First Report of Antifungal Properties of a New Strain of Streptomyces plicatus
(Strain101) Against Four Iranian Phytopathogenic Isolates of Verticillium
dahliae, A New Horizon in Biocontrol Agents
Aghighi S ,
G.H. Shahidi Bonjar
This is the first report on antifungal activity of a new strain of Streptomyces plicatus (strain101) against four Iranian phytopathogenic isolates of Verticillium dahliae. In the recent decades, biological control of plant diseases has received more attention mainly as a response to public concern about the use of hazardous chemicals in the environment. Soil Actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of soil-borne plant pathogens. In search for metabolites of soil Actinomycetes having antifungal activity against four isolates of the cosmopolitan pathogen, Verticillium dahliae Klebahn, 110 isolates were screened. Among all, strain101 that was identified as a new strain of S. plicatus, showed high level of activity in Agar disk and Well-diffusion methods. S. plicatus was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which some biological characterizations performed. The active metabolite (s) is polar, soluble in H2O and methanol but insoluble in chloroform, dichloromethane or hexane. Antifungal activity composed of two types, mycelial inhibition, inhibition of microsclerotia and melanin production. Antifungal gene from S. plicatus Strain 101 may be a useful candidate for genetic engineering of agriculturally important crop plants for increased tolerance against V. dahliae.
Rowe, R.C. and D.L. Powelson, 2002.
Potato early dying: Management challenges in a changing production environment. Plant Dis., 86: 1184-1193.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Lopez-Escudero, F.J. and M.A. Blanco-Lopez, 2000.
Control of Verticillium Wilt by Soil Solarization in Established Olive Orchards in Andalucia (Southern Spain). In: Advances in Verticillium
Research and Disease Management, Tjamos, E.C., R.C. Rowe, J.B. Heale and D.R. Fravel (Eds.). The APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA., pp: 332-335
Tjamos, E.C., D.A. Biris and E.J. Paplomatas, 1991.
Recovery of olive trees with verticillium wilt after individual application of soil solarization in established olive orchards. Plant Dis., 75: 557-562.Direct Link |
Schreiber, L.R. and R.J. Green, Jr., 1963.
Effect of root exudate on germination of conidia and microsclerotia of Verticillium albo-atrum
inhibited by the soil fungistatic principle. Phytopathology, 53: 260-264.
Issac, I., 1967.
Speciation in Verticillium
. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 5: 201-222.
Schnathorst, W.C., 1981.
Life Cycle and Epidemiology of Verticillium
. In: Fungal Wilt Diseases of Plants, Mace, M.E., A.A. Bell and C.H. Beckman (Eds.). Academic Press, New York, pp: 81-111
Ordentlich, A., A. Nachmias and I. Chet, 1990.
Integrated control of Verticillium dahliae
in potato by Trichoderma harzianum and captan. Crop Prot., 9: 363-366.
Fravel, D.R. and D.P. Roberts, 1991. In situ
evidence for the role of glucose oxidase in the biocontrol of Verticillium
wilt by Talaromyces flavus
. Biocontrol Sci. Technol., 1: 91-99.
Berg, G., C. Knaape, G. Ballin and D. Seidel, 1994.
Biological control of Verticillium dahliae
kleb. by natural occurring rhizosphere bacteria. Arch. Phytopathol. Pflanz., 29: 249-262.CrossRef |
Dong, H., W. Li, D. Zhang and W. Tang, 2003.
Differential expression of induced resistance by an aqueous extract of killed Penicillium chrysogenum
wilt of cotton. Crop Prot., 22: 129-134.
Lee, J.Y. and B.K. Hwang, 2002.
Diversity of antifungal actinomycetes in various vegetative soils of Korea. Can. J. Microbiol., 48: 407-417.Direct Link |
Kong, L.D., D.D. Tzeng and C.H. Yang, 2001.
Generation of PCR-based DNA fragments for specific detection of Streptomyces saraceticus
N45. Proc. Natl. Sci. Council Roc., 25: 119-127.Direct Link |
Gottlieb, D., 1973.
General Consideration and Implications of the Actinomycetales. In: Actinomycetales: Characteristics and Practical Importance, Sykes, G. and F.A. Skinner (Eds.). Academic Press, London, pp: 1-5
Okami, B. and A.K. Hotta, 1988.
Search and Discovery of New Antibiotics. In: Actinomycetes in Biotechnology, Goodfellow, M., S.T. Williams and M. Mordarski (Eds.). Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp: 33-67
Grabley, S. and R. Thiericke, 1999.
Drug Discovery from Nature. 1st Edn., Springer, London, ISBN: 978-3-540-64844-4, pp: 5-7
Valois, D., K. Fayad, T. Barasubiye, M. Garon, C. Dery, R. Brzezinski and C. Beaulieu, 1996.
