., 1986),
homogenization (Jana and Upadhyay, 1992a), milk coagulant
(Micketts and Olson, 1971), method of manufacture (Patel
et al., 1986), type of acid and pH at coagulation (Keller
et al., 1971, 1974; Chen
et al., 1979; Yang and Taranto, 1982), whey
draining acidity (Sundar and Upadhyay, 1990), composition
(Chen et al., 1979; Yang
and Taranto, 1982; Cervantes et al., 1983;
Tunick et al., 1991) and proteolysis during storage
(Kindstedt et al., 1993) on the rheological properties
of Mozzarella cheese has been reported. Cheese made using the lowest C/F ratio
milk (0.50) had lower hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess
than cheeses made from milk with higher C/F ratios (up to 0.90) (Sundar
and Upadhyay, 1991).
Mozzarella cheese behaves like a visco-elastoplastic material (semisolid) at
room temperature which exhibiting visco-elasticity (as liquid) at about 60°C.
Its yield stress gradually decreases with increase in temperature of texture
measurement using capillary rheometer (Muliawan and Hatzikiriakos,
2007). Mozzarella cheese exhibited poor meltdown, fat leakage, acid flavor,
free surface moisture, poor cohesiveness and bleached discolouration after thawing
but normal characteristics regained in 1-3 weeks of tempering, after thawing
(Ghosh et al., 1990). On decreasing the fat content
(3.5 to 2.0%) of the cheese milk, the cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness
of the cheese increased, whilst elasticity decreased (Valle
et al., 2004). Lee et al. (1978) tried
to correlate the objectively assessed rheological parameters of Mozzarella cheese
with their sensory characteristics.
FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
The important characteristics of Pizza cheese are: (i) it should possess a
moderate toughness and an adequate stringiness; (ii) it should shred, grind
and slice with a minimum of matting. Pizza retailers reported flavour, meltability
and shredability as the most important attributes for customer satisfaction.
Mozzarella cheese manufacturers considered meltability, stretchability, elasticity,
stringiness and shredability to be important for customer satisfaction. Few
Mozzarella manufacturers were of the opinion that frozen storage adversely affected
cheese quality (McMahon et al., 1993; Savage
and Mullan, 1996; Jana, 2001).
Since Mozzarella cheese is used mostly for pizza and related foods, it must
possess specific functional properties in both melted and unmelted states. Fresh
Mozzarella is not suitable for pizza application since it melts to a tough,
elastic and granular consistency exhibiting limited stretch. On ageing of cheese
under refrigeration for a few weeks, the unmelted cheese becomes softer and
the melted cheese becomes viscous, less elastic and attains greater stretch.
The aged cheese now has adequate functionality for use on pizza. Further storage
of cheese makes it excessively soft and fluid when melted thereby making it
unsuitable for pizza (Kindstedt, 1991, 1993).
With ageing of cheese there was an increase in the stretchability and flow
ability of cheese. Changes in functionality were as a result of change in pH,
proteolysis, protein-bound water and free oil in the cheese. On prolonged storage,
shredded cheese developed susceptibility to clumping/balling and baked cheese
tended to exude excess free oil and lost its desired level of chewiness (Guinee
et al., 2001). Melting tended to increase during storage of fat containing
cheese, however there was hardly any change observed in the non-fat (0% fat)
cheese (Dave et al., 2003b).
BROWNING, BLISTERING AND BURNING OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Low-browning Mozzarella cheeses were made using thermophilic streptococcal
cultures capable of fermenting galactose. Such cheese when compared with conventional
Mozzarella cheese as pizza toping, the judges could distinguish between the
light and dark colours; however, there was no significant sensory difference
between the two products (Matzdorf et al., 1994).
Galactose accumulated in Mozzarella when either strain (nongalactose (Gal )
and galactose fermenting (Gal+) strains) of Str. thermophilus
was used. Galactose was found in all Mozzarella cheese regardless of the culture
used. The temperature and time during stretching of the curd inhibited fermentation
of the residual galactose. The fermentation of accumulated galactose was the
result of metabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus. There was a positive
correlation between galactose content and brown color intensity in heated Mozzarella
cheese (Johnson and Olson, 1985).
Mozzarella cheese having reduced lactose (<0.3%) content is a key factor
in order to avoid burning or blistering of cheese during baking of pizzas. This
could be accomplished by using 0.5-3.0% of a culture composed of one or more
of the species Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus
durans in addition to the standard culture (Reinbold
and Reddy, 1978; Jana, 1992c). Mozzarella cheese
obtained by conventional method was more prone to blistering than cheese made
from UF retentate during the first month of storage; both cheeses exhibited
similar behavior during subsequent storage (Pizaia et
Covering the cheese surface with a hydrophobic or physical barrier (i.e., pizza
topping) affected melting and browning behaviour of Mozzarella cheese on pizza.
The barrier blocked moisture loss and subsequent skin formation that limited
melting and allowed scorching of fat-free and low-fat cheese during pizza baking
(Rudan and Barbano, 1998).
STRETCH TESTING METHODS
Stretchability of Mozzarella cheese has been evaluated through fork test, the
imitative tensile stretch test and the 3-pronged-hook probe tensile test. An
objective test based on the principle of the Ring-and-Ball method helped to
measure the softening point of polymers; the technique controls temperature
and moisture loss during stretch testing. The method could distinguish between
the cheeses of variable age (Hicsasmaz et al., 2004).
SHREDDED MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Application of anti-caking agents for shredded cheese helped in retarding clumping and enhanced the appearance of cheese shreds.
PACKAGING OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE
The effectiveness of some antimicrobial (viz., lemon extract combined with
brine and gel solution made of sodium alginate) packaging systems on the microbial
quality decay kinetics was assessed; the treatment led to an increase in the
shelf life of active packaged Mozzarella cheeses (Conte
et al., 2007). Mozzarella cheese has been successfully packaged in
polyethylene (300 gauge) and Cryovac packed in polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)
film (150 gauge) with or without vacuum packaging (Ghosh
and Singh, 1992).
SHELF LIFE OF CHEESE
The Mozzarella cheese when packaged in cryovac package in PVDC film and stored
under refrigeration (5°C) and deep freeze kept well for 42 and 90 days,
respectively (Ghosh and Singh, 1992). The storage changes
in Mozzarella cheese packaged without a liquid was studied (Coppola
et al., 1995). A lactic acid/chitosan solution (0.075% chitosan strength)
was added to the starter used for Mozzarella cheese. Spoilage microorganisms
like coliform and Pseudomonas were inhibited in presence of chitosan; it did
not influence the growth of Micrococcaceae but somewhat stimulated lactic acid
bacteria (Altieri et al., 2005).
