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Effect of Partial Green Grass over Dry Feeding on the Productive Performance of Early Lactating Crossbred Cows in Bangladesh



A. Nahar , M. Al-Amin , A. Wadud , M.M. Monir and M.A.S. Khan
 
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ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken with a view to determining the effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on the productive performance of early lactating crossbred cows. With that understanding, fifteen early lactating crossbred cows having nearly similar body weight, body condition score, milk yield and stage of lactation were selected and divided into three groups composed of five in each group (A, B and C group). Cows of A group received 2 kg concentrates without green grass daily. Group B and C received daily 1.85 kg conc. + 3 kg green grass and 1.75 kg conc. + 6 kg green grass respectively along with ad libitum straw for each cow of all groups. Daily feed intake were recorded. Live weight changes of cows were measured fortnightly and condition scores were measured before starting and at the end of the experiment. Milk composition (fat, SNF, protein and ash) as percentage were determined monthly. The average daily DM intake were 7.07±0.12, 7.16±0.03 and 7.78±0.04 kg for A, B and C group, respectively. This study showed that the DM intake, live weight gain, body condition score, milk yield and milk composition in respect of fat, SNF and protein were significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05) higher in C group followed by B group and lowest values obtained in A group. Considering the present research, it would be fair to conclude that the partial green grass over dry feeding showed the positive effect on the productive performance of early lactating crossbred cows.

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  How to cite this article:

A. Nahar , M. Al-Amin , A. Wadud , M.M. Monir and M.A.S. Khan , 2007. Effect of Partial Green Grass over Dry Feeding on the Productive Performance of Early Lactating Crossbred Cows in Bangladesh. International Journal of Dairy Science, 2: 73-78.

DOI: 10.3923/ijds.2007.73.78

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijds.2007.73.78

Introduction

Like all other rice growing country in Asia, straw contributes more than 80-90% of the total available feed for cows in Bangladesh (FAO, 1980). Under the prevailing condition, the formulation of conventional balanced ration is essential because of limited feed stuffs, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The strategy therefore, is to manipulate this limited quantity of feed supplement, cereals, cereal by-products and green grass in such a way that the basic requirement are minimized. Green grass play an important role in increasing the performance of early lactating crossbred cows. However, in view of its limited availability, cows are mainly reared on dry feeds (straw and concentrates). It is interesting to note that a reasonable number of landless and marginal farmers using crossbred cows as a profitable enterprise. But, poor farmers can't spare land for fodder production for dairy cattle feeding. They maintained their cows mainly on rice straw and concentrates. It has also been observed that minimum quantity of green grass are essential for normal function of the digestive tract of the dairy cattle. Under our condition, nutrients from green grass are cheaper than that from concentrates and that is why we should supply partial green grass over dry feeding for giving maximum out put which are financially profitable for the dairy farmers.

Materials and Methods

The proposed research programme was carried out at the Dairy Farm under the Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Fifteen early lactating crossbred dairy cows nearly similar in body weight, body condition, stage of lactation and milk yield were used in this experiment for a period of 120 days. Each of the more similar five cows with respect to the above considerations was allotted to one of the three groups at random.

Formulation of Diets
The experimental diets were formulated with rice straw, green grass, wheat bran, till oil cake and rice polish (Table 1). All the groups were given 2, 1.85 and 1.75 kg concentrate mixture containing 1, 0.85 and 0.75 kg wheat bran for A, B and C group, respectively, but 0.5 kg till oil cake and 0.5 kg rice polish supplied to all groups. 0.5% common salt was supplied as mineral supplement. Diet for A group was considered as control having without green grass, diet for B and C group having 3 and 6 kg green grass, respectively with limited concentrate mixture. Ad libitum straw was supplied as a basal diet to the cows of all groups. The ration was formulated according to Agricultural Research Council (ARC, 1980).

Feeding of Animals
In every morning and evening before feeding the cows, each of the ration was weighed carefully and quantity of feed supplied to individual cows was recorded daily. From the second day of feeding trial, before supplying feed to the cows, the leftover of the feed was collected, weighed and recorded. The refused feed of each individual cows during 24 h was deducted from the supplied feed to the cow on the dry matter basis. Clean water was supplied in every morning. Feed intake and live weight gain of each cow were recorded daily and fortnightly, respectively. Body condition scores were estimated before the start and after the end of the experiment. Milk samples were collected from each cow and were analyzed before the start and every after 30 days up to the end of the experiment.

Chemical Analysis
All the feed stuffs used in this experiment were analyzed at the beginning of the trial in the Animal Science Laboratory of the faculty of Animal Husbandry of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh for dry matter and crude protein content. Degradability values and metabolizable energy content of feed stuffs were estimated according to Scottish Agricultural Colleges, 1984. Milk protein and milk fat were analyzed by Kjeldahl method and Gerber method, respectively.

Statistical Analyses
Statistical analysis of the collected information were carried out by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique by a computer using a MSTAT Statistical Computer Package program in accordance with the principle of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). In case of significant difference, LSD (Least Significant Difference ) test was performed to monitor the significant difference among different treatment means.

Table 1: Chemical composition of feed ingredients (DM basis)

Results and Discussion

Dry Matter Intake
The average daily dry matter intake were 7.07±0.12, 7.61±0.03 and 7.78±0.04 kg in the cows of group A, B and C, respectively (Table 2). The average weekly dry matter intake of each cows of three groups were 49.49±0.85, 53.31±0.22 and 54.47±0.35 kg, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p<0.01) among the different treatment means. Dry matter intake was significantly higher in B and C group than that of A group. The higher dry matter intake in C group followed by B group were due to the supplying of green grass.

The results of this experiment agrees with the result of Sahoo et al. (2000) who stated that as the proportion of green fodder in the ration became increased then the dry matter intake also increased.

Live Weight Changes and Body Condition Scores
The average live weight of dairy cows on the first day of the experiment were 276.4±5.6, 282.2±4.8 and 278.4±19.15 kg for group A, B and C, respectively (Table 3). The average daily live weight gain of cows of B and C group were 16.83±3.3 and 26.67±6.97 g, respectively where that of A group was decreased -4.99±19.85g daily. Average total live weight changes of cows over experimental period were -0.6±2.38, 2.02±0.4 and 3.2±0.84 kg for A, B and C group, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p<0.01) among the live weight changes of different dietary groups. The results of this experiment also agrees with the result of Sanh et al. (2002) who stated that increased forge intake increases live weight gain.

Before feeding the experimental diets, average body condition scores of cows of A, B and C groups were 2.61±0.46, 2.54±0.43 and 2.54±0.49, respectively (Table 3). Body condition scores when recorded at the end of the experiment were apparently higher in C group (3.04±0.42), followed by B group (2.78±0.5) that was compared to cows of A group (2.53±0.45) but no significant difference was observed among different treatment groups.

Milk Yield
The average daily milk yield prior to feeding experimental diets were 3.38 L for A and B group and 3.37 L for C group. It is apparent that on the 30th day, the average daily milk yield were 3.48±0.04, 3.51±0.07 and 3.63±0.03 L for A, B and C group, respectively (Table 4). Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant (p<0.01) difference among different groups, similarly on the 60th, 90th and 120th day, average daily milk yield of cows of B and C group were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the control group.

Table 2: Dry matter intake (kg) during the experimental period
** = Significant at 1% level

Table 3: Effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on growth performance and body condition scores
NS = Non Significant ** = Significant at 1% level

Table 4: Effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on milk yield
NS = Non Significant, ** = Significant at 1% level, * = Significant at 5% level

During the experimental period the average daily milk yield (L) in each week for A, B and C group were 3.78±0.36, 3.95±0.56 and 4.47±0.89, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that cows that were in B and C group produced significantly (p<0.05) more milk than the cows that were in A group.

It was observed that cows that were in A group consumed significantly less amount of dry matter than that of B and C group. This have created significant difference among the milk yield of different groups. During the period of experiment, cows of control group also produced more milk than initial production. It may be the effect of taking concentrate mixture and stages of lactation.

The results of milk yield of cows of this work agrees with the work of Reddy (1998) who stated that it is beneficial to supplement a rice straw diet with green forages for milk production.

Milk Composition
The average daily fat yield (g kg-1) of milk prior to the start of the experiment were 34.4±0.24, 34.5±0.15 and 34.4±0.27 for A, B and C group, respectively (Table 5). The average daily fat yield (g kg-1) of milk at the end of the experiment were 39.0±0.24, 42.8±0.23 and 45.0± 0.24 for A, B and C group, respectively (Table 5). Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant (p<0.01) difference among different treatment groups. It is apparent that the average daily fat yield for the cows of C group on the 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the A and B group. It was mentioned in previous parameter that cows that were on A group consumed more concentrate feeds without green grass than those of the B and C group. It has created significant difference between the fat yield of control and other groups.

The result of the scientists working on the changes in milk fat suggest that it depends on many factors, most important of which is the composition of the diets (Lahmar et al., 2000). Brien and Guinee (1998) reported that milk fat increased with the increase in grass DM intake.

The average daily SNF yield (g kg-1) of milk prior to the commencement of the experiment were 82.1±0.19, 82.3±0.02 and 82.1±0.11 for A, B and C group, respectively (Table 6). The average daily SNF yield (g kg-1) of milk of the end of the experiment were 84.8±0.14, 85.8±0.17 and 86. 8±0.20 for A, B and C group, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant (p<0.01) difference among different treatment groups. It was observed that the average daily SNF yield for group C on the 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the A and B group (Table 6).

Brien and Guinee (1998) reported that the milk SNF increased with the increase in grass DM intake.

The average daily protein yield (g kg-1) at the onset of the experiment were 34.3±0.02, 34.4±0.05 and 34.3±0.01 for A, B and C group, respectively (Table 7). On the 30th day, there was no significant difference among the average daily protein yield of different groups but on the 60th, 90th and 120th day the average daily protein yield of B and C group were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of A group.

Table 5: Effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on milk fat
NS = Non Significant, ** = Significant at 1% level

Table 6: Effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on milk Solids Not Fat (SNF)
NS = Non Significant, ** = Significant at 1% level

Table 7: Effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on milk protein
NS = Non Significant, ** = Significant at 1% level, * = Significant at 5% level

Table 8: Effect of partial green grass over dry feeding on milk ash
NS = Non Significant, ** = Significant at 1% level

On the 120th day, the average daily protein yield (g kg-1) were 35.7±0.03, 36.1±0.02 and 36.8±0.04 for A, B and C group, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.01 and p<0.05) among different groups. Sairanen et al. (2002) reported that feeding green grass with concentrate supplementation increased the milk protein content of cows. The results of this experiment also agrees with the results of Poore et al. (1989) who stated that feeding forage with lucerne hay and chopped wheat straw increased the milk protein yield of cows.

The average daily ash yield (g kg-1) of milk before feeding the experimental diets were 69.0±0.27, 70.0±0.22 and 70.0±0.18 for A, B and C group, respectively (Table 8). The average daily ash content of milk on the 30th, 60th and 90th day throughout the experimental period were nearly similar. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference among different treatment groups. The ash content of milk on the 120th day were 73.6±0.04, 72.9±0.03 and 72.3±0.03 g kg-1 for A, B and C group, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant (p<0.01) difference among different treatment groups.

From the result of overall analysis, it could be advocated that the early lactating crossbred cows of C group performed best than those of the A and B group. For that, supply of partial green grass with straw based diets is beneficial to sustain productive performance of crossbred cows. This sort of innovation may carry benefit for utilization of dry feeds (straw and concentrates). Attempts should be made to deliver the knowledge about this work through the country. So, supply of partial green grass over dry feeding will not only support better utilization of it but also reduces extra load on concentrates and giving maximum output which are financially profitable for the dairy cow owner.

REFERENCES
1:  ARC, 1980. The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. CAB International, England, pp: 121-181.

2:  Brien, B. and T. Guinee, 1998. Milk composition and processing characteristics as affected by daily herbage allowance. Farm Food, 83: 6-7.

3:  FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations). 1980. Productions Yearbook. Vol. 135, Rome, Italy.

4:  Islam, A.B.M.M., 1998. Livestock development policy and production strategies for Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Workshop on Agricultural Policy, Krishibid (BAU Chapter), Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh February 29th, 1998.

5:  Lahmar, M., M. Fraj, M. Garbi and L. Tayachi, 2000. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio on milk production and milk composition in mid-lactating dairy cows. Annales-de-l, Institute National-de-la-Recherche Agronomique-de-Tunisie, 73: 45-59.

6:  Poore, M.H., J.A. Moore, R.S. Swingle, T.P. Eck, W.H. Brown and F.M. Whiting, 1989. Influence of alfalfa hay or wheat straw fiber in 30% NDF diets on milk production and rate of passage in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 491-491.

7:  Reddy, D.V., 1998. The effect of supplementation of green forages (Cenchrus ciliaris/Stylosanthes hamata/subabul) on utilization of rice straw-poultry droppings rice bran fish meal diet in cows. J. Dairy Sci., 14: 31-44.

8:  Sahoo, A., L.C. Chaudhary, N. Agarwal, D.N. Kamra and N.N. Pathak, 2000. Effect of feeding different ratios of green fodder and straw supplemented with wheat bran on the performance of crossbred cows. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 13: 19-22.

9:  Sairanen, A., H. Khalili, J.I. Nousiainen, P. Virkajarvi and G. Lemaire, 1998. The effect of concentrate level on intake, digestion and milk production of grass fed dairy cows. Multi Funct. Grasslands, La Rochelle, France, pp: 158-159.

10:  Sanh, M.V., H. Wiktorsson and L.V. Ly, 2002. Effects of natural grass forage to concentrate ratios and feeding principles on milk production and performance of crossbred lactating cows. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15: 650-657.

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