Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s Shores in Azerbaijan



Vagif Atamov
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

This study was performed on the phloristic and phytosociologic features and the classification and productivity of the vegetation of Caspian shores in Azerbaijan. Between Abseron peninsula and Astara (100-150 m shore zone) on the shore, 24 families, 83 geneses and 114 species were defined. Of these species, one belonged to Pteridophyta (Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.), one to Gimnospermae (Ephedra distachya L.) and the others belonged to Angiospermae. In the region, 4 vegetation types (desert, semi-desert, swamp and forest), 9 subtypes (sandy-desert, halophytic damp desert, halophytic arid desert, subtropical semi-desert, ephimeric subtropical semi-desert, swamp, meadow-swamp, shore plain forest and shore tugay forest), consisting of 48 formations and 57 associations were identified. The productivity of the above-ground surface and underground (40 cm) phytomasses were (dried grass per 25 cm2) 40-6400 and 50-4560 g, respectively.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Vagif Atamov , 2008. Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s Shores in Azerbaijan. International Journal of Botany, 4: 1-13.

DOI: 10.3923/ijb.2008.1.13

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijb.2008.1.13

INTRODUCTION

Important successions occur in the vegetations after the changes in the ecological conditions. The vegetation of the Caspian shores undergoes important succession due to the natural (increase or decrease in the level of water, wind, or sand movement) or anthropogenic (herding, sand deportation for construction, etc.) factors. Especially the changes in the underwater surfaces causes an increase or decrease in the level of the water. Due to this change, the shore vegetation may be overloaded with water when the level of water increases or in the case when the level decreases, the land surface may increase. These changes may cause important changes in the floristic or phytosociological changes in the flora. Such changes may be seen as the growing of new species or formations or the extinction of existing ones due to the succession. Therefore, it is important to investigate and document the types of vegetations their formations and associations in the Caspian shores. In addition, identification of endangered species and conserving them is posed as important scientific questions.

In general, psammophyte plants are more common on the Caspian shores. Especially, leafless shrubs and semi-shrubs are characteristics in the area. The following taxons can be given as such examples: Calligonum bakuense Litv., ve C. petunnikowii Litv., Ephedra distachya L., Eleagnus caspica (Sosn) Grossh., Nitraria schoberi L. and N. komorovii Iljin, Artemisia arenaria DC., Convolvulus persicus L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Astragalus bakuensiz Bge., Medicago coerulea Less. and M. littoralis Rohde., Elymus giganteus Vahl., Phragmites communis (L.) Trin.

In addition to the above taxa, the following groups can also be seen especially in the areas of hard ground with the high underground water surface and wavy ground level: Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad., Salsola pestifera A.Nels., S. paulsenii Litv., Tournefortia sibirica L.,Centaurea adpressa Ledeb., Gypsophylla bicolor Freyn., Limonium meyeri (Boiss.) Kuntze. Alhagi pseudoalhagi (M.Bieb.) Desv., Melilotus caspicus Grun., Calamogrostis gigantea Reshevitz, C. glauca (M.Bieb.) Trin., Erianthus purpurescens Anderss., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl., C. melanostachya M.Bieb., Juncus littoralis C.A.Mey. J. acutus L.

Evaluation of the phytomass (underground and surface) and fodder value of the plant mass is important both ecologically and economically. Therefore, we along with, the vegetation associations we also evaluated the fodder values of plants in the region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study covered the area from the north of Abseron peninsula (Buzove-Bilgeh) to Kizilagac Golf in the south (~450 km). Examples have been taken from 11 different identified points. The characteristics of the formations, the floristic and phytosociologic features were investigated. The identification of the plants were performed according to the Flora of Azerbaijan (Karyagin 1950-1961, 8 volumes) and the classification was performed according to the dominant feature (Rabotnov, 1983; Yaroshenko, 1961). The plant formations on the shore up to 100-150 m in width was investigated and a vegetation map of the area was drawn. Considering the effect of the changes in the level of water and according to our geobotanic data and the literature, we draw a vegetation map of the Azerbaijan’s Caspian shore (Haciyev, 1992; Grossheym, 1948; Sakhsuvarov, 1994; Prilipko and Agacanov, 1972; Prilipko, 1965, 1970; Haciyev et al., 1991). The map was drawn in MS-Word and the legend was made according to the Vegetation Classification of the Caspian Shores of Azerbaijan (Table 1). The abundance of the plants were classified according to a 5 scale system (Yaroshenko, 1961). The formations and associations in the study area and their underground and surface phytomasses (g/25 cm2) and the humidity features were defined (Titlyanova et al., 1988).