STORAGE CHANGES IN CHEESE
During refrigerated (4°C) storage of Mozzarella cheese for 50 days, the
textural characteristics viz., hardness, cohesiveness and springiness of unmelted
cheese decreased, meltability increased, apparent viscosity of melted cheese
decreased and free oil formation from melted cheese increased (Yun
et al., 1993c). During storage there was an increase in the water
holding capacity of the cheeses (Yazici and Akbulut, 2007).
With advancement in ripening time of LMPSM, there was a significant decrease
in the concentration of intact casein, firmness, melt time and apparent viscosity.
Nevertheless, the flowability and stretchability of the molten cheeses were
found to increase significantly during storage (Guinee et
al., 2001). There was a slight continual decrease in moisture of cheese
during refrigerated storage; the pH decreased from initial 5.36 to 5.16 in 49
days, while TA showed a linear increase (Ghosh and Singh,
1992). Refrigerated storage of Mozzarella cheese led to significant decrease
in the moisture content culminating in increased fat, cholesterol and protein
content; TVFA also showed an increasing trend. The pH of cheese decreased with
increase in storage period of Mozzarella cheese (Ali and
The soluble nitrogen of LMPSM increased significantly during 7 weeks of ripening
but at different rates for different coagulants (Endothia parasitica,
Mucor miehei or chymosin). Substantial breakdown of caseins was evident
during ripening. Texture characteristics, meltability, apparent viscosity and
free oil formation changed significantly during ripening; the rate of change
differed among coagulants and corresponded with proteolysis rates (Kindstedt
et al., 1993). The melting and fat leakage characteristics increased
while stretch tended to decrease with advancement in storage period of Mozzarella
cheese (Ghosh and Singh, 1992). The Mozzarella cheese
obtained from UF retentate exhibited lower proteolysis and melt capacity during
storage than the one made from normal unconcentrated milk (Pizaia
et al., 2003).
FILLED MOZZARELLA CHEESE AND SUBSTITUTES
The products resembling Mozzarella cheese include the Filled, Imitation Mozzarella
cheese, Mozzarella analogue or the Cheese extender. Such products are made from
non-dairy ingredients like hydrogenated, soya or cottonseed oil as a fat source,
Na-and Ca-caseinates or soya proteins as protein source along with flavouring
agents (Anonymous, 1981). Such products have been claimed
to possess several advantages such as low price, positive flavor control, improved
product consistency, excellent keeping quality and reliability of supply of
raw materials (Vernon, 1972). Ghosh
and Kulkarni (1996) standardized a method for manufacture of low cholesterol
Mozzarella cheese from filled milk containing 3% sunflower oil employing direct
acidification; citric acid produced a softer cheese than acetic acid at similar
Several reports are available on manufacturing and compositional aspects of
imitation Mozzarella cheese (Anonymous, 1970a; Vernon,
1972; Kasik and Peterson, 1975; Fox,
1978; Rule and Werstak, 1978; Taranto
and Yang, 1981; Yang and Taranto, 1982; Yang
et al., 1983; Christiansen et al., 1986;
Toppino et al., 1988).
Natural vs. Imitation mozzarella cheeses: Differential scanning calorimetry
is one classical method that can be used to distinguish natural Mozzarella cheese
from imitation Mozzarella made with Ca-caseinate. This is due to a decrease
in the enthalpy of milk fat melting transition at 18°C with concomitant
rise in the caseinate concentration. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited
agglomerated lipids in the imitation samples, whereas uniform dispersion of
fat globules was evident in the natural cheese (Tunick et
Mozzarella cheese is a soft, unripened cheese variety of the Pasta-filata family which had its origin in the Battipaglia region of Italy. Mozzarella cheese was originally manufactured from high fat buffalo milk. However, it is made all over Italy, in other European countries and USA from cow milk with certain modifications. The finished cheese, lightly salted, is white, soft with a very lively surface sheen and has unique property of stretchability. Mozzarella cheese owes its characteristics mainly to the action of lactic acid on dicalcium-para-caseinate. Pure white color is the basic requirement of Mozzarella cheese which is lacking in cow milk cheese due to presence of carotene. Understanding the factors that determine the characteristics of the cheese product for its suitability for end usage can help the cheese makers to produce tailor-made cheeses as per the whims and wishes of the food retailers and even the varied consumers.
Ahmed, N.S., M.A.M. Abd El-Gawad, M.M. El-Abd and N.S. Abd-Rabou, 2011.
Properties of buffalo Mozzarella cheese as affected by type of coagulant. Acta Sci. Polonorum: Technol. Alimentaria, 10: 339-357.Direct Link |
Ali, A.M. and K.A. Abdel-Razig, 2011.
Cholesterol content of mozzarella cheese during storage as affected by level of milk fat. Pak. J. Nutr., 10: 65-70.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Altieri, C., C. Scrocco, M. Sinigaglia and M.A. del Nobile, 2005.
Use of chitosan to prolong mozzarella cheese shelf life. J. Dairy Sci., 88: 2683-2688.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Filled cheese. Dairy Ice Cream Field, 152: 38-48.
Makes cheese in 51/2 minutes. Food Eng., 42: 162-162.
Continuous direct acidification system for producing Mozzarella cheese. Food Trade Rev., 41: 28-31.
Production hygiene of cheeses to be consumed fresh such as Mozzarella, Fior di Latte and Ovoline. Mondo del Latte, 31: 18-19.
Accelerated cheesemaking. Dairy Ice Cream Field, 160: 66-66.
Dairymen, Inc. brings Mozzarella to Franklinton, Louisiana. Dairy Ice Cream Field, 160: 76E-76E.
Cooling off Mozzarella cheese. Dairy Ice Cream Field, 162: 68-69.
Automating Italian cheese output. Dairy Ice Cream Field, 162: 76-89.
Automatically chilled at Krohn's. Am. Dairy Rev., 41: 34-34.
Mechanized manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. Industria Del Latte, 16: 26-29.
Cheese analogue contains protein from four sources-dairy, oilseed, cereal, leaf. Food Process., 42: 28-29.
Cheesemaking technology for Italian style cheeses. Dairy Ind. Int., 47: 25-28.
Ultrafiltration in cheese manufacture. Deutsche Molkerei-Zeitung, 103: 1061-1062.
Production line for Mozzarella cheese making by direct acidification. Latte, 10: 234-236.
Cheese plant of the future? Food Eng. Int., 10: 46-49.
Standardization of manufacturing technique of Mozzarella cheese using microbial rennet. Annual Report, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India, pp: 52.
Apostolopoulos, C., V.E. Bines and R.J. Marshall, 1994.
Effect of post-cheddaring manufacturing parameters on the meltability and free oil of mozzarella cheese. Int. Dairy Technol., 47: 84-87.
