Influence of Season on Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Red Sokoto Goats in Mubi Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria
The study was conducted to determine the milk yield and composition of goat milk in Mubi area (Mubi North and South local government areas) of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Purposeful, multistage and random sampling techniques were used to select 40 lactating Red Sokoto does in wet and dry season in 2008, within Mubi area for the study. Composition of milk were, 4.84, 17.86, 13.42, 0.17, 0.22, 0.14 and 0.13% for fat, total solid, solid non fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the dry season respectively. The mean milk yield was 2.08 kg week-1 in the dry season. The mean values, 5.01, 16.58, 11.79, 0.18, 0.29, 0.15 and 0.14% for fat, total solid, solid non fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus obtained in the wet season, respectively. The milk yield was 3.38 kg week-1 in the wet season, these were determined according to the standard procedures described by AOAC, Pearsons chemical analysis of food and assessment of methodologies for colorimetric cholesterol assay. The results showed that percent, milk yield was significantly (p<0.001) affected by season. Fat, total solid, solid non fat were significantly (p<0.001) affected by parity. There was seasonal variation (p<0.001) on calcium. TS and SNF was significant (p<0.05) as affected by season. Parity and season has no effect on cholesterol, magnesium and phosphorus. The result showed that, the composition of milk studied is comparable to the reported values of exotic breeds found in other countries. Although the milk yield was not comparable to the exotic breeds, its composition was similar. In conclusion, there is need to improve milk production potentials of the local breed through breeding, nutrition, improved management systems as well as creating awareness on nutritional value of goat milk.
Received: November 16, 2009;
Accepted: April 30, 2010;
Published: June 10, 2010
The Red Sokoto, is the most important goat breed in Nigeria, accounting for
about 70% of the estimated 34.5 million goats in Nigeria (Osuhor
et al., 1998). The Red Sokoto, is the most widespread and well-known
type in Nigeria (Haumesser, 1975). It is the usual village
goat in the northern two-thirds of the country.
The importance of goats as providers around the world of essential food in
meat and dairy products has been discussed and documented in many recent proceedings
of national and international conferences (Gruner and Chabert,
2000; Boyazoglu and Morand-Fehr, 2001; Haenlein
and Fahmy, 1999; Haenlein, 1992, 2001;
Fehr and Bovazoglu, 1999). This importance is also reflected
in the largest animal number increase for goats during the last 20 years (FAO,
2001) and the largest increase in goat milk production tonnage compared
to other mammalian farm animals. Milk production of goats is likely to be much
greater than in these official statistics, because of the large amounts of unreported
home consumption, especially in developing countries.
Information was published on the milk yield and composition of Nigerian goats
(Red Sokoto) and the result obtained was compared with standard figures for
European goats. Milk in yield was obtained at 7 kg per week (Alawa
and Oji, 2008), although higher than 1.6 kg per week obtained by Sankey
(1991), from does of the same breed (Red Sokoto goats).
It is likely that yields for pastoral goats are lower than the value for station livestock. The Red Sokoto goat was the source of Morocco leather known in Europe from the medieval period onwards. It acquired this name because it was transported across the Sahara by caravans controlled by Moroccan merchants. The Red Sokoto is still known for its suitability for fine leather.
Ruminant livestock in most parts of the tropics graze extensively on naturally
growing forages which are poor in quality. These tropical forages compared to
those in the temperate, support lower levels of ruminant animal production mainly
because they contain less nitrogen and are less digestible (Minson,
1980). The quality and quantity of these grasses become more critical in
the dry seasons and thereby imposing more serious constraint to the development
and productivity of these animals (Topps, 1992).
Milk composition and quality are important attributes that determine the nutritive
value. Malau-Aduli et al. (2001) reported goat
milk yield and composition are affected by breed, age, stage of lactation, season
and plane of nutrition. Mervat-Foda et al. (2009)
reported that supplementing goat ration will increase milk production and its
constituents. Barnet and Frederick (2000) showed that
goat milk contains more fat and ash than cow milk. However, as infant food it
is nearly as high in vitamin B6 and twice in vitamin B12
as human milk. They also reported that vitamin A in goat milk exists exclusively
in its true form and not as carotenoid pigments. Evaluation of goat milk composition
with respect to differences in, season and parity is practically non-existent
in literature in the study area. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate
the effects of these factors on goat milk composition in Mubi area of Adamawa
The objectives of the study are:
||To assess the potential influence of season on milk production
and milk composition of goats in Mubi area
||To describe and evaluate the present and potential milk production
capacity of the existing local breeds of goats in Mubi area
||To assess the fat, total solid, solid not fat, cholesterol,
calcium, phosphorus and magnesium values of the Red Sokoto goats milk
within Mubi area
||To make recommendations for on-farm improvements, policy changes
and draw suggestions for further research
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Location of the Study
Mubi area (Mubi north and Mubi south local government areas) lie within
Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria and located at latitude10°00 North,
longitude 13°30 East and about 305 m above sea level, with an area of 961.39
km2. The dry season in this area commences early October and last
up to April. The wet season begins from May and attains its peak between July
and August and declines in September; the mean annual rainfall is 1050 mm. The
relative humidity is extremely low 20-30% between January and March and start
increasing as from April and reaches a peak of about 80% in August and September,
the relative humidity starts to decline from October following the cessation
of rains. The maximum temperature can reach 40°C particularly in April while
minimum temperature is about 18°C between December and January. The varieties
of livestock include cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. The dwarf goats are the
most common breeds (Adebayo and Tukur, 1999).
Mubi area consisting of twenty-one political wards, eleven wards in Mubi North
and ten wards in Mubi South, with a population of about 151,072 in Mubi North
and 128,937 in Mubi South local government areas (National
Population Commission, 2006). Mubi is bounded to the South by Maiha local
government area to the West by Hong local government area and to the North by
Michika local government area and to the East by Cameroun republic. The people
are predominantly farmers. Most households keep various livestock species.
The goats are allowed to range freely in the dry season and confined as
soon as the crops are sown in the wet season. They are released as soon as the
crops are harvested; they are mostly released out to grazing fields in the morning.
In the evening, they are brought back and enclosed in huts made for the goats,
no concentrates was given.
Purposeful, multistage and random sampling techniques were used, to select
40 lactating Red Sokoto does, 20 in the dry season (January-April, 2008) and
20 in the wet season (June-September, 2008), was selected within Mubi area to
determine the milk yield and its composition.
Collection of Milk Samples and Analysis
Forty Goat milk samples were collected from the two local government areas,
in the dry and wet seasons, during the year 2008. During milk collection, the
udder and teats of each doe were washed with lukewarm water and cleaned with
cotton wool soaked in disinfectant and then they were hand-milked into previously
sterilized containers and measured. Milk yield was measured for 12 weeks from
each doe after kidding except for the first 3 days postpartum. The entire content
was then evaluated for the following; total solid, solid non fat, fat, cholesterol,
calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels, these were determined according to
the standard procedures described by AOAC (1990), Pearsons
chemical analysis of food, Harold and Kirk (1981) and
Bohac et al. (1984). The minerals (Phosphorus,
Calcium and Magnesium) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
(AAS), (Perkin-Elmer, 1976). Data generated were subjected
to analysis of variance using GenStat Release 7.2 (2007).
The results in Table 1 shows that effect of parity was not
significant on calcium, cholesterol, milk yield, magnesium, phosphorus and solid
non fat, but there was significant effect of parity on fat (p<0.001) and
total solid (p<0.005). Table 2 showed parity had significant
effect on fat (p<0.001), solid non fat (p<0.01) and total solid (p<0.001),
while there was no significant difference on phosphorus, magnesium, milk yield,
cholesterol and calcium. In comparison between wet and dry season, there was
significant effect of season on calcium (p<0.01), which shows that the result
obtained for calcium was lower in the dry season (Table 2),
milk yield was higher in the wet season with significant difference at (p<0.001)
as affected by season. Table 3 and 4 show
the statistical result of the effect of parity on the milk components in wet
season and dry season respectively.
|| Milk yield and composition (Red Sokoto goat milk) in the
wet season (n = 20)
|| Milk yield and composition (Red Sokoto goat milk) in the
dry season (n = 20)
|| Mean effect of parity on milk composition (Wet season) (n
|P: Parity, SED: Standard error of difference
|| Mean effect of parity on milk composition (Dry season) (n
|P: Parity, SED: Standard error of difference
Generally the result was better, with higher values obtained during the
wet season; this is in line with the findings of El-Hassan
et al. (2009) that productivity in goats is better during this period.
The values obtained in the study were 3.38 and 2.08 kg per week in wet and dry
season respectively. It was observed that the milk yield is higher in the wet
season, there was a significant difference (p<0.001), this may be due to
the availability of forages in the wet season, which was lower in the dry season,
the result of Table 3 and 4 show that the
effect of parity were not significant in both seasons. This values are comparable
to the previously reported values of 3.8 litres per week (Ehoche
and Buvanendran, 1983) 3.3 litres per week (Adu et
al., 1979) 3.3 litres per week (Akinsoyinu et al.,
1981) and lower than 3.7 kg per week (Alawa and Oji,
2008), but higher than 1.6 kg per week obtained by Sankey
(1991) from does of the same breed (Red Sokoto goats). The milk yield is
low compared to the values reported for European breeds of 1.9 kg per day (Morand-Fehr
and Sauvant, 2006) this might be due to breed differences.
The milk fat obtained in this study were 5.01 and 4.84% in wet and dry season
respectively, the difference was not significant. Fat showed significant difference
(p<0.001) with parity effect in both seasons, as shown in Table
3 and 4. The values obtained were similar to the values
5.04 and 4.94 (Zarhraddeen et al., 2007), 5.7 (Alawa
and Oji, 2008), 5.32 (Mba et al., 1975),
4.30 (Sankey, 1991) 4.60 (Akinsoyinu et al., 1981)
and 4.75 (Ehoche and Buvanendran, 1983) reported for
the Red sokoto goat these similarities might be due to similarities in breeds.
In comparison to the values for, WAD goat 4.74, Sahel goat 5.16 (Zahraddeen
et al., 2007), WAD 7.78, Saanen 5.48 (Mba et
al., 1975), Previous studies have shown that the WAD goat has high milk
fat than the Red Sokoto goat, but the values obtained in this study can be compared
to the value obtained for Sahel goat in previous studies. The study (Table
1, 2) have shown that, the mean value of fat was lower
in the dry season and higher in the wet season, this might be in relation with
nutritional status of the animals during wet season, where feeds are available
and richer in minerals and vitamins, the fat content tends to increases as parity
increases this might be due to increase in age.
Total Solid and Solid Non Fat (SNF)
The values of solids-non-fat and total solids in this study, were 11.79
and 16.58%, wet season, 13.42 and 17.86% dry season, respectively, the effect
of season is significant (p<0.05) and significant at (p<0.01) with effect
of parity in the dry season, these values are similar to the values obtained,
11.4 and 17.1%, respectively (Alawa and Oji, 2008),
but also higher than the previously reported lower values of 10.53 and 15.83%
by Mba et al. (1975), 13.63 and 0.73% by Sankey
(1991) The values were higher in the dry season, the effect of parity was
significant on total solid (p<0.001).
The Mineral Content
There were no significant differences in the values of the minerals obtained
in this study with parity. The values of calcium found in this study was 0.22
and 0.29% in dry and raining season, respectively, there was a significant difference
in calcium at (p<0.001) caused by seasonal effects might not be unrelated
to the nutritional level in the raining season. These values are comparable
to the value 0.20% obtained by Alawa and Oji (2008).
Magnesium values were 0.14 and 0.15% in dry and wet season respectively, which
are also comparable to 0.14% (Alawa and Oji, 2008).
The values obtained for phosphorus were 0.13 and 0.14% in the dry and wet season,
the influence of season and parity was not significant, 0.13%, (Alawa
and Oji, 2008) obtained for same breed in the dry season (Red Sokoto goat
) was in agreement with the value obtained in this study in the dry season.
Cholesterol values obtained in this study were 0.17 and 0.18% in the dry
and wet season respectively; research on Red Sokoto goat milk cholesterol level
seems unavailable, an average of 0.14% for European goats breed. But in comparison
with cow milk the cholesterol level in Red Sokoto goat milk obtained in this
study was slightly higher than the average value 0.15% for European breeds of
cattle (Chicama, 2009). An average cholesterol level
in human milk 0.20% is higher than the values for both goat and cow milk. Low-cholesterol
means the food contains 20 mg cholesterol or less per 100 g. The American Heart
Association recommended in 2009 that, average daily cholesterol intake of less
than 300mg, if you have heart disease, up to 400 mg for healthy persons.
There is need to improve milk production potentials of the local breed through breeding, nutrition, improved management systems as well as creating awareness on nutritional value of goat milk.
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