Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars



S. Shokri, S.A. Siadat, Gh. Fathi, B. Maadi, A. Gilani and A.R. Abdali Mashhadi
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates on dry matter remobilization among three rice cultivars. A field study was carried out at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University. In 2007, a split plot experiment in the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Four nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 100, 135 and 170 kg ha-1 from urea source) as the main plots and three rice cultivars (Champa, Anburi and LD183) as the sub plots were used. Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer rates had significant effect on dry matter remobilization amount in total shoot, stem and leaves in which among cultivars, LD183 had the highest amounts in terms of stem and total shoot dry matter remobilization. This amount was obtained at 0 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer treatment. The highest rate of dry matter remobilization in leaves (except flag leaf) related to LD183 that obtained in 170 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer level. Also, flag leaf of LD183 had the highest dry matter remobilization amount, although was not affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate. Thus, it seems that this part has important role in current photosynthesis at post anthesis stage compared with dry matter remobilization. According to our findings, flag leaf in Champa not only has no significant role in dry matter remobilization, but also act as a powerful sink for photosynthetic assimilates.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

S. Shokri, S.A. Siadat, Gh. Fathi, B. Maadi, A. Gilani and A.R. Abdali Mashhadi, 2009. Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 4: 213-217.

DOI: 10.3923/ijar.2009.213.217

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijar.2009.213.217
 

INTRODUCTION

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important primary crop in the world. It is a staple food for more than two third of the world's population (Singh, 1993). Nitrogen is an important component of rice production technology with high yielding cultivars and it's immense role in increasing rice productivity is well documented (Kumar and Prasad, 2004). Rate and timing of nitrogen are critical in terms of their effects on yield. Nitrogen increases plant height, panicle number, leaf size, spiklet number and number of filled spikelets (Doberman and Fairhurst, 2000). Two physiological processes are involved in grain growth: utilization of photosynthesis through current photosynthesis and remobilization and translocation of substance accumulated before anthesis (Sarvestani and Pirdashti, 2001). In rice, available carbon assimilates for grain growth is determined by carbon assimilation during filling period plus assimilates reserve stored in the straw (Ntanos and Koutroubus, 2002). Sarvestani and Pirdashti (2001) reported that dry matter and nitrogen remobilization of shoot (stem + leaf + flag + flag leaf) had an important effect on grain dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Ntanos and Koutroubus (2002) reported that contribution of pre-anthesis accumulated reserves to grain weight ranged from 9.1 to 42.2% indicating the importance of pre-anthesis storage of assimilated for attaining high grain yield of rice and grain filling was positively and significantly correlated with dry matter and nitrogen translocation efficiency. Also, cultural practices have a strong influence on translocation of assimilate during the grain filling period. Results of studies showed that remobilization of reserves to grain is critical for grain yield, if the plants are subjected to different treatments for example water stress during grain filling (Kumar et al., 2006). Recently, it has been proposed that grain filling is closely linked to the whole plant senescence process (Yang et al., 2000; Mi et al., 2002). Unfavorably delayed senescence, which in practice can be induced by either heavy use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer or adoption of lodging-resistant cultivars that stay green for too long (i.e., plants remain green when grains are due to ripen), results in a low grain-filling rate, leading too many poorly filled grains (Plaut et al., 2004; Cock and Yoshida, 1972; Ehdaie and Waines, 1996). The objective of present study was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates on dry matter remobilization among different rice cultivars in South of Iran conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was conducted at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz, Iran (31° 36' N, 48° 53' E) in 2006-2007. the experiment arranged in split plot in the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications. Four nitrogen fertilizer levels (including 0, 100, 135 and 170 kg ha-1 from urea source) as the main plots and rice cultivars (including Anburi (traditional), LD183 (improved) and Champa) as sub plots were used. Phosphate and potassium fertilizers were applied at the rate 100 kg ha-1 before sowing. At the anthesis and the maturity, plants were collected and separated to different parts (including stem, flag leaf and other leaves) and then dried in 75°C for 72 h and weighed. Amount of dry matter remobilization accounted as followed:

Image for - Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars

All data were analyzed with SAS Institute Inc. 6.12. All data were first analyzed by ANOVA to determine significant (p≤0.05) treatment effects. Significant differences between individual means were determined using grouped in Duncan multiple comparison test.