Asperger, H., 1982.
Microbiological/hygienic evaluation of Mozzarella cheese. Working Meeting of the Working Area of Food Hygiene and Consumer Protection Lebensmittelqualitat D-6300 Giessen, German Federal Republic, German Veterinary Medicine Society, pp: 299-302.
Asperger, H. and E. Brandl, 1982.
Microbiology of Mozzarella cheese. Intl. Dairy Congr., 1: 274-274.
Barbano, D.M., J.J. Yun and P.S. Kindstedt, 1994.
Mozzarella cheese making by a stirred curd, no brine procedure. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 2687-2694.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Breene, W.M., W.V. Price and C.A. Ernstrom, 1964.
Manufacture of pizza cheese without starter. J. Dairy Sci., 47: 1173-1180.
Breseman, A.P., 1973.
Customer preferences for Mozzarella and Provolone as revealed by survey of supermarket chains. Am. Dairy Rev., 35: 42-42.
Bonassi, I.A., J.B. De, C. Carvalho and J.B. Villares, 1982.
Use of buffaloes milk for Mozzarella cheese. Arch. Latinoam Nutr., 32: 903-912.
Bottazzi, V., C. Corradini and B. Battistotti, 1974.
Characteristics and cheese making properties of different animal rennets. Dairy Sci. Technol., 25: 43-84.
Carrillo, E., V. Suarez-Solis, F.Duquesne, I. Rodriguez and J. Camejo, 2005.
Low fat mozzarella cheese from water buffalo milk. Food Sci. Technol., 15: 69-73.
Caserio, G., E. Senesi, M. Forlani and G.Emaldi, 1977.
Hygienic quality of Mozzarella cheese in relation to manufacturing technology. Latte, 8: 706-721.
Casillo, R., A. Di Lieto, R. Di Fiore, G. Olivieri, M. Di Marzio and M. Faiella, 1984.
Analysis of Mozzarella cheese and Fior di Latte produced in Campania. Latte, 9: 907-909.Direct Link |
Catellani, G. and A. Giordano, 1962.
Hygienic state of Mozzarella sold in Naples. Acta Med. Vet., 8: 17-24.
Cervantes, M.A., D.B. Lund and N.F. Olson, 1983.
Effects of salt concentration and freezing on Mozzarella cheese texture. J. Dairy Sci., 66: 204-213.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Chandan, R., 1982.
Can ultrafiltration give cheese makers the cutting edge? Dairy Rec., 83: 144-145.
Chen, A.H., J.W. Larkin, C.J. Clark and W.E. Irwin, 1979.
Textural analysis of cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 62: 901-907.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Christensen, V.W., 1966.
Manufacturing methods for high and low moisture Mozzarella. Am. Dairy Rev., 28: 92-96.
Christensen, V.W., 1972.
Microbial coagulants in lieu of calf rennets. Am. Dairy Rev., 34: 31-34.Direct Link |
Christiansen, P.S., D. Edelsten and J.R. Kristiansen, 1986.
Manufacture of Mozzarella type cheese from caseinates and butter or vegetable oil. Maelkeritidende, 99: 252-253.Direct Link |
Citro, V., 1981.
Atypical local product obtained from buffalo milk. Scienza-e-Tecnica-Lattiero-Casearia, 32: 263-273.
Conte, A., C. Scrocco, M. Sinigaglia and M.A. del Nobile, 2007.
Innovative active packaging systems to prolong the shelf life of mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 2126-2131.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Coppola, R., E. Sorrention, L. cinquanta, M. Lorrizzo and L. Grazia, 1995.
Shelf life of mozzarella cheese samples packaged without liquid and stored at different temperatures. Italian J. Food Sci., 7: 351-359.
Cortesi, M.L. and A. Maranelli, 1982.
Fior di Lette and Mozzarella cheese: Hygiene and standards. Ind. Alimentari, 21: 528-531.
Cosmi, V. and G.Z. De Stafeno, 1978.
Pasta-filata cheese mixing and stretching machine. U.S. Patent No. 4091721, USA.
Costamagna, L., 1976.
Application of freeze drying to certain cheeses-Mozzarella and Stracchino. Ind. Del Latte, 12: 31-44.
Covacevich, H.R., 1975.
Feasibility studies on the manufacture of cheese varieties from skim milk retentates obtained by different ultrafiltration procedures. Dissertation Abstr. Int., 36: 1636-1637.
Covacevich, H.R., 1981.
Composition and properties of cheeses from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis: A review of literature. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 22: 10-10.
Covacevich, H.R. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1975.
Mozzarella, cottage and cheddar cheese from ultrafiltered retentates concentrated to maxima. J. Dairy Sci., 58: 793-793.
Covacevich, H.R. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1978.
Mozzarella and Cheddar cheese manufacture by ultrafiltration principles. J. Dairy Sci., 61: 701-709.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Creamer, L.K., 1976.
Casein proteolysis in Mozzarella-type cheese. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 11: 130-131.Direct Link |
Dave, R.I., P. Sharma and D.J. McMahon, 2003.
Melt and rheological properties of mozzarella cheese as affected by starter culture and coagulating enzymes. Lait, 83: 61-77.CrossRef |
Dave, R.I., D.J. McMahon, C.J. Oberg and J.R. Broadbent, 2003.
Influence of coagulant level on proteolysis and functionality of mozzarella cheeses made using direct acidification. J. Dairy Sci., 86: 114-126.Direct Link |
Davide, C.L., I.G. Sarmago and R.F. Rocafort, 1993.
Development of natural part skim mozzarella-type cheese for the pizza industry. Philippine Agric., 76: 21-34.Direct Link |
Davis, J.G., 1965.
Cheese: Basic Technology. Vol. I, J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, pp: 124-136
Demott, B., 1983.
Recovery of milk constituents on a mozarella-like product manufactured from nonfat dry milk and cream by direct acidification at 4 and 35°C. J. Dairy Sci., 66: 2501-2506.
Dianda, M.A., 1982.
Argentinian mozzarella-physico-chemical characteristics. Ind. Lechera, 62: 10-12.
Dzenis, V., 1976.
Production of uniform Mozzarella portions at high speeds. Dairy Ice Cream Field, 159: 106D-106H.
El-Batawy, M.A., E.A Galal, M.A. Morsy and K.A.A. Abbas, 2004.
Utilization of ultrafiltration technique in making Mozzarella cheese from different kinds of milk. Egyp. J. Dairy Sci., 32: 303-314.
El-Batawy, M.A., E.A Galal, M.A. Morsy and K.A.A. Abbas, 2004.
Effect of homogenization on some properties of mozzarella cheese. Egyp. J. Dairy Sci., 32: 315-326.
El-Koussy, L.A., M.B.M. Mustafa, Y.I. Abdel-Kader and A.S. El-Zoghby, 1995.
Properties of Mozzarella cheese as affected by milk type, yield recovery of milk constituents and chemical composition of cheese. Proceedings of the 6th Egyptian Conference for Dairy Science and Technology, (DST'95), Egypt, pp: 121-132
El-Owni, O.A.O. and S.E. Osman, 2009.
Evaluation of chemical composition and yield of mozzarella cheese using two different methods of processing. Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 684-687.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Elder, B.B. and N.E. Pontecorvo, 1962.
Method and apparatus of processing cheese of the mozzarella type. United States Patent 3041153. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3041153.html
Ernstrom, C.A., 1965.
Mechanized pizza cheese making by means of a continuous, direct acidification method. Mfd. Milk Prod. J., 56: 7-8.
Provolone, caciocavallo, siciliano, mozzarella and low moisture mozzarella cheeses: Standards of identity. Federal Register 42: 39101-39103, FDA, Washington DC, USA.
Fernandez, A. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1984.
Manufacture of directly acidified mozzarella cheese from ultrafiltered milk retentates. J. Dairy Sci., 67: 77-77.
Fernandez, A. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1986.
Physical properties of direct acidified mozzarella cheese from ultrafiltered whole milk retentates. J. Dairy Sci., 69: 643-648.CrossRef |
Fernandez, A. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1986.
Low moisture Mozzarella cheese from whole milk retentates of ultrafiltration. J. Dairy Sci., 69: 2011-2017.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Fernandez, A. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1986.
Hot brine stretching and molding of low moisture mozzarella cheese made from retentate-supplemented milks. J. Dairy Sci., 69: 2551-2557.CrossRef |
Ferris, S., 1981.
Italian cheese-the US experience and future trends. Dairy Ind. Int., 46: 17-22.
Flanagan, J.F., M.P. Thompson, D.P. Brower and D.M. Gyuricsek, 1978.
Manufacture of mozzarella, muenster and cottage cheese from reconstituted non fat milk powder. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 13: 24-26, 28.
Fox, P.F., 1978.
Direct acidification of dairy products. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 40: 727-732.
Francolino, S., F. Locci, R. Ghiglietti, R. Iezzi and G. Mucchetti, 2010.
Use of milk protein concentrate to standardize milk composition in Italian citric mozzarella cheese making. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 43: 310-314.CrossRef |
Friis, T., 1981.
Production of mozzarella cheese based on ultrafiltration. Nordeuropaeisk Mejeri Tidsskrift, 47: 220-223.
Ghosh, B.C. and S. Kulkarni, 1996.
Low cholesterol mozzarella cheese-technology standardization. J. Food Sci. Technol., 33: 488-492.
Ghosh, B.C. and S. Singh, 1992.
Storage studies of mozzarella cheese. 1: Sensory and rheological characteristics. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 45: 199-202.
Ghosh, B.C. and S. Singh, 1996.
Effect of different levels of titrable acidity in curd from buffalo milk at stretching on Mozzarella cheese. J. Food Sci. Technol., 33: 70-72.
Ghosh, B.C., S. Singh and S.K. Kanawjia, 1990.
Rheological properties of mozzarella cheese: A review. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 43: 70-79.
Govindasamy-Lucey, S., J.J. Jaeggi, M.E. Johnson, T. Wang and J.A. Lucey, 2005.
Use of cold ultrafiltered retentates for standardization of milks for pizza cheese: Impact on yield and functionality. Int. Dairy J., 15: 941-955.CrossRef |
Govindasamy-Lucey, S., T. Lin, J.J. Jaeggi, M.E. Johnson and J.A. Lucey, 2006.
Influence of condensed sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield and functionality of pizza cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 454-467.Direct Link |
Govindasamy-Lucey, S., T. Lin, J.J. Jaeggi, C.J. Martinelli, M.E. Johnson and J.A. Lucey, 2007.
Effect of type of concentrated sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield and functionality of pizza cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 2675-2688.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Guinee, T.P., E.O. Mulholland, C. Mullins and M.O. Corcoran, 2000.
Effect of salting method on the composition, yield and functionality of low mozzarella cheese. Milchwissenschaft, 55: 135-138.
Guinee, T.P., E.P. Feeney and P.F. Fox, 2001.
Effect of ripening temperature on low moisture mozzarella cheese: 2. Texture and functionality. Lait, 81: 475-485.CrossRef |
Hannon, G.H. and J.D.M. Nucci, 1959.
Device for pressing and moulding plastic food products. United States Patent No. US 2 884 694, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2884694.html.
Hicsasmaz, Z., L. Shippelt and S.S. Rizvi, 2004.
Evaluation of mozzarella cheese stretchability by the ring-and-ball method. J. Dairy Sci., 87: 1993-1998.PubMed |
Hutkins, R., S.M. Halambeck and H.A. Morris, 1986.
Use of galactose-fermenting Streptococcus thermophilus
in the manufacture of swiss, mozzarella and short-method cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 60: 1-8.CrossRef |
Interim cheese market report. Bulletin International Dairy Federation (IDF) Document No. 175: 10, 17, 22, 23. http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/clc/218046
Imm, J.Y., E.J. Oh, K.S. Han, S. Oh, Y.W. Park and S.H. Kim, 2003.
Functionality and physico-chemical characteristics of bovine and caprine mozzarella cheeses during refrigerated storage. J. Dairy Sci., 86: 2790-2798.Direct Link |
Jana, A.H., 1992.
Mozzarella cheese from concentrated milk-A review. Egypt. J. Dairy Sci., 20: 201-218.
Jana, A.H., 1992.
Mozzarella in process cheese manufacture. Beverage Food World, 19: 17-19.
Jana, A.H., 1992.
Browning of mozzarella cheese: A review. Indian Dairyman, 44: 129-132.
Jana, A.H., 2001.
Mozzarella cheese and pizza: The compatible partners. Bev. Food World, 28: 14-19.
Jana, A.H. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1992.
Homogenization of milk for cheese making-A review. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 47: 72-79.
Jana, A.H. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1992.
Effects of homogenization conditions on the quality and yield of buffalo milk mozzarella cheese. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 62: 681-685.
Jana, A.H. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1992.
Process standardization for manufacture of mozzarella cheese from homogenized buffalo milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 45: 256-260.
Jensen, L.A., M.E. Johnson and N.F. Olson, 1987.
Use of glucono-delta-lactone as an acidulant for low moisture part skim mozzarella cheese produced from ultrafiltered milk. J. Dairy Sci., 70: 66-66.
Jensen, L.A., M.E. Johnson and N.F. Olson, 1987.