Findings: The plant formation of the Azerbaijan’s Caspian Shores belong to the sandy-desert type vegetation of the Mid Asian variant, common in hardened sandy areas. The sandy vegetation of the Caspian Shores of Azerbaijan belongs to the psamnophyte littoral according to its echological features and phytosociologically belongs to sandy desert types (Mailov, 1989). These plants can be seen either individually, in groups or mixed.

According to Mailov (1989), sandy areas in Azerbaijan is about 117650 ha. Of this, 24150 ha is mobile sandy bodies located on the Caspian Shores. These research indicate that the Caspian Shores within Azerbaijan is covered with a narrow band of sandy-desert vegetation (Grossheym, 1945, 1948; Beydeman, 1954; Aliyev, 1954, 1966; Glushko, 1989; Mailov, 1989; Haciyev, 1992; Sakhsuvarov, 1994). North part of the research area is Abseron peninsula, which covers a large part of the western shores. According to Aliyev (Aliyev, 1966) Abseron has 300 ha sandy areas and 30-35% of this is mobile.

In the Northern shores of the Abseron peninsula around (Sakhsuvarov, 1994), there are 298 plant species belonging to 17 formations, 59 associations and 56 families spread over the wet saline, moving, sandy ground with sandy-desert, swam, meadow and forest vegetation types.

The results of our vegetation and floristic studies are shown in the Table 1 and 2, respectively. The Caspian shores with the width of 100-150 m in the east and south east part of the Azerbaijan’s shores, there are 4 vegetations, 9 subtypes, 48 formations and 57 associations. In Table 2, 114 species belonging to 24 families and 83 genus that are found in the same region are listed.

The results of the vegetation studies show that the vegetation of the east and south east has 48 formations and 57 associations, white Samur Deveci plain of (Sakhsuvarov, 1994) has 17 formations and 59 associations. These results indicate that the South and North vegetations are similar; but the northern flora was found to be richer (59 families and 298 taxa).

This is because the study area was limited the shores and was not extended beyond. One of the taxa found in the wite study region belonged to Pteridophyta (Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.), one belonged to Gymnosperm (Ephedra distachya L.) and the other 112 taxa belonged to Angiospermae. The families with more species in the region are as following: Poaceae (26 species), Chenopodiacae (24), Asteraceae (13), Cyperaceae (12) and Fabaceae (5). The taxa belonging to these families were 54% (75) of all. The number of taxa belonging to the other families was between 1-3. Each of the following families were represented by 3 species: Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Juncaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Each of the following families were represented by 1 species: Plantaginaceae, Apiaceae, Boroginaceae 2 species, Brassicaceae, Thyphaceae, Tamarixaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solonaceae, Rubiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Ephedraceae, Eleagnaceae ve Ranungulaceae. In the study area 83 genus were defined. In the area, the species represented with more individuals are as following: Salsola (7 species), Artemisia (4), Zerna (2), Juncus (2), Carex (2), Medicago (2), Lepidium (1), Centaurea (1), Aegilops (1), Limonium (1), Galium (1), Suaeda (1), Chondrilla (1 species). The total species number in this region was 30, 3% (37 species). One of the most characteristic species on the shore was Turneforsia sibirica L. This species was sometimes covering much of the ground. Other than this, 10-12 seeded plants were present. Of these 3-4 species were permanent. These are Turneforsia sibirica L., Calamogrostis gigantea Roshev., Artemisia arenaria DC., Convolvulus persicus L., Juncus littoralis C.A. Mey. and J. acutus L. were forming monodominant associations. Other than these associations about 15-20 psammophyte species were found.