RESULTS

Results of analysis variance (Table 1) showed that nitrogen fertilizer management had significant effects on dry matter remobilization amount in total shoot, stem, flag leaf and other leaves.


Table 1: Analysis of variance of effects nitrogen rates and variety on dry matter remobilization
Image for - Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars
**,*Significant at the 5 and 1% levels of probability, respectively. ns: Non-significant

Table 2: Results of mean comparison of studied traits in Nitrogen fertilizer rates and cultivar
Image for - Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars
Means within the same column followed by the same letter not significantly different according to DMRT (p<0.05), N1, N2, N3 and N4: Nitrogen fertilizer rates in levels 0, 100, 135 and 170 kg ha-1

Table 3: Interaction effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates in cultivar
Image for - Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars
Means within the same column followed by the same letter not significantly different according to DMRT (p<0.05), N1, N2, N3 and N4: Nitrogen fertilizer rates in levels 0, 100, 135 and 170 kg ha-1, C1, C2 and C3: Cultivar levels of Champa, Anburi and LD183

Among cultivars and nitrogen fertilizer levels, LD183 (improved cultivar) and 170 kg ha-1 fertilizer level had the highest amount in terms of total shoot (430.62 and 769.22 mg per plant) dry matter remobilization, respectively (Table 2). Anburi (traditional cultivar) had least amount of dry matter remobilization from total shoot (Table 2). In this experiment interaction effect o f nitrogen fertilizer with cultivar was significant at 1% probability level (Table 1). The highest amount of dry matter remobilization obtained in LD183 with 0 kg ha-1 fertilizer level treatment (Table 3). Nitrogen fertilizer rate and cultivars had significant effect on dry matter amount dry matter amount from remobilized stem (Table 1). Among cultivars, LD183 had the highest amount of dry matter remobilization from stem (Table 2). This amount was obtained in 0 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer (Table 3). Results also showed that stem part has an important role in remobilization than other parts (other leaves and flag leaf).

Flag leaf of LD183 had the highest dry matter remobilization among cultivars (Table 2). On the other hands, interaction effect of cultivar with nitrogen fertilizer was significant at 1% probability level (Table 1). Table 3 showed that LD183 with 170 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer treatment has the highest amount of remobilization from flag leaf. Also, other leaves (all leaves except flag leaf) remobilization was affected by nitrogen fertilizer rate and cultivars (Table 1). The highest amount of remobilization from other leaves (84.35 mg per plant) was obtained for LD183 and 170 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer rate treatment (Table 3). In this experiment, dry matter remobilization of stem, total shoot and other leaves had a significant and positive correlation with yield (r = 0.84**, r = 0.78** and r = 0.50**, respectively) (Table 4).


Table 4: Correlation between studied traits
Image for - Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Dry Matter Remobilization of Three Rice Cultivars
**,*Significant at the 5 and 1% levels of probability, respectively. ns: Non-significant

DISCUSSION

Results showed that dry matter remobilization in rice is affected by genotype and cultural practices. Palta and Fillery (1995) reported that with application of nitrogen fertilizer, role of dry matter at pre-anthesis will increase in the yield of rice cultivars. In this experiment stem had higher amount of dry matter remobilization than other parts. Poshtmasari et al. (2007) also, reported that Shafagh cultivar (improved cultivar) had the highest amount of remobilization of stem among the cultivars. Also, this result is consistent with the findings of Sarvestani (1995), Ntanos and Koutrobus (2002), Yang et al. (2003) and Kumar et al. (2006). Flag leaf of Champa cultivar (traditional cultivar) was not important in dry matter remobilization. Thus, it seems that flag leaf had important role in current photosynthesis at post anthesis stage compared with dry matter remobilization. Present findings showed that flag leaf in Champa cultivar not only has not an important role in dry matter remobilization but also acted as a strong sink for photosynthetic assimilates. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer management affect other leaves dry matter remobilization. This result is consistent with the result of Sarvestani and Pirdashti (2001) and Poshtmasari et al. (2007). They reported that different rate of remobilization among the cultivars was related to their agronomic characteristics.