Composition and properties of cheeses from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis: A review of literature. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 22: 6-10, 12-14.
Johnson, M.E. and N.F. Olson, 1985.
Nonenzymatic browning of mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 68: 3143-3147.CrossRef |
Kalab, M., 1977.
Milk gel structure. VI. Cheese texture and microstructure. Milchwissenschaft, 32: 449-458.
Kasik, R.L. and M.A. Peterson, 1975.
Cheese extender. US patent No. 3 917 854. Dairy Sci., 38: 6992-6992.
Keller, B., 1978.
Continuous culture of L. bulgaricus
and S. thermophilus and their use for flavor development in cheese made by direct acidification. Dissertat. Intl., 38: 5829-5829.
Keller, B., N.F. Olson and T. Richardson, 1971.
Calcium retention and rheological properties of Mozzarella cheese made by the direct acidification procedure. J. Dairy Sci., 54: 765-765.
Keller, B., N.F. Olson and T. Richardson, 1974.
Mineral retention and rheological properties of Mozzarella cheese made by direct acidification. J. Dairy Sci., 57: 174-180.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kerrigan, G.L. and J.P. Norback, 1986.
Linear programming in the allocation of milk resources for cheesemaking. J. Dairy Sci., 69: 1432-1440.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kielsmeier, L.O. and J.G. Leprino, 1970.
Manufacture of Pasta cheese. US patent No. 3 531 297. Dairy Sci., 33: 3900-3900.
Kielsmeier, L.O. and J.G. Leprino, 1970.
Process and apparatus for manufacture of Pasta filata cheese: South African patent No. 70/1958. Dairy Sci., 33: 4489-4489.
Kielsmeier, L.O. and J.G. Leprino, 1973.
Apparatus for mixing cheese curd. US patent No. 3 713 220. Dairy Sci., 36: 2484-2484.
Kiely, L.J., P.S. Kindstedt, G.M. Hendricks, J.E. Levis, J.J. Yun and D.M. Barbano, 1992.
Effect of draw pH on the development of curd structure during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. Food Struct., 11: 217-224.
Kikuchi, E., T. Izutsu, H. Kobayashi, I. Kusakabe and K. Murakami, 1988.
Effect of residual enzyme activity on the texture of fibre structured cheese. Jap. J. Zootech. Sci., 59: 388-394.
Kim, S.H. and H.J. Lee, 1985.
Characteristics of bitter peptides from a cheese and a soyabean paste. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 17: 276-282.
Kim, Y.H. and J.H. Yu, 1988.
A study on the manufacture of pizza cheese by direct acidification continuous agitation. Korean J. Dairy Sci., 10: 21-33.
Kim, J., K.A. Schmidt, R.K. Phebus and I.J. Jeon, 1998.
Time and temperature of stretching as critical control points for Listeria monocytogenes
during the production of Mozzarella cheese. J. Food Prot., 61: 116-118.Direct Link |
Kindstedt, P.S., 1991.
Functional properties of mozzarella cheese on pizza: A review. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 29: 27-31.
Kindstedt, P.S., 1993.
Effect of manufacturing factors, composition and proteolysis on the functional characteristics of mozzarella cheese. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 33: 167-187.PubMed | Direct Link |
Kindstedt, P.S., 2001.
Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. JAOAC. Intl., 84: 605-612.PubMed | Direct Link |
Kindstedt, P.S. and M.R. Guo, 1997.
Recent developments in the science and technology of pizza cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 52: 41-43.
Kindstedt, P.S. and M.R. Guo, 1997.
Chemically acidified pizza cheese production and functionality. Proceedings of 5th Cheese Symposium, March 11-13, 1997, Cogan TM, Teagasc, Dublin, pp: 24-30
Kindstedt, P.S. and M.R. Guo, 1998.
A physic-chemical approach to the structure and function of Mozzarella cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 53: 70-73.
Kindstedt, P.S., L.J, Kiely, D.M. Barbano and J.J. Yun, 1993.
Proteolytic, microstructural, textural, and functional changes during aging of low moisture Mozzarella (pizza) cheese. Int. Dairy J., 3: 546-547.Direct Link |
Kindstedt, P.S., J.J. Yun, D.M. Barbano and K.L. Larsoe, 1995.
Mozzarella cheese: Impact of coagulant concentration on chemical composition proteolysis and functional properties. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 2591-2597.Direct Link |
Kosikowski, F.V., 1957.
Processed Mozzarella cheese. Milk Products J., 48: 10-11.
Kosikowski, F.V., 1958.
Problems in the Italian soft cheese industy. J. Dairy Sci., 41: 455-458.
Kosikowski, F.V., 1960.
Italian soft cheese in New York market. J. Dairy Sci., 43: 714-716.
Kosikowski, F.V., 1975.
The whitening of Mozzarella: One way to profitable Mozzarella manufacturing. Dairy Ice-Cream Field, 158: 54-57.Direct Link |
Kosikowsk, F.V., 1975.
The manufacture of Mozzarella and related cheese by ultrafiltration. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 10: 15-16.
Kosikowski, F.V., 1982.
Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods. 3rd Edn., Edwards Brothers Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp: 153-167,178
Kosikowski, F.V., 1986.
New cheese making procedures utilizing ultrafiltration. Food Technol., 40: 71-77.
Kosikowski, F.V. and G.J. Silverman, 1954.
The heat processing of Italian curd into Mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 37: 639-639.
Kumar, S. and B.N. Mathur, 1986.
Evaluation of suitability of lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate treated milk for the manufacture of fat rich and fermented milk products. Indian Dairyman 258: 384-384.
Langford, F.L., 1996.
Mozzarella Mold: US patent 3 242 571. Cheesemaking Technology, Noyes Data Corpn., New Jersey, USA pp: 94
Larson, W.A., 1966.
Making Mozzarella cheese. Mfg. Milk Prod. J., 57: 23-23.
Larson, W.A., N.F. Olson, C.A. Ernstrom and W.M. Breene, 1966.
Comparison of continuous agitation and conventional cutting for Pizza cheese made by direct acidification procedures. J. Dairy Sci., 49: 711-711.
Larson, W.A., N.F. Olson, C.A. Ernstrom and W.M. Breene, 1967.
Curd forming techniques for making Pizza cheese by direct acidification procedure. J. Dairy Sci., 50: 1711-1712.
Larson, W.A., N.F. Olson and D.B. Lund, 1970.
Continuous direct acidification system for producing Mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 53: 646-646.
Lawrence, R.C., J. Gilles and L.K. Creamer, 1983.
The relationship between cheese texture and flavor: A Review. NZ J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 18: 175-190.
Leake, A.S. and K.M. Nilson, 1969.
Factors affecting salting and cooling of Mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 52: 278-278.
Lee, C.H., E.M. Imoto and C.K. Rha, 1978.
Evaluation of cheese texture. J. Food Sci., 43: 1600-1605.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Lelievre, J., R.R. Shaker and M.W. Taylor, 1990.
The role of homogenization in the manufacture of Halloumi and Mozzarella cheese from recombined milk. Int. J. Dairy Technol., 43: 21-24.
Lindsay, R.C., 1983.
Analysis of free fatty acids in Italian cheese. Dairy Field, 166: 20-21.
Mann, E.J., 1982.
Ultrafiltration of milk for cheesemaking. Dairy Ind. Intl., 47: 11-12.
Masi, P. and F. Addeo, 1984.
Rheological characteristics of some typical Pasta-filata cheeses. Latters, 9: 658-671.
Matheson, A.R., 1981.
The immunochemical determination of chymosin activity in cheese. NZ J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 16: 33-41.
Matteo, M.D., G. Chiovitti and F. Addeo, 1982.
Variation in the composition of Mozzarella cheese during storage. Scienza e Tecnica Lattiero-Casearia, 33: 197-213.
Matzdorf, B., S.L. Cuppett, L. Keeler and R.W. Hutkins, 1994.
Browning of mozzarella cheese during high temperature pizza baking. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 2850-2853.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Maubois, J.L. and F.V. Kosikowski, 1978.
Preparation of Mozzarella cheese by membrane ultrafiltration. Proceedings of the 20th International Dairy Congress, (DC, 1978), Paris, pp: 792-793
Mauk, R.R., 1964.
Manufacture of cheese. US patent No. 3 117 008. Dairy Sci., 26: 2479-2479.
Maxcy, R.B., W.V. Price and D.M. Irvine, 1955.
Improving curd forming properties of homogenized milk. J. Dairy Sci., 38: 80-86.
McMahon, D.J., C.J. Oberg and W. McManus, 1993.
Functionality of Mozzarella cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 48: 99-104.Direct Link |
Mead, D. and P. Roupas, 2001.
Effect of incorporation of denatured whey proteins on chemical composition and functionality of pizza cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 56: 19-23.Direct Link |
Merrill, R.K., C.J. Oberg and D.J. McMahon, 1994.
A method for manufacturing reduced fat Mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 1783-1789.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Meyer, M., 1983.
Apparatus for manufacturing cheese product. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 46: 26-94.Direct Link |
Micketts, R.J. and N.F. Olson, 1971.
Effects of variations in amounts of milk clotting enzymes on cheese made by direct acidification. J. Dairy Sci., 54: 765-765.
Micketts, R. and N.F. Olson, 1974.
Manufacture of mozzarella cheese by direct acidification with reduced amounts of rennet and pepsin. J. Dairy Sci., 57: 273-279.Direct Link |
Mikacic, K., 1986.
Effect of brine composition on quality of Mozzarella-type cheese. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 73: 213-220.Direct Link |
Mongiello, A.A., 1959.
Cheese ball weighing and shaping machine. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 22: 1882-1882.Direct Link |
Mongiello, A.A., 1985.
Cheese cooking system-Patent 4541329. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 48: 6337-6337.Direct Link |
Mongiello, A.A., 1986.
Improved cheese manufacturing method and apparatus. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 49: 229-229.
Mongiello, A.A., 1957.
Machine for forming cheese balls of uniform weight and shape. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 20: 1318-1318.Direct Link |
Morris, C.E., 1984.
Is this the cheese plant of the future. Food Eng., 56: 99-100.
Muliawan, E.B. and S.G. Hatzikiriakos, 2007.
Rheology of mozzarella cheese. Int. Dairy J., 17: 1063-1072.CrossRef |
Muzzarelli, G., 1977.
A fully mechanized, patented line for continuous production, hardening, salting and packaging of traditional Mozzarella cheese. Mondo Del Latte, 31: 357-358.
Muzzarelli, G., 1977.
Patented, mechanized line for the continuous production and packaging of Mozzarella cheese. Latte, 2: 527-529.
Muzzarelli, G., 1985.
An apparatus for cheese compacting. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 48: 6330-6330.Direct Link |
Muzzarelli, G., 1985.
Continuous kneading machine for the production of plastic-curd cheeses. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 47: 7593-7593.Direct Link |
Nelles, J., 1979.
Continuous Production of Natural Mozzarella Cheese-No Vats. Miles Laboratories Inc., Marschall Dairy Ingredients Division, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Nieradka, T., K.M. Nilson, A.H. Duthie and H.V. Atherton, 1979.
The quality and availability of Italian cheese from the New England market. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 14: 11-15.
Nilson, K.M., 1977.
Mozzarella cheese processing equipment: A review. Ital. Cheese J., 6: 1-6.
Nilson, K.M. and F.A. La Clair, 1975.
Cheese-direct salting and automation. Dairy and Ice cream Field, 158: 56-60.Direct Link |
Nilson, K.M. and F.A. La Clair, 1976.
A national survey of the quality of Mozzarella cheeses-manufactured milk products. Am. Dairy Rev., 38: 18-18.
Nilson, K.M. and F. Samuel, 1975.
Machine stretches and mixes 5000 pounds of Mozzarella an hour. Am. Dairy Rev., 37: 34-36.
Nilson, K.M., J.A. Partridge and F.W. Webster, 1979.
Segregation of milk protein content for the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. Proceedings of the 1st Biennial Marschall International Cheese Conference, September 10-14, 1979, Madison, Wisconsin, USA., pp: 35-42
Nilson, K.M., W.O. Radke and J.A. Partridge, 1979.
Pre-culturing of milk for manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. Proceedings of the 1st Biennial Marschall International Cheese Conference, September 10-14, 1979, Madison, Wisconsin, USA., pp: 63-75
Ohashi, T., 1981.
Technology of cheese manufacture in the US: With special reference to a utilization of lactic starter cultures. Jpn. J. Dairy Food Sci., 30: 237-239.
Olson, N.F., 1979..
Direct injection of salt in Mozzarella cheese. Proceedings of the 1st Biennial Marschall International Cheese Conference, September 10-14, 1979, Madison, Wisconsin, USA., pp: 3-9
Olson, N.F., 1980.
Retaining whey proteins in cheese. Dairy Field, 163: 74-74.
Ottogalli, G., G. Rondinini and D. Conti, 1979.
Incidence of coliforms and faecal streptococci in various fresh cheeses and application of sediment test. Ann. Microbiol. Cell Enzimol., 29: 41-48.
Nawaz ,M.A., T. Masud and S..Sammi, 2011.
Quality evaluation of Mozzarella cheese made from buffalo milk by using paneer booti (Withania coagulans
) and calf rennet. Intl. J. Dairy Technol., 64: 218-226.CrossRef |
Pal, D. and M. Cheryan, 1987.
Membrane technology in dairy processing-Part II. Ultrafiltration. Indian Dairyman, 39: 383-391.
Partridge, J.A., K.M. Nilson, H.V. Atherton and A.H. Duthie, 1982.
Quality and yield of Mozzarella cheese manufacture from pasteurized milk in prolonged storage. Cult. Dairy Prod. J., 17: 6-10.
Patel, H.G. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1999.
An alternate technology for manufacture of buffalo milk pizza cheese. J. Food Sci. Technol., 36: 235-238.
Patel, G.C., S.H. Vyas and K.G. Upadhyay, 1986.
Evaluation of mozzarella cheese made from buffalo milk using direct acidification technique. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 39: 394-403.
Perry, D.B., D.J. Mc Mahon and C.J. Oberg, 1998.
Manufacture of low fat Mozzarella cheese using exopolysaccharide producing starter cultures. J. Dairy Sci., 81: 563-566.CrossRef |
Pontecorvo, N.E. and W.A. Shaffer, 1968.
Method for processing plasticized cheese. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 31: 247-264.
Punidadas, P., J. Feirtag and M.A. Tung, 1999.
Incorporating whey proteins into mozzarella cheese. Intl. J. Dairy Technol., 52: 51-55.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Quarne, E.L., W.A. Larson and N.F. Olson, 1967.
Recovery of milk fat and SNF in Mozzarella cheese made by direct acidification. J. Dairy Sci., 50: 951-957.
Quarne, E.L., W.A. Larson and N.F. Olson, 1968.
Recovery of milk solids in direct acidification and traditional procedures of manufacturing pizza cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 51: 527-530.CrossRef |
Quarne, E.L., W.A. Larson and N.F.Olson, 1968.
Effect of acidulants and milk-clotting enzymes on yield, sensory quality and proteolysis of pizza cheese made by direct acidification. J. Dairy Sci., 51: 848-852.CrossRef |
Radke, W.O., K.M. Nilson, H.V. Atherton and A.H.Duthie, 1979.
The manufacture of Mozzarella cheese from pre-cultured milk. J. Dairy Sci., 62 : 1149-1160.
Rehman, S.U., N.Y. Farkye and B. Yim, 2003.
Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification. J. Dairy Sci., 86: 3841-3848.
Reinbold, G.W., 1963.
Italian Cheese Varieties. Chas Pfizer and Co. Inc., New York
Reinbold, G.W. and M.S. Reddy, 1978.
Preparation of pizza cheese. United States Patent No. 4085228.
Renda, A., D.M. Barbano, J. Yun, P.S. Kindstedt and S.J. Mulvaney, 1997.
Influence of screw speeds of the mixer at low temperature on characteristics of Mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 1901-1907.CrossRef |
Richardson, G.H., J.H. Nelson, R.E. Lubnow and R.L. Schwarberg, 1967.
Rennin-like enzyme from Mucor pusillus
for cheese manufacture. J. Dairy Sci., 50: 1066-1072.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Rossi, J., 1972.
Refrigerated storage of Mozzarella cheese made from buffaloes milk. Scienza Tec Latt-Casear, 23: 24-38.
Rudan, M.A. and D.M. Barbano, 1998.
A dynamic model for melting and browning of Mozzarella cheese during pizza baking. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 53: 95-97.
Rule, C.E. and C.E. Werstak, 1978.
Preparation of imitation Mozzarella cheese: US patent No. 4 075 360. Dairy Sci., 41: 2843-2843.
Saal, H., 1975.
Machine stretches and mixes 5000 pounds of Mozzarella an hour. Am. Dairy Rev., 37: 34-34.
Saal, H., 1976.
Swedish machine helps solve problems for Italian cheese maker. Am. Dairy Rev., 38: 17-18.
Sameen, A., F.M. Anjum, N. Huma and H. Nawaz, 2008.
Quality evaluation of mozzarella cheese from different milk sources. Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 753-756.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Sandoval, L.A., M.S. Paulo, C.T. Zupelari and T.Z. Shafftann, 1969.
Use of a microbial rennet in cheese making. Bolm. Leite, 42: 11-15.
Sandoval, L.A., T.Z. Schafftann and K. Kano, 1972.
Cheesemaking trials with microbial rennet. Bolm Leite, 44: 37-48.
Savage, A.A. and W.M.A. Mullan, 1996.
Quality perceptions and expectations of Mozzarella cheese producers and pizza manufacturers. Milchwissenschaft, 51: 677-679.
Savini, E., 1950.
Crescenza, Pannerone and Mozzarella cheese. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 14: 171c-171c.
Schafer, H.W., 1975.
Increasing the recovery of milk proteins in cheese made by direct acidification and encapsulation of enzymes for acceleration of cheese ripening. Dissertation Abstr. Intl., 36: 1127-1127.Direct Link |
Schafer, H.W. and N.F. Olson, 1975.
Characteristics of Mozzarella cheese made by direct acidification from ultra-high-temperature processed milk. J. Dairy Sci., 58: 494-501.CrossRef |
Schiftan, T.Z. and I. Komatsu, 1979.
Composition of Mussarela cheese consumed in the city of Sao Paulo. Revista do Instituto de Laticinios Candido Tostes, 34: 29-34.
Schwartz, C. and H. Schwartz, 1957.
A new view of international cheese production. Chr. Hansen's Laboratorium A/a, US Patent No. 2794745, Copenhagen, pp: 59.
Scott, R., 1986.
Cheesemaking Practice. 2nd Edn., Elsevier, London and New York, pp: 235-239
Sforzolini, G.S., G. Rossini and G. Mariotti, 1956.
Influence of the technique of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese on the bacteriological content of the finished product. Ann. Igiene Microbiol., 7: 133-138.
Shah, R.D., A.H. Jana and M.J. Solanky, 2008.
Use of plasticizing treatment in producing pasteurized Mozzarella cheese from raw milk. J. Food Sci. Technol., 45: 275-278.
Shehata, A.E., M.L. Iyer, N.F. Olson and T. Richardson, 1967.
Effect of type of acid used in direct acidification procedures on moisture, firmness and calcium levels of cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 50: 824-827.CrossRef |
Sigsgaard, P., 1994.
Defined cultures for pizza cheese. Scand. Dairy Inform., 8: 36-38.
Singh, S. and B.C. Ladkani, 1984.
Standardization of manufacturing technique of Mozzarella cheeses. Annual Report, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India, pp: 82.
Singh, S. and B.D. Tiwari, 1986.
Recent developments in drying of cheese. Indian Dairyman, 38: 13-19.Direct Link |
Sozzi, T., 1978.
Process for making powdered cheese. Dairy Sci. Abstr., 41: 2844-2844.
Sundar, R. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1990.
Effects of standardization of buffalo milk for casein/fat ratio of Mozzarella cheese composition and cheese making efficiency. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 43: 588-597.
Sundar, M.R. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1991.
Influence of casein/fat ratio of milk on baking, rheological and sensory characteristics of buffalo milk Mozzarella cheese. J. Food Sci. Technol., 28: 98-100.
Sundar, M.R. and K.G. Upadhyay, 1992.
Influence of whey acidity at draining on the manufacture of buffalo milk Mozzarella cheese-baking, rheological and sensory characteristics. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 45: 261-267.
Taranto, M.V. and C.S.T. Yang, 1981.
Morphological and textural characterization of soybean Mozzarella cheese analogues. Scanning Electron Microscopy, 3: 483-492.
Taranto, M.V., P.J. Wan, S.L. Chen and K.C. Rhee, 1979.
Morphological, ultrastructural and rheological characterization of Cheddar and Mozzarella cheese. Scanning Electron Microscopy, 3: 273-278.
Thalmann, E., 1982.
Plant for Mozzarella manufacture. Schweizerische Milchzeitung, 108: 59-60.
Thompson, M.P., 1978.
Mozzarella cheese made with non fat dry milk. Food Eng. Intl., 3: 25-25.
Tomatis, S., 1987.
Moulding and hardening machine for Pasta filata cheese. U.S. Patent No. 4,664,613. http://www.patents.com/us-4664613.html.
Tomatis, S., 1987.
Moulding and hardening machine for Pasta filata cheese. United States Patent No. 4,679,497. http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/4679497.html.
Toppino, P.M.,.R Nani, G. Contarini and G. Emaldi, 1988.
Cheese product similar to stretched curd cheeses. Ind. Latte, 24: 45-45.
Trauberman, L., 1975.
Cheese makers reap dividends with mechanized systems. Food Eng., 47: 59-63.Direct Link |
Tunick, M.H., 1994.
Effects of homogenitation and proteolysis on free oil in mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 2487-2493.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tunick, M.H., J.J. Basch, B.E. Maleeff, J.F.Flanagan and V.H. Holsinger, 1989.
Characterization of natural and imitation Mozzarella cheeses by differential scanning calorimetry. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 1976-1980.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tunick, M.H., K.L. Mackey, P.W. Smith and V.H. Holsinger, 1991.
Effects of composition and storage on the texture of Mozzarella cheese. Neth Milk Dairy J., 45: 117-125.
Valle, J.L.E.D., S. Takahashi, P.F. Keating and I.B. Figueiredo, 1979.
Modification of the traditional manufacturing procedure for Mozzarella cheese in order to improve and standardize the plasticizing process. Bull. Inst. Food Technol., 16: 65-70.
Valle, J.L.E.D., C.S.D.da. Silva, K. Yotsuvanagi and G. de Souza, 2004.
Influence of the fat level on the functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. Food Sci. Technol., 24: 669-673.
Venkateswarlu, J., K.K. Reddy, S. Kumar, C.R. Reddy and G.C. Kumar, 1999.
Influence of different milk fat levels on the Mozzarella cheese prepared by modified method. Microbiol. Aliments Nutr., 17: 215-219.
Vernon, H.R., 1972.
Non dairy cheese: A unique reality. Food Prod. Dev., 6: 22-26.Direct Link |
Villani, F., O. Pepe, G. Mauriello, G. Moschetti, L. Sannino and S. Coppola, 1998.
Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the traditional manufacture of water buffalo Mozzarella cheese. J. Food Prot., 61: 116-118.
Vincens, D., 1986.
Cheese manufacture using milk preconcentrated by ultrafiltration and the Alfa-Laval Alcurd system. Tech. Laitiere Marketing, 1007: 15-22.Direct Link |
Volejnicek, A.J., 1981.
International availability of equipment for Pasta filata cheese manufacturing. Marshall Products, pp: 166-170.
Weckx, M. and R. Delbeke, 1971.
The manufacture of Mozzarella and Pizza cheese. J. Agric., 24: 1327-1349.
Woo, A.H. and R.C. Lindsay, 1984.
Concentration of major free fatty acids and flavor development in Italian cheese varieties. J. Dairy Sci., 67: 960-968.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wood, R., 1987.
Italian cheese making: A fascinating process. Milk Ind., 89: 10-13.
Yang, C.S.T. and M.V. Taranto, 1982.
Textural properties of Mozzarella cheese analogues manufactured from soybeans. J. Food Sci., 47: 906-910.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Yang, C.S.T., M.V. Taranto and M. Cheryan, 1983.
Optimization of textural and morphological properties of a soy-gelatin Mozzarella cheese analogue. J. Food Process. Preserv., 7: 41-46.CrossRef |
Yazici, F. and C. Akbulut, 2007.
Impact of whey pH at drainage on the physicochemical, sensory and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese made from buffalo milk. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55: 9993-10000.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Yun, J.J., L.J. Kiely, P.S. Kindstedt and D.M. Barbano, 1993.
Mozzarella cheese: Impact of coagulant type on functional properties. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 3657-3663.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Yun, J.J., D.M. Barbano and P.S. Kindstedt, 1993.
Mozzarella cheese: Impact of coagulant type on chemical composition and proteolysis. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 3648-3654.
Yun, J.J., D.M. Barbano and P.S. Kindstedt, 1993.
Mozzarella cheese: Impact of milling pH on chemical composition and proteolysis. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 3629-3638.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Zahlaus, A., 1986.
Improvements in the processing of curd. European Patent No. 0181771 A1. http://ip.com/patapp/EP0181771A1.
Zahlaus, A., 1987.
Processing of curd. U.S. Patent No. 4682538. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/4682538.html.
Jian-Qiang, Z., S. Hui-Fang and Z. Li-Qin, 2011.
Effects of acidifying agent on the functional properties of pizza cheese. Packag. Food Mach., 29: 1-4.
Zisu, B. and N.P. Shah, 2007.
Texture characteristics and pizza bake properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese as influenced by pre-acidification with citric acid and use of encapsulated and ropy exopolysaccharide producing cultures. Int. Dairy J., 17: 985-997.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Pizaia, P.D., L.M. Spadoti, A. Narimatsu, J.R.F. Dornellas and S.M. Roig, 2003.
Mozzarella by ultrafiltration: Composition, proteolysis, melting capacity and blisters formation. Ciencia Tecnol. Alimentos, 23: 485-491.
Pontecorvo, N.E. and W.A. Shaffer, 1971.
Apparatus for processing plasticized cheese. United States Patent No. US 3570389. http://www.boliven.com/patent/US3570389.