Glucanolytic actinomycetes antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae
, the causal agent of raspberry root rot. Applied Environ Microbiol., 62: 1630-1635.Direct Link |
Merriman, P.R., R.D. Price, J.F. Kollmorgen, T. Piggott and E.H. Ridge, 1974.
Effect of seed inoculation with Bacillus subtilis
and Streptomyces griseus
on the growth of cereals and carrots. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 25: 219-226.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Brown, M.E., 1974.
Seed and root bacterization. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 12: 181-197.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Chi, C.C. and E.W. Hanson, 1965. In vitro
effects of Streptomyces rimosus
on some soil-inhabiting pathogenic fungi. Plant Dis. Rep., 49: 159-163.
Tahvonen, R. and H. Avikainen, 1987.
The biological control of seed-borne Alternaria brassicola
of cruciferous plants with a powdery preparation of Streptomyces
sp. J. Agric. Sci. Finland, 59: 199-208.
Saadoun, I., F. Al-Momani, H. Malkawi and M.J. Mohammad, 1999.
Isolation, identification and analysis of antibacterial activity of soil streptomycetes isolates from North Jordan. Microbios, 100: 41-46.Direct Link |
Saadoun, I. and R. Gharaibeh, 2002.
flora of Jordan and its potential as a source of antibiotics active against antibiotic resistant Gram negative bacteria. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 18: 465-470.Direct Link |
Acar, J.F. and F.W. Goldstein, 1996.
Disk Susceptibility Test. 4th Edn., William and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp: 1-51
El-Tarabily, K.A., M.H. Soliman, A.H. Nassar, H.A. Al-Hassani, K. Sivasithamparam, F. McKenna and G.E. Hardy, 2000.
Biological control of Sclerotinia minor
using a chitinolytic bacterium and actinomycetes. Plant Pathol., 49: 573-583.Direct Link |
Shirling, E.B. and D. Gottlieb, 1966.
Methods for characterization of Streptomyces
species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 16: 313-340.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Prauser, H., 1964.
Aptness and application of colour codes for exact description of colours of Streptomyces
. Z. Allg. Mikrobiol., 4: 95-98.PubMed |
Bonjar, G.H.S., 2004.
New approaches in screening for antibacterials in plants. Asian J. Plant Sci., 3: 55-60.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Moreno, A.B., A.M. Pozo, M. Borja and B.S. Segundo, 2003.
Activity of antifungal protein from Aspergillus giganteus
against Botrytis cinerea
. Phytopathology, 93: 1344-1352.Direct Link |
Terras, F.R.G., K. Eggermont, V. Kovaleva, N.V. Raikhel and R.W. Osborn et al
Small cystein-rich antifungal proteins from radish (Raphanus sativus
L.). Their role in plant defense. Plant Cell, 7: 573-588.
Brogue, K., I. Chet, M. Holliday, R. Cressman and P. Biddle et al
Transgenic plants with enhanced resistance to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani
. Science, 254: 1194-1197.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Selitrennikoff, C.P., 2001.
Antifungal proteins. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 67: 2883-2894.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Yun, D.J., Y. Zhao, J.M. Pardo, M.L. Narasimhan and B. Damsz et al
Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 94: 7082-7087.
Dhingra, O.D. and J.B. Sinclair, 1995.
Basic Plant Pathology Methods. 1st Edn., CRC Press, USA., ISBN: 978-0-387-24145-6, pp: 287-296
Pegg, G.F. and B.L. Brady, 2002.
Verticillium Wilts. Cromwell Press, UK., pp: 1-3
Fravel, D.R. and R.P. Larkin, 2000.
Effect of Sublethal Stresses on Microsclerotia of Verticillium Dahliae
. In: Advances in Verticillium Research and Disease Management, Tjamos, E.C., R.C. Rowe, J.B. Heale and D.R. Fravel (Eds.). The American Phytopathological Society, USA., pp: 301-306
Termorshuizen, A.J., L. Soesanto and J.M. Raaijmakers, 2001.
Consistent control of verticillium wilt by combination of Pseudomonas fluorescens
P60 and Talaromyces flavus
Watkins, G.M., 1981.
Compendium of Cotton Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society Press, USA., pp: 60-62
Dong, P., Q. Ji, T. Long and G. Ahmat, 1998.
Preparation and application of biological control agents to control cotton wilts of Fusarium
Ma, P. and L. Shezeng, 2000.
Incidence and Damage of Verticillium Wilt of Cotton in China. In: Advances in Verticillium Research and Disease Management, Tjamos, E.C., R.C. Rowe, J.B. Heale and D.R. Fravel (Eds.). The American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp: 353-357
Agrios, G.N., 1988.
Plant Pathology. 3rd Edn., Academic Press, San Diego, pp: 220-222
Lahdenpera, M., 2003.
How mycostop acts in the control of fungal plant diseases?. http://www.growquest.com/mycostop.htm.