CONCLUSION

Results of the present study indicate that there is a difference in dry matter remobilization in different cultivars and nitrogen fertilizer levels under Ahwaz weather conditions. Differential responses to the treatment and also in different parts of the shoot suggest that the remobilization of dry matter be controlled through different mechanisms. This result can help physiologists and breeders to determine physiological and morphological features of varieties that contribute most to increasing yield production.

REFERENCES

1:  Cock, J.H. and S. Yoshida, 1972. Accumulation of 14C-labelled carbohydrate before flowering and its subsequent redistribution and respiration in the rice plant. Jpn. J. Crop Sci., 41: 226-234.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Doberman, A. and T. Fairhurst, 2000. Rice Nutrient Disorders and Nutrient Management. PPIC, Canada

3:  Ehdaie, B. and J.G. Waines, 1996. Genetic variation for contribution of preanthesis assimilates to grain yield in spring wheat. J. Genet. Breed., 50: 47-55.

4:  Poshtmasari, H.K., H. Pirdashti, M. Nasiri and M.A. Bahmanyar, 2007. Study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer management on dry matter remobilization of three cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 3425-3429.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Kumar, N. and R. Prasad, 2004. Effect of levels and source of nitrogen on concentration and uptake of nitrogen by a high yielding and a hybrid of rice. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci., 50: 447-454.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Kumar, R., A.K. Sarawagi, C. Ramos, S.T. Amarante, A.M. Ismail and L.J. Wade, 2006. Portioning of dry matter during drought stress in rain fed lowland rice. Field Crops Res., 9: 1-11.

7:  Mi, G., L. Tang, F. Zhang and J. Zhang, 2002. Carbohydrate storage and utilization during grain filling as regulated by nitrogen application in two wheat cultivars. Plant Nutr., 25: 213-229.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Ntanos, D.A. and S.D. Koutroubas, 2002. Dry matter and N accumulation and translocation for Indica and japonica rice under Mediterranean conditions. Field Crop Res., 74: 93-101.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Palta, J.A. and I.R.P. Fillery, 1995. N application-increases pre anthesis contribution of dry matter to grain yield in wheat grown on a duplex soil. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 46: 507-518.

10:  Plaut, Z., B.J. Butow, C.S. Blumenthal and C.W. Wrigley, 2004. Transport of dry matter into developing wheat kernels and its contribution to grain yield under post-anthesis water deficit and elevated temperature. Field Crops Res., 86: 185-198.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Singh, R.B., 1993. Research and Developmental Strategies for Intensification of Riceproduction in the Asia-Pacific Region. In: New Frontiers in Rice Research, Muralidharan, K. and E.A. Siddiq (Eds.). Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India, pp: 25-44

12:  Sarvestani, Z.T., 1995. Water stress and dry matter and nitrogen remobilization in wheat and barley genotypes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Adelaide.

13:  Sarvestani, Z.T. and H. Pirdashty, 2001. Dry matter and nitrogen remobilization of rice genotypes under different transplanting dates. Proceedings of the 10th Australian Agronomy Conference.

14:  Yang, J., J. Zahang, Z. Huang, Q. Zhu and L. Wang, 2000. Remobilization of carbon reserves is improved by controlled soil drying during grain filling of wheat. Crop Sci., 40: 1645-1655.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Yang, J., J. Zhang, Z. Wang, L. Liu and Q. Zhu, 2003. Post anthesis water deficits enhance grain filling in two-line hybrid rice. Crop Sci., 43: 2099-2108.
Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved