Research indicated that camels milk has many properties that make it very useful to consumers as camels milk is used in some parts of the world to cure certain diseases (Knoess, 1982; Yagil, 1982; Wernery, 2003). Wernery et al. (2003) reported that whey proteins in camels milk are more heat resistant than those of cows milk; as the degree of denaturation varied in camels milk from 32 to 35% at 80°C for 5 min and pasteurization at 72°C for 5 min revealed no losses in camels milk composition.
The milk composition of dromedary is excellent from a nutritional viewpoint, although it is often described as not easily fermented (Attia et al., 2001; Hassan et al., 2006). Under warm conditions, fermentation appears to be a mean to preserve the milk for only a limited period of time (Yagil, 1982). Fermented camels milk has various names in various parts of the world. In Sudan, Gariss is a special kind of fermented milk, prepared solely from camels milk under more or less continuous shaking (Dirar, 1993).
The present study is trial for processing camel milk in the laboratory into Gariss after laboratory pasteurization using a ready Gariss as starter. The chemical composition and shelf life of the processed Gariss were determined.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Source of Camel Milk and Gariss Preparation
Fresh camel milk was obtained from Elhag Yousif area (Eastern Nile, Khartoum
North) and was divided into two quantities of 1250 mL each. One quantity of
the milk was laboratory pasteurized at 63°C for 30 min accroding to Attia
et al. (2001). Ready Gariss, which is intended for use as inoculums,
was also obtained from the same area. Souring of the raw and pasteurized milk
was carried out by the addition of 50 mL of ready Gariss (inoculum to each sample).
After inoculation, each sample (pasteurized and non pasteurized) was subdivided
into two equal potions, filled into plastic cups and incubated at room temperature
(about 25°C) and the other was incubated at 37°C in an incubator. The
incubation period was 234 h.
Analysis of Samples
The chemical analysis was done at 18 and 42 h after preparation of the samples
Then the analysis was carried periodically every 48 h up to 234 h from inoculation.
Fat (%) was determined by Gerber method and the protein (%) by Kjeldahl
method, total solids (%), ash (%), acidity (%) and pH were done according to
Bradley et al. (1993).
The analysis of variance was conducted according to completely randomize
design. The significant differences between means were determined using Duncan
Multiple Range test by SPSS version 10.
Chemical Composition of Garris Culture and Fresh Camel Milk
The Gariss that was used as a starter culture consisted of 2.65% fat, 3.13%
protein, 0.51% ash and 7.37% total solids. Its acidity and pH were 2.49 and
3.8%, respectively. The fresh camel milk contained 4.3% fat, 2.25% protein,
0.97% ash and 9.64% total solids. The acidity and pH of the fresh camel milk
were 0.12 and 6.4%, respectively.
Chemical Compositions of Processed Gariss
Total Solids Content
Data in Table 1 shows mean total solids content of processed
fermented camel milk incubated at 25 and 37°C. The means of total solids
after 18 h incubation were 8.63±0.035, 8.32±0.026, 8.7±0.113
and 8.63±0.223% for pasteurized Gariss at 25°C, pasteurized Gariss
at 37°C unpasteurized Gariss at 25°C and unpasteurized Gariss at 37°C,
respectively. The mean total solids at the end of the storage period (234 h)
were 7.61±0.019, 7.46±0.039, 8.31±0.071 and 7.87±0.37%,
The incubation temperature (Table 1) revealed significant decrease (p<0.05) for Gariss samples made after pasteurization of camel milk and non significant differences between Gariss samples made from non pasteurized milk.
The results indicated that a gradual reduction of the mean fat content was
observed till it reached a minimum level after 234 h storage (Table
2). Fat % revealed 2.55±0.071, 2.55±0.071, 3.85±0.071
and 3.75±0.071%, respectively at 18 h. At 234 h they were 1.65±0.071,
1.35±0.071, 2.9±0.071 and 2.7%, respectively. Pasteurization and
storage temperature differences revealed significant differences (p<0.05)
between the processed samples.
|| Total solids content of fermented camel milk (Gariss) stored
at different conditions
|In this and the following tables, Past. = Pasteurized milk
incubated at 25 or 37°C, Non past. = Non pasteurized milk incubated
at 25 or 37°C, Means followed by the same subscript letter in column
or row are not significantly affected
|| Fat content of fermented camel milk (Gariss) stored at different
|| Protein content of fermented camel milk (Gariss) stored at
There was a reduction in the average protein content during incubation (Table
3). The pasteurized fermented camel milk revealed means of 2.32 and 2.32%
and the non pasteurized samples 2.60 and 2.59%, respectively, after 18 h of
incubation. After 234 h incubation the protein levels were 1.41, 1.38, 1.51
and 1.48%, respectively. The data illustrates significant variation (p<0.05)
between the processed samples due to the effect of pasteurization, storage periods
and incubation temperatures.
The means of ash content were 0.83±0.007, 0.81±0.004, 0.89±0.015
and 0.86±0.014% for Gariss samples after 18 h of incubation, respectively
(Table 4). The reduction was observed in the average ash level
till the end of the storage period, since they reached 0.71±0.014, 0.71±0.141,
0.76±0.007 and 0.76±0.003%, respectively. Significant variations
(p<0.05) between Gariss samples made from pasteurized milk and Gariss samples
made from non pasteurized milk incubated at 37°C as shown in Table
4 were found.
Data in Table 5 revealed variations in the rate of increase
of the mean lactic acid percent in the processed Gariss samples. The lactic
acid percent after one hour of incubation revealed means of 0.14±0.000,
0.15±0.000, 0.175±0.007 and 0.2±0.000%, respectively. They
were found to be 0.17, 0.19, 0.23 and 0.32%, respectively, after 5 h incubation.
|| Ash content of fermented camel milk (Gariss) stored at different
|| Lactic acid Percent of fermented camel milk (Gariss) stored
at different conditions
|| The pH values of fermented camel milk (Gariss) stored at
However the decrease reported for the mean lactic acid was recorded up to
234 h storage. After 234 h of storage, Gariss samples revealed mean values of
0.54±0.014, 1.2±0.000, 0.52±0.000 and 1.13±0.014%,
respectively. Moreover, it was noticed that generally Gariss samples processed
from pasteurized and non pasteurized camel milk incubated at 37°C had higher
mean lactic acid levels than those incubated at 25°C.
Table 5 also showed significant variations (p<0.05) in the mean total acidity between Gariss processed samples, which resulted from the variations in the pasteurization of the milk and storage temperatures.
The mean pH recorded after one hour of incubation was 6.2, 6, 6.05±0.071
and 5.9% for Gariss samples, respectively (Table 6). Gradual
reduction continued till 18 h incubation. After 90 h incubation, Gariss samples
revealed means of 4.6, 3.9, 4 and 3.6%, respectively. However, increase in the
means was found to occur at 186 and 234 h. After 234 h storage the samples revealed
mean of 4.45±0.071, 3.8, 4.5 and 3.5% for Gariss, respectively. Moreover,
the lowest pH values were recorded for Gariss samples made from non pasteurized
milk incubated at 37°C. The highest values were recorded for Gariss samples
made from pasteurized milk incubated at 25°C. Table 6
also shows significant variations (p<0.05) between the samples due to the
effect of the pasteurization and the storage temperature.
The results indicated significant differences in the chemical compositions of the fermented camel milk (Gariss) due to the differences in temperature and storage periods. This is because pasteurization is known to affect quality of the dairy products (Harding, 1999). Moreover, the storage temperature is the single most important parameter that affects the spoilage of highly perishable foods (Jay, 1986). The Gariss samples made from pasteurized camel milk revealed low values for total solids, fat, protein and ash at the beginning of the storage than those of Gariss samples made from unpasteurized camel milk. These variations might occur due to the pasteurization process, which was used before the inoculation by the Gariss culture. These results disagree with Farah (1996), who indicated that the pasteurization of camel milk at 63°C for 30 min did not affect the chemical composition of the camel milk. Moreover, significant variations due to the pasteurization process were observed on the chemical composition of Gariss processed samples. Generally the reduction of the total solids content during the storage period might occur due to the effect of the fermentative organisms (Harding, 1999). Also fermentation causes significant increase in the free amino acids content and liberation of significant amounts of peptides (Mirgahni, 1994).
The increase in the lactic acid level started gradually at the beginning of the storage period (Table 5). This increase was accompanied by a decrease in pH level (Table 6). The rate of change in the acidity and pH was observed to be slow at the beginning and this might be due to the presence of the antimicrobial agents in the camel milk (Elagamy et al., 1992). The pasteurization and incubation temperature revealed significant effects in the titratable acidity and pH. Also the high values of the titratable acidity and lower level of pH for processed Gariss samples incubated at 37°C showed that temperature is the most important factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in the milk and dairy products as stated by Olson (1950).
The processed Gariss samples were found to have high keeping quality, since the shelf life of the product was extended up to 234 h at both 25 and 37°C. When comparing the shelf life of the processed Gariss samples with other products from different milk types, the processed Gariss samples revealed longer shelf life than yoghurt which revealed a shelf life of 10 days when kept under refrigeration (Robinson, 1981). The variations in the shelf life between camel fermented milk and other fermented dairy products might occur due to the presence of antibacterial and antimicrobial agents in the camels milk (Elagamy et al., 1992). Moreover, pasteurization of the milk had an effect on the keeping quality of the product, since the heat treatment is used to kill the pathogens and to extend the storage life of the products (Harding, 1999).
The spoilage of the product was found to occur after 234 h incubation at the two storage temperatures (25 and 37°C). The spoilage of the unpasteurized fermented camels milk might occur due to the presence of lower initial numbers of contaminated yeast, which have ability to thrive in fermented milk at low pH (Olson, 1950; Jay, 1986; Hassan et al., 2006).
The present study concluded that processed Gariss samples revealed a longer shelf life (9 days) in the different storage conditions. The present study suggested that due to the special properties of camels milk it must be looked at as a promising industry of the future. Hence we recommend the coordination between the private and official bodies in order to encourage the investment in the camel milk and its products. Further research is also needed to address the fermentation process of camel milk with special references to the microbial content and its properties.