Soil Properties, Leaf Nutrient Composition and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as Affected by Broiler Litter and NPK 15:15: 15 Fertilizers in Ekiti State, Nigeria
The effect of Broiler litter and NPK
15-15-15 fertilizers on soil properties, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus
esculentus (L.) Moench) were investigated at the Teaching and Research
Farm, University of Ado-Ekiti and a farmer`s field at Omuo Ekiti (Southern
guinea savannah soil), Nigeria. The treatments consisted of 0, 2, 4 MT
ha-1 Broiler litter (Poultry manure) and 150 kg ha-1
NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer. The results indicated a significant increase
in growth parameters in those plants planted in NPK 15-15-15 fertilized
plot than poultry manure plot. However, growth parameters (plant height,
stem girth and number of leaves) were increased significantly (p<0.05)
as manure rates increased. Poultry manure at 4 MT ha-1 gave
significant increase in fruit yield of okra in both location leading to
20.1 and 14.6% increase, respectively for Ado-Ekiti and Omuo Ekiti over
the unfertilized plot (control). Leaf nutrient content was also increase
with increasing rates of poultry manure.
to cite this article:
S.O. Omotoso and O.S. Shittu, 2008. Soil Properties, Leaf Nutrient Composition and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as Affected by Broiler Litter and NPK 15:15: 15 Fertilizers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 3: 140-147.
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) okra is a widely cultivated
vegetable and can be found in almost every market all over Africa Schippers
(2000). The nutritional constituents of okra include calcium, protein,
oil and carbohydrates; others are iron, magnesium and phosphorus. Most
okra is eaten in cooked or processed form. Young fruits may be eaten raw.
The oil in the seed could be as high as in poultry eggs and soybean (Akinfasoye
and Nwanguma, 2005).
Okra production is very low in many developing countries.
Most farmers rely mainly on innate fertility of the soil and in addition
invest considerable amount of money so as to achieve a reasonable yield
of okra. Optimum production of okra requires intensive management practices
that conserve and manage soil and nutrients needed for maintaining soil
and water quality.
Soil productivity and fertility can be maintained by
the use of soil amendments in form of fertilizers (Anonymous, 2005). Poultry
manure contains high percentage of nitrogen and phosphorus for the healthy
growth of plants (Ewulo, 2005). Corrale et al. (1990) noted the
yield advantages accruing from the application of inorganic fertilizers
but cautioned on the negative influence of their cost and availability
resulting in the popularity of organic materials (including chicken manure)
as means of supplementing native soil fertility in tropical areas. Chicken
manure improves soil structure, water holding capacity, aeration and drainage
(Cooke, 1980) besides containing high levels of N, P and K (Singh and
Balasubramanian, 1980; Adediran and Banjoko, 2003). Nevertheless Agboola
et al. (1982) observed that combined use of organic and inorganic
fertilizers is the best means of augmenting available nutrient contents
of tropical soils.
Nitrogen is said to be the motor of plant growth (IFA/FAO,
2000) Organic matter is the ultimate determinant of the soil fertility
in most tropical soils and this account for its use, the fertility of
soil could be sustained with the addition of poultry manure (Ikpe and
Powel, 2002). NPK fertilizer has been reported to give a yield increase
in okra (Babatola, 2006). Generally, fertilizer recommendation for most
of the vegetables growth in Nigeria is between 50-100 kg N ha-1,
20-60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O
ha-1 (Babatola et al., 2002). Also, intensive research
studies had been carried out on the effect of fertilizer on crops (Adebayo
and Adoun, 2002; Akanbi et al., 2002; Alasiri et al., 1998).This
study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of Broiler litter and
NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer application on soil properties, growth and yield
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research
Farm, University of Ado-Ekiti between July and October 2005 and a farmer`s
field at Omuo-Ekiti, (southern guinea savannah). Ado Ekiti is located
on latitude 7 ° 31` N and longitude 5 ° 49` E. The two locations
have a bimodal rainfall of 1250 to 1460 mm with mean annual rainfall of
1367 mm and average number of rainy days of about 112 per annum. Temperature
is almost uniform throughout the year 23-32oC with little deviation
from mean annual of 27 °C. February and March are the hottest month
with mean temperature of 28 and 27 °C, respectively. The mean total
sunshine hour is about 2000 hours with mean annual radiation of about
130 kcal cm-3 year-1. The area falls within the
high forest zone where the rich tropical forests once thrived. Both locations
have a tropical humid climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet
season is from late March to October with little dry season in August.
Field trials were conducted between July and October,
2005 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ado-Ekiti and a
farmer`s field at Omuo-Ekiti, (southern guinea savannah). The size of
the plot used was 12x 8 m. This was divided into three blocks (replicates)
each measuring 4x2.5 m. The trial was a split plot design with experimental
location as the main plot factor while sub-plot consisted of the fertilizer
treatments. NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer was applied at 150 kg ha-1
NPK and poultry manure (Broiler litter) at the rate of 0. 2 and 4 MT ha-1.
The four treatments were randomized completely within each block separately
using the random digit of number and were replicated three times to give
a total of twelve experimental field plots. Before sowing, the seeds were
soaked in water to determine its viability through floating method. Three
seeds of okra variety LD 88 (Nihort) were planted on the field at spacing
of 50x30 cm which was latter thin to one per stand after two weeks of
sowing of okra seed. Weeding commenced at two weeks after sowing of okra
seed and subsequent weeding was carried out as at when due. Chemical spraying
with hypermetricin was carried out to control some insect pests that affect
the leaves of okra plant.
Prior to planting soil samples from the two experimental
locations were collected air-dried in the laboratory, ground and sieved
through a 2 mm sieve. Particle-size distribution was determined by the
hydrometer method (Bouyoucos, 1951). Soil pH was measured using the pH
meter at 1:1 soil to water ratio. The percentage organic carbon was determined
by the Walkey Black wet oxidation method (Walkley and Black, 1934) while
percent total nitrogen (N) was determined by the micro-kjeldahl technique
(Jakson, 1962) The present organic matter was estimated by multiplying
the percent organic carbon with a factor of 1.724.. Available P was extracted
by the Bray/method and determined colorimetrically (Bray and Kurtz, 1945).
Exchangeable bases were displaced by NH4+ from neutral/NH4OAC
solution as describe by Jackson (1958). Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg)
were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and potassium
(K) and sodium (Na) were determined by flame emission photometry. Cation
Exchange Capacity (CEC) was determined by the neutral/NH4OAC
saturation method. Base saturation was calculated with reference to the
NH4OAC-CEC. Exchangeable acidity was extracted with IMKCL and
determined by titration with NaOH solution.
Eight plants each per plot were selected for determination
of growth and yield parameters. Successive harvesting was done four days
interval as fruits reached marketable size. Number of fruits was counted
on each occasion and fresh pod weight obtained to determine yield.
The vegetative parameters assessed included plant height,
number of branches, root length, leaves area. At final harvest, the okra
plants were uprooted, partitioned into leaves, stem and roots and were
measured. Each of these part were oven-dried in brown envelope for 48
h at 60 °C. Measurements of dry weight were taken of stem, leaves
and roots. Subsequently, nutrient uptake of each of the nutrient elements
by the test crop were determined after grinding the dried plant samples
and wet digesting with a mixture of 25 mL of HNO3, 5 mL of
H2SO4 and 5 mL of HCIO4.
All statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical
Analysis System (SAS, 1985).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Physical Properties of the Soil
The soil from the two sites are loamy in texture (Table
1), Sand is the dominant fine earth fraction ranges from 71-82 and
72-75% for Ado-Ekiti and Omuo-Ekiti, respectively (less than 2 mm portion)
which accounted for greater than 70% of the textural quality indicating
high porous soil profile with low water holding capacity and high vulnerability
to surface run-off. Silt and Clay content ranges from 12-24.7 and 5.5-12%,
respectively. Clay plays a marked increase in the subsurface (Bt) horizons.
In Ado-Ekiti soil, the clay content is below the critical level showing
soil with weak structural stability and high erosive index (Hurges, 1983).
This characteristics distinguishes these soils from most other sandy soils
of southwestern Nigeria, which are mostly characterized by low silt (<10-15%)
content (Shittu and Fasina, 2004; Fasina, 2002). The high content of silt
reflects the fact that the soils were formed from coarse colluvial materials
(Hill wash). This tends to suggest that erosion is a marked pedogenic
process in this area.
Soil Chemical Characteristics
The soil pH measured in water ranges from 6.38-6.63 from the two locations,
indicating a slightly acidic reaction. The value of the organic carbon
(C) at the surface horizon (0-15) is of medium class (1.04 %). At Omuo
Ekiti, the organic carbon both at Ap and Bt horizons are very high indicating
that the soil is high in organic matter content (Table 2).
|| Physical analysis of the soils at the experimental
|| Chemical properties of the soils of the experimental
|| Chemical composition of Broiler litter used on dry
weight basis (DWB)
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on fresh
weight and dry matter accumulation of okra
|Mean with the same letter(s) in each column for each
location are not significantly different (p<0.05) by DMRT. PM =
Poultry Manure (Broiler litter)
The N contents of the soil at Ap and Bt horizons of Ado-Ekiti
are also high with all the values ranges between (0.66-0.77%) which is
far above 0.15 % critical levels recommended for Southwestern Nigerian
Soils (Sobulo and Osiname, 1981; Agboola et al., 1982). The P content
is below the recommended critical level of 8.51 mg kg-1 soil
(Agboola et al., 1982). The N content of Omuo Soils is also high
at both horizons while the P contents at both horizons are critically
low with all the values below 8.5 mg kg-1 recommendation indicating
serious deficiency problem. The exchangeable K at Ado-Ekiti ranges from
0.11-0.13 cmol kg-1 soil. These values are rated as low (<
0.16 cmol kg-1) (Sobulo and Osiname, 1981. While at Omuo Ekiti
soil, K content is moderate ranges between 0.25-0.30 cmol kg-1
in the two horizons. The value of exchangeable Ca at Ado-Ekiti soils range
from 1.32-1.40 cmol kg-1. These values are considered high
when compared with Omuo Ekiti soil which is quite low. However, the high
exchangeable Ca in the soil suppresses Boron uptake by plants as reported
by (Osiname, 2000) thereby resulting into distortion of leaves and stunted
roots (Anonymous, 2004). The high value of Ca is indicative of low pH,
a condition that is unsuitable for most plant growth (Veldkamp, 1992).
The use of fertilizer containing Ca would to some extent remedy the associated
acidity problem. Exchangeable Mg is very high in Ado-Ekiti soils while
it is low in Omuo soils. Thus, Mg is likely to constitute constraint to
agricultural productivity in the soil (Table 2). Table
3 describes the chemical composition of Broiler litter used on dry
Effect of Broiler Litter and NPK 15:15:15 on Okra
Growth, Yield and Leaf Nutrient Composition
The effect of fertilizer application on Plant height, stem girth and
number of leaves are shown in Fig. 1-3
for both locations. Broiler litter and NPK significantly increased the
leaf and stem fresh weight of okra at both locations (Table
4), higher fresh weight was recorded for 4 MT ha-1 Broiler
litter. The effect of treatments on root fresh weight was not significant
while on leaf and root fresh weight was significant. The effects of Broiler
litter and NPK fertilizers on leaf dry matter accumulations was not significant
in Ado-Ekiti but w ere significant in Omuo. Greater plant dry weight was
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on plant
height of Okra at Omuo Ekiti
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 on plant
height of Ado-Ekiti
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on stem
girth of Okra at Omuo Ekiti
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer
on stem girth of Ado-Ekiti
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on No.
leaves of Okra at Omuo Ekiti
||Effect of poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer
on No. of leaves of okra at Ado-Ekiti
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield
and yield components of okra
|Mean with the same letter(s) in each column for each
location are not significantly different (p<0.05) by DMRT
4 MT ha-1 of Broiler litter as against 150
kg ha-1 NPK in both stem and fruit weight per plant. There
were significant increases in fresh and dry weights of the plants with
increasing poultry manure treatments except in root fresh and dry weight
Kim et al. (1997) obtained increases in dry matter yield from the
amendment of soil with cattle manure compost mixed with rice husk/sawdust.
The effects of poultry manure treatments on number of
pods/plant were significant for both locations (Table 5).
Increasing levels of manure significantly increase pods/plant. Also, the
pods produced by 4 MT ha-1 were weightier hence the higher
number of pods/plant at that rate. When compared with unfertilized plants,
both the poultry manure and NPK fertilizer gave significant (p<0.05)
higher yield. In both locations 4 MT ha-1 poultry manure gave
the highest yield.
The plant nutrient composition as affected by the application
of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer and or poultry manure is shown in Table
6. Irrespective of the fertilizer source, those plants that were fertilized
performed better than unfertilized plants. The NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer
and or poultry manure increased nutrient composition over the control.
|| Effect of poultry manure and NPK 15: 15: 15 on nutrient
uptake of okra
Leaf nutrient composition tends to increased with increasing
level of poultry manure. Comparative analysis of poultry manure (Broiler
litter) in it uptake indicated that poultry manure compete well with NPK
15-15-15 fertilizer. The robust look of plants in poultry manure plots
is indicative of the induced C:N ratio.
Addition of Broiler litter has produced better and healthier
growth and thereby improved significantly the growth, yield and nutrient
contents of okra. Broilers litter at the rate of 4 MT ha-1gave
significant higher yield.
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