The floristic composition and the phytosociological structures of the associations depended on the salinity and the humidity levels of the sandy soil. In these formations, ephemers were characteristic and formed a special sinusia. Even though Centaurea arenaria Bieb. was not so much wide-spread, it formed associations with Astragalus hyrcanus Pall. and Artemisia arenaria DC.

Table 1: The classification of caspian shores vegetation of Azerbaijan
Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
The vegetation classification was performed according to the dominant principles (Leningrad ecol)

One of the characteristic formations in this whole Azerbaijan’s Caspian shore (850 km) is ephemerism. Some of the characteristic taxa in this region are Bromus japonicus Thumb., Plantago indica L., Zerna sterilis (L.) Panzer., Eremopyrum triticeum (Gaertn.) Nevski. Bromus variegatus Bieb., Hordeum leporinium Link., Avena eriantha Durieu, Trachynia distachyua (L.) Link, Lolium rigidum Gaud., Medicago minima Grufb., Alyssum desertorum Staph. More taxa (80-85) were detected in the lime regions. The species that liked the lime soil are: Artemisia fragrans Willd, Astragalus hyrcanus Pall., Gypsophylla paniculata L., Astragalus caspius Hohen., Centaurea iberica Trev., Salsola nodulosa (Mog.) Jijin., Stipa szovitsiana Trin., Gypsophylla bicolor Freyn., Eryngium campestre L. These species were located on the small hills found mostly around Elet, Buzovna and Sihow regions in the Abseron Peninsula.

Table 2: Common associations and floristic composition of Caspian Shores of Azerbaijan (Numbers indicate the abundance of the species; numbers in parenthesis indicate aggregated abundance of the species)
Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
(2) Artemisetum fragransae ass. nov. (3) Phragmetum commucommunisae ass. nov (4) Junco littorali-Phragmetum communisae ass. nov. (5) Hordeto leporini-Artemisetum szovitsii ass. nov. (6) Tamarixo ramassisimae-Artemisetum szovitsii ass. nov. (7) Ephedro distachiae-Phragmetum communisae ass. nov. (8) Astragalusetum hyrcanae ass. nov. (9) Artemiso arenariae-Ephedretum distachii ass. nov. (10) Thypho angustifolii-Glycyrrhizetum glabrae ass. nov. (11) Salsolo dendroidesaeo-Artemisetum szovitsianae ass. nov. (12) Carexetum ripariae ass. nov. (13) Suaedetum dendroidesae ass. nov. (14) Salsoletumo dendroidesae ass. nov. (15) Petrosimonietum brachiatae ass. nov. (16) Juncusetum acutusae ass. nov. (17) Carexo compacta-Petrosimonietum brachiatae ass. nov. (18) Tamarixetum ramasissimii ass. nov. (19) Artemiso arenarii-Astragaletum hyrcanae ass. nov. (20) Salsoletum ericoides ass. nov. (21) Calamastrostisetum giganteae ass. nov

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Between 1950-1960 and between 1995-1997 the water level of the Caspian Sea first raised about 2 m and then decrease 1,2 m (Titlyanova et al., 1988). This periodical increase and decrease has caused the some formations especially the psammophyte-littoral and halophyte-meadow-arid vegetations to stay under the water. The increase in the level of water has caused the low ground level to fill with water and caused a change of the psammophyte vegetation to the arid-meadow vegetation (Prilipko, 1965, 1970; Prilipkpo et al., 1961).

On the Caspian shore enclosed by Yalama, Hazmaz, Deveci and Lenkeran plains, there are widespread swamp- meadow and grass-swamps. The Kizilagac golf, a sanctuary region for the wild life preservation, was also within the limit of our study area. There are wide swamp-meadow and real swamps and they are a niche for birds and fish and form a good fishing place.

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 1: The map of caspian shores vegetation of Azerbaijan. 1 Schahdili; 2 Buzovna-Bilgeh; 3 Schikhov; 4 Elet; 5 Gobustan; 6 Sangacal; 7 8 9 Schirvan; 10 Saratovka;11 Neftcala

Juncus littoralis C.A.Mey and Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. species, widespread around Deveci, Abseron, Masalli and Lenkeran, generally form homogenous associations and often form polydominant association with Juncus littoralis C.A. Mey. ve Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Alhagi pseudoalhagi Desv., Artemisia szovitsiana (Boiss.) Grossh., Limonium meyeri (Boiss.) Ktze., Psylliostachys spicata (Willd) Nevski., Tripolium vulgare (L.) Nees. (Table 3, Fig.1-9).

The following species are more common on the coasts of the shore: Scirpus tabernaemontani Gmel., S. lacustris L., Carex bordzilowski V. Krecz, C. compacta Lam, C. divisa Huds., C. riparia Curt., Carex bordzilovski V. Krecz, C. compacta Lam., C. divisa Huds., C. riparia Curt., Thypha latifolia L., T. angustifolia L., T. laxmannii Lep., Sparganium polyedrum (Asch. and Glaebun.) Juz., S. neglectum Beeby, S. microcarpum (Neum.) Cel., Juncus acutus L., J. littoralis C.A.Mey., J. gerardi Loisel., J. maritimus Lam.

Table 3: Vegetation types and dominant species of Caspian Shores of Azerbaijan
Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 2: At Sahdili station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 3: At Buzovna-Bilgeh station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 4: At Schikhov station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 5: At Elet station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

There are monodominant associations formed by Juncus littoralis, J. acutus and J. marittimus species in the region between Deveci Harbour in the North and the Celilabad and Masalli in the South. The floristic content of these associations varies with the ratio of the salinity and humidity.

The diameter of the shrub structures formed by Juncus littoralis in the Sihov and Masalli regions is around 1 m and spread with 2-4 m space. The soil covering species in the region Cynodon dactylon, Limonium meyeri, Alhagi pseudoalhagi, Glychyrriza glabra are more abundant. As it gets farther inward the abundance of Juncus littoralis increases. The average height of this association is about 1 m and the covering level is about 90%. Phragmites communis in the Sihov region is widespread in the 20-30 m in length (Prilipko and Agacanov, 1972; Haciyev et al., 1991).


Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 6: At Sangacal station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 7: At Gobustan station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

In the Northern part of Abseron peninsula, until Astara in the South the following vegetation types are found: water-swamp (Hövsan, Zire, Sihav, Kizilagac Körfezi, Sahdili), sandy-desert (Hövsan, Türkan, Artyom, Sangaçal, Elet), halophytic-desert (Tasgil, Sirvan korugu, Sangaçal, Saratovka, Neftçala) and semi-desert (Hövsan, Türkan, Artyom, Elet, DRES, Dasgili) (Table 3, Fig. 1-9). Because the area has different ecological conditions, different vegetation types have developed. The vegetation map of the region was drawn according to its ecologic, floristic and phytosociologic features. In Table 1, the vegetation types and subtypes of the Caspian Shores are given. The characteristic dominant and edificatory species of these types are as following:

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 8: At Schirvan station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan
Fig. 9: At Neftcala station, according to distance from the seaside, the distribution of topography and plants

Sandy-desert: Found especially in the sandy coasts of the region. The following dominant and association-forming species are common in these areas. Artemisia szowitsiana, A. arenaria, Astragalus hyrcanus, A. caspicus, Collugonum petunnikovi, C. bakuensis, Carex bordzilovski, C. divisa, Ephedra distachya.

Halophytic wet-desert: Found especially in clayey soil with high salt and humidity. The following association-forming species are common in these areas. Salsola crassa, S. soda, S. glauca, S. ericoides, Limonium caspium, L. meyeri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Juncus maritimus, J. littoralis, Suaeda confusa, Petrosimonia brachiata, Salicornia europea, Kalidium caspicum, Halostachys caspius, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Alhagi pseudoalhagi.

Table 4: The productivity of common associations of Caspian Shores of Azerbaijan
Image for - Phytosociological Characteristics the Vegetation of the Caspian’s 
        Shores in Azerbaijan

Halophytic arid-desert: Found especially in the areas with high salt and low humidity. The following dominant species are characteristic of this sub-vegetation type. Salsola dendroides, Salsola crassa, S. soda, S. glauca, S. ericoides, Suaede dendroides, S. confusa, Artemisia szovitsiana and A. scoparia.

Semi-desert: Found especially in clayey and lime soil with very low level of salt and humidity. The associations formed by many dominant or co-dominant ephemerid and ephemerid-like species such as Astragalus hyrcanus, A. caspius, A. bakuensis, Artemisia fragrans, are common in these associations.

Wet-swamp: This type is commonly found in the water-edge or in the water or in the swamp areas. The following associations formed by the edificative species such as Phragmites communis, Calamagrostis giganthea, Tamarix ramasissima, Junsus littoralis, J. acutus, Thypha angustifolia, Carex bordzilovski, C. compacta, C. divisa, C. riparia, are common in these associations.

Forest: Found in the areas with 5-10 m (Yalama and Lenkeran plain) or more above the water level. They are formed by the following species either as mono-dominant forms or as mixed forests Flora of Azerbaijan, (Karyagin 1950-1961; Prilipko, 1965, 1970; Grossheym, 1948). Quercus iberica Stev., Q. longipes Stev., Carpinus caucasica Grossh., Acer laetum C. A. Mey., A. campestre L., Coryllus avellana L., Prunus spinosa L., P. divaricata Ledeb., Mespilus germanica L.

Tugay (edge) type forests are found at the site where the Kur river joins to Caspian Sea. The following species form pure or mixed Tugay (edge) type forests in these areas (Fig. 1). Populus hybrida M. Bieb., P. tremula L., P. nigra L., Ulmus densa Litv., Tamarixs ramasissima Ledeb., Salix purpurea L., S. alba L., Elaeagnus ancustifolia L.

On the Caspian Shores within Azerbaijan borders, there are 48 formations and 57 associations belonging to 4 vegetation types (desert, semi-desert, wet-swamp and forest) and 9 subtypes (Sandy-desert, halophytic wet-desert, halophytic arid-desert, ephemerous subtropical semi-desert, subtropical semi-desert, wet-swamp and swamp-meadow, edge (tugay) forest and coastal forest (Fig. 1-9, Table 1).

Phytomass: The wet and dry weight of the above and under-ground phytomasses of the 23 associations common to the study area was investigated and the changes in the absolute humidity level of each of the association were defined (Table 4). The phytomass values were taken in 0.25 cm2 surfaces.

The results of phytomass analysis of these associations are as following: the wet-mass in 1 m2 above the ground of Phragmites communis is 5 kg and its average height is 2, 5-3 m. On the arid parts of the shores, the height of this plant reaches to 1, 8 m and the number of the trunks is 24 and the wet mass above the ground is 3, 5-4 kg per 1 m2 (Haciyev et al., 1991; Prilipkpo et al., 1961).

Above-ground phytomass: As shown in the Table 4, the values of above ground phytomasses and absolute humidity change according to the floristic composition of the associations and the edafic ecologic conditions of the environment. The associations formed according to the absolute humidity level can be grouped as following: associations with absolute humidity level of :

50-99 g low level absolute humidity.
100-999 g mid level absolute humidity.
1000-3000 g high level absolute humidity.

The humidity level of the associations with high absolute humidity level changes between 1000-3000 g. The following are examples of such associations, whose absolute humidity level changes between 1408-2309 g: Salicorno europea-Kalidietum caspicae-2309 g, Astragaletum hyrcanusae-2000 g, Juncusetum littoraliae-1650 g, Salsoletum dendroidesae-1408 g (Table 4).

The following are the examples with mid-level absolute humidity (100-1000 g): Petrosimonio brachiatae, Salicornietum europea, Junco maritimus, Limonietum meyeriae, Juncetum littoraliae, Salicornietum europae, Salsoletum dendroidesae, Artemisietum fragransae, Thyphetum angustifoliae, Ephedretum distachiae, Kalidietum caspicae, Carexetum divisae, Phragmetum communisae, Ephedro distachyii and Calamagrostisetum giganteumae.

The following are the examples with low level absolute humidity (50-100 g): Junco maritimus, Glycyrrhizetum glabrae, Astragaletum hyrcanusae, Alhagetum pseudoalhagae, Alhago pseudoalhagii, Hordetum leporiniae, Atropiseto gigantei, Halocnemetum strobilaseumae.

Under-ground phytomass: The humidity of the under ground phytomass of the associations also showed variation. Like that of above ground, this variation was classified as following:

10-99 g low level absolute humidity.
100-999 g mid level absolute humidity.
1000-5500 g high level absolute humidity.

The absolute humidity level for some of the associations is as following Juncusetum littoralisae (5140 g), Junco maritimii-Phragmetum communisae (3920 g), Phragmetum communisae (3136 g), Thyphetum angustifoliae (1872 g), show a varying degree of high humidity level between 1872-5140 g. Some other associations show low humidity level between 22-880 g.

As can be seen from the Table 4, in some formations, such as Salicorno europae-Kalidietum caspicae (2309 g), Astragaletum hyrcanusae (2000 g), Juncusetum littoralisii (1650 g), Salsoletum dendroidesae (1408 g), the ratio of the above ground phytomass is much higher than that of under ground phytomass. However, in some other formations, such as Juncusetum littoralisae (5140 g), Junco littoralisii-Phragmetum communisae (3920 g), Phragmetum communisae (3136 g), Thyphetum angustifoliae (1872 g), this ration is reverse, meaning the above-ground phytomass is much less than that of under ground phytomass. Yet, in some other formations these ratios are very similar. For example, the above and under ground phytomass of the following associations are respectively as following: Junco littoralisii-Glycyrrhizetum glabrae için 94, 8-53, 2 g, Astragaletum hyrcanusae 42, 5-10 g, Carexetum divisae 210-187 g, Salsoletum dendroidesae 342-232 g, Alhagetum pseudoalhagae 61-36 g, Tamarixetum ramasissimusae 343-358 g.

Over-ground dry grass yield of the associations in the searched area changed between 40-6400 g per 25 cm2 while that of underground (40 cm in depth) changed between 50-4560 g. The underground and above ground yield of Junco littoralii-Phragmetum communisae, Astragalo hyrcanusae-Juncusetum littoralisae, Phragmetum communisae, Thyphetum ancustifoliae change between 1164-4560 and 470-640 g per 25 cm2, respectively. For the other associations, the above ground yield per 25 cm2 changes between 50-470 g while that of underground changes between 40-1164 g. The absolute humidity of the above ground phytomass ranges from 60-1650 g while that of under ground phytomass changes between 10-5140 g. The reason for the high level of the absolute humidity is because these associations develop in the vicinity of the water.

The absolute humidity level in Astragaletum hyrcanusae, Artemisetum szovitsianae, Alhagetum pseudoalhagae, Ephedretum distachyae, Junco marittimusae, Glychyrrizetum glabrae, Alhago pseudoalhagii-Hordetum leporiniae is 10-88 g, while in Juncusetum littoralisae, Phragmetum communisae, Thyphetum angustifoliae 1872-5140 g. In the other associations changes between 187-445 g. The absolute humidity level in Alhagetum pseudoalhagae, Alhago pseudoalhagii-Hordetum leporiniae, Junco marittimusii-Glycyrrhizetum glabrae is 52-95 g while in the other associations this value changes between 101-2309 g. The absolute humidity level of the under ground phytomass is relatively less than that of above ground. The reason for this fact is that the system of the plants adopted to a watery environment is less developed than those adopted to the arid environment.

Present results indicate that the absolute humidity level of the varying associations in the Caspian Shore vegetation differs. This depends on the morphological (one year, multi-year, rhisomous, shrub, grass, wood, etc.), phytosociological (abundant, covering level) and phytoecological (succulent, mezophyte, higrophyte, xerophyte, mezoxerophyte) features.

REFERENCES
1:  Aliyev, R.A., 1954. The salsoletum semideserts of Azerbaijan and the vollue of foodstuff. Baku, pp: 128, (In Russian).

2:  Aliyev, S.Y., 1966. The seasonal dynamic of vegetation of winter pastures in shirvan (Natural and Kultural) Avtoref. Ph.D. Thesis. Baku State University, Azerbaijan, (In Russian).

3:  Beydeman, I.N., 1954. The devoleping of soils and vegetation in plains of western caucasica. The Problems About Pastures Reserves in Steppe. Desert and Semi-Desert Zone in USSR. Moscow. Leningrad, pp: 123-186, (In Russian).

4:  Glushko, T.A., 1989. Influence of the caspian sea wart vevel on the formation of landscape on the North-Eastern Coast. J. Problems Desert Dev. Ashkhabad, 5: 25-32, (In Russian).

5:  Grossheym, A.A., 1945. Some botanical problems in Azerbaijan. J. Izvestiya AN Azerb. SSR., N6: 109-121, (In Russian).

6:  Grossheym, A.A., 1948. The plant cover in Caucasica. MOIP., Moscow, (In Russian).

7:  Haciyev, V.C., A.I. Mailov, V.V. Atamov and L.I. Ponomarenko, 1991. Stock Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud and Arundo donax L. in Azerbaijan. J. Rastiteln Resurs Leningrad, 3: 42-46, (In Russian).

8:  Haciyev, V.C., 1992. Map of plant cover of Azerbaijan (scale 1:600 000). Baku, Azerbaijan.

9:  Karyagin, I.I., 1950. Flora of Azerbaijan. Vol. 1. Baku, Azerbaijan, (In Russian).

10:  Mailov, A.I., 1989. Natural resources of azerbaijan deserts. J. Problems Desert Dev. Ashkhabad, 5: 63-65, (In Russian).

11:  Prilipkpo, L.I., R.A. Aliyev, M.P. Bogdanov and A.I. Mailov, 1961. The natural rezerves and utilizations of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.ex steud and Arundo donax L. in endustry of selluloze paper of azerbaijan. J. Izvestiya AN Azerb. SSR, Seriya Biol. Med. Nauk, No. 7, Baku, (In Russian).

12:  Prilipko, L.I., 1965. The map of vegetation of Azerbaijan SSR, M 1:1 000 000. Moskov, (In Russian).

13:  Prilipko, L.I., 1970. The Vegetation of Azerbaijan. 1st Edn., Elm, Baku, pp: 168, (In Russian).

14:  Prilipko, L.I. and S.D. Agacanov, 1972. The vegetation of caspian shores of azerbaijan and its changing according to dynamics of water level. Elm, baku, the book: The natural vegetation in Azerbaijan. The Productiviti and Improve Way, pp: 147-194, (In Russian).

15:  Rabotnov, T.A., 1983. Phytocenology. 296 s. Izd.-vo Mosk. Un.-ta Moskow (In Russian).

16:  Sakhsuvarov, R.T., 1994. The psammophyte vegetation of samur-divici (allyuvial-sea) plain caspian shores. Avtoref. Ph.D Thesis, Biol. Sci. Baku, pp: 33 (In Russian).

17:  Titlyanova, A.A., N.I. BazileviƧ, V.A. Sn tko, S.S. Dubinina, T.A. Kopoteva, L.N. Magomedova, N.P. Mironiceva-Tokareva, L.G. Nefedeva, N.V. Semenyuk, A.A. Thishov, Tran Ti, F.I. Khakimzyanova, N.G. Shatochina and E.I. Shmakova, 1988. The grassy ecocystems of biological productivity. Geografical Conformity and Ecological Properties. Nauka, Novosibirski, pp: 134 (In Russian).

18:  Yaroshenko, P.D., 1961. Geobotany 1961. - 449 s. Izd.-vo Akademii nauk USSR, Moscow.-Leningrad. (In Russian).

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved