Fabrics is an important factor for human life maintenance. It has
long historical evidence over 7,000 years. Those of natural fibers such as marijuana,
hemp, paul and bamboo used in the textile products (Wannajun
et al., 2011). In Thailand, a lot of ridges made from animal bones
or crab shell were also found. These are indicated that the human in that period
were known to extract fibers and spinning. It is suggested that the prehistorically
people has been created his own culture and gradually developed until the historical
Recently technology has been developed to design the synthetics fibers instead
the natural fibers. However, the chemical used in the preparation process is
harmful both to human and environmental. Polyurethane (PU)-based microcapsules
containing a flame retardant Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate (DAHP) or an odorant
entity neroline were prepared and reported (Azizi et
al., 2011). On the other hand, many researchers have been attempted
to develop some techniques for improving of textile production such as coated
with polymer (Issaoui et al., 2011), or mixed
with reagent/polymer (Kusuktham, 2011; Muralidharan
et al., 2011). To impart the desirable properties or value addition
on textile fabrics, pretreatments with ofloxacin and ornidazole, enzyme, mordant
or functional finishing on fabrics were performed (Elayarajah
et al., 2011; Raja and Thilagavathi, 2011;
Ammayappan and Moses, 2010). With this reason, processors
started to develop and use the natural fibers for replacement of the synthetic
fibers. Bamboo fibers are a new kind of fiber. It has a various small pores
in the fiber surface, which helped to improve moisture absorption and oxygen
vapor permeability. Moreover, the bamboo fibers contained excellent properties
including antibacterial, antifungal, UV protection and IR (infrared) absorption
(Wannajun et al., 2011). Therefore, it is an
alternative choice of fiber for the man who bewares in their health and environments.
Indigo is a natural dye and believe to impart antimicrobial efficacy (Raja
and Thilagavathi, 2011). In this work, bamboo fibers dyed with Thai herb
indigo and used as a resource material for the production of bamboo fabrics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The bamboo fibers were extracted, spun into yarn, dyed and woven into fabrics
at Ban Khambong, Tambol Khambong, Amphoe Huaipeung, Kalasin, Thailand.
Dyeing with indigo dye: The process of dyeing divided into 4 groups
depending on the number of dyeing time, each for 10 min. Firstly, the bamboo
fibers were boiled in mild alkaline solution to exclude some impurities for
10-15 min before washing twice with tab water. They were left in air until dry
and then immersed in the prepared indigo dye solution (called 1 dyeing time).
The indigo dyed bamboo fibers were air-dried completely before sequentially
immersing in the dye solution for other dyeing times. The groups and code of
dyeing time summarized in Table 1. The dyed indigo bamboo
fibers were prepared in 5 samples per each group.
Chemical test of bamboo fibers after dyeing with indigo: The bamboo
fibers dyed with indigo were then tested for standard textile quality by textile
development institute, Ministry of industry, Thailand. The investigation of
color fastness test can be performed as follow.
The stability of color to light (ISO-105-B02): The method uses a filtered
Xenon-arc light source with a spectrum approximating that of solar radiation.
Assessment is against a prescribed set of dyed wool standards by comparing a
sample's level of fading against a scale of 1-8, denoting very poor to very
The stability of color to wash (ISO-105-C10): The samples were cut into
40x100 mm2 and then mounted to the fiber cloth. The pieces of cloth
were then washed in the solution contained in the testing machine followed the
designation time points. The samples were washed again with distilled water
and left in air-dried. The changes of color and the staining of dry to fiber
cloth were determined using spectrophotometer.
The stability of color to acidic and basic solutions (ISO-105-E04):
The samples were weighed and lie out in a flat-bottomed dish and cover with
acidic or basic solution at the liquor ratio of 50:1. The condition was set
at room temperature for 30 min.
|| Groups and code of dyeing
|IB: Indigo bamboo
They were pressed and moved from time to time to ensure uniform penetration
of liquor. The solution was poured off and wiped the excess liquor off from
the sample. The samples were weighed again before placing in the test device.
The test device was taken in an oven for 4 h at 37°C. The samples were dried
in air. Finally, the changes of color and the staining of the adjacent fabrics
were determined using instrumental.
Production of bamboo fibers dyed with indigo: The bamboo fibers dyed
with indigo were used as material for fabrics production of mad-mi, si ta-klo
blanket and turtle flaky shell. All of process was created by the local people
at Khambong village.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bamboo fibers dyed with indigo: As shown in Fig. 1,
the bamboo fibers can be stained with indigo. The level of indigo color on the
bamboo fibers were gradually increased when the number of dyeing time increased
(1 to 15 times). The color was homogeneous throughout the fibers. Generally,
bamboo fibers are formed with different materials in variable proportions including
cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin and pectin (Baley, 2002;
Lin et al., 2002). Therefore some liquids including
dye can penetrate the fiber by sorption and diffusion (Barsberg
and Thygesen, 2001; Deshpande et al., 1999).
Those of composites composed in bamboo fiber have various hydroxyl (-OH) groups
in its structure. The hydroxyl groups helped to interact very well to the amine
(-NH) or carbonyl (C = O) groups of the indigo via hydrogen bonds resulted to
easy dyed with indigo.
Chemical test results
Color fastness test: Light (ISO-105-B02): Light is an important factor
on the color of fabric. All of bamboo fibers dyed with indigo showed the changes
of color at over 4 levels (Table 2). This means the fibers
have good absorbed with indigo dye. The results also indicated that the stability
of dye in case of 1 time dyeing was the same dyeing time for other groups. Since
the bamboo fiber composed of different kinds of molecules and there are composed
of unique functional groups, therefore, they should be absorbed the light. This
is special property of the bamboo fiber for UV protection.
||Bamboo fibers dyed with indigo for different dyeing times.
The number 1-15 shows the level of indigo color, which is gradually increased
|| The stability of dye on bamboo fiber exposure to light
|IB: Indigo bamboo
Color fastness test: Washing (ISO-105-C10): Washing is an important
process after wearing the textile. With the washing test, all of samples obtained
the level at 4. This result indicated that all of samples have good stability
of dye to wash. Moreover, the washed-out of dye on six fabrics; acetate, cotton,
nylon, polyester, acrylic and wool was also tested. The dye washed out on the
tested fabrics, except nylon has level 4 (Table 3). This means
the small quantity of dye washed out from the bamboo fibers. In case of nylon
fabric, the washed out of dye was level of 3-4. The result was also the same
other samples. It is suggested that the stability of dye on the bamboo fibers
was similar even staining for 1 or 15 times. The obtained result related to
previous report (Lecher, 1955). From the results, it
is promising that the bamboo fibers much be reacted to the indigo dye via strongly
chemical bonds. The formed bonds should be enhanced the stability of dye when
exposed to wash or water. Moreover, it is clarified that the bamboo fiber composed
of macromolecules which helped for trapping the molecules of dye (Lin
et al., 2002).
Color fastness test: Perspiration (ISO-105-E04): The test was performed
in acid and basic conditions. In acidic condition, the results found that dyeing
bamboo fibers with indigo for 1 time showed the level of color change at level
of 4-5. This means the color has changed slightly almost invisible. After staining
for 5, 10 and 15 times, the color have changed at 4 levels. This means the color
has changed slightly. The color stains on the testing white cloth all 6 samples
are level 4. This means the stain was washed out visible slightly (Table
4). The results indicated that indigo dye and bamboo fibers interacted very
well via the hydrogen bonds which helped to sustain the color of dye.
|| Changes of color fastness level after washing bamboo fiber
|+1: Little change, +0.5: Slightly change
|| The stability of dye on the bamboo fiber immersed in acidic
|+2: Change, +1: Little change
|| The stability of dye on the bamboo fiber immersed in basic
|+2: Change, +1: Little change, +0.5: Slightly change
|| Fabric made from bamboo fiber (mad-mi)
In case of basic condition, the color changed of all samples was the same level
as in acidic test. The bamboo fiber dyed showed the good stability in this solution
at level 4 (Table 5). However, the level was slightly decreased
to 3-4 for nylon and polyester. From the test of perspiration, it is not different
result between acidic and basic test. The obtained results were related to previous
report (Shim et al., 1998).
Finish production of dyed bamboo fibers fabrics: Bamboo is a typical
natural composite material and the fibers are distributed densely in the outer
surface region and sparsely in the inner surface region. It composed of many
advantage properties such as light-weight, good flexibility and tough (Amada
and Untao, 2001). Therefore, it has attracted many workers interest
(Tong et al., 2005). Moreover, the finishing
product showed homogeneous dye shade. This was according to the dye was easily
penetrated into the bamboo fibers. It is also give more advantage than synthetic
fiber like polyester. The last fiber even composed of high strength but it difficult
to penetrate of dye from a high degree of crystalline (Muralidharan
et al., 2011). In addition, bamboo fiber is deemed to have one of
the most favorable combinations of low density and mechanical properties (Fuentes
et al., 2011). According to the stability of indigo dye in the bamboo
fibers, they were then fabricated into different kinds of fabrics; mad-mi (Fig.
2), si-taklo blanket (Fig. 3) and turtle flaky shell (Fig.
4). The results found that the indigo dyed bamboo fibers have blue color
and showed unique pattern in each fabrics. The obtained products are similar
to other fabrics made from silk, cotton or synthetic fibers.
|| Fabric made from bamboo fiber (si-taklo blanket)
|| Fabric made from bamboo fiber (turtle flaky shell)
It is a promising that the bamboo fibers are the good sources of natural fibers
which can be used for fabrication of many kinds of products. It is also proved
that the fabrics of bamboo fibers should be created and increased of their valuable.
The bamboo fibers can be dyed with indigo with high colour value on the fibers.
The bamboo fibers dyed with indigo dye in different times showed the same of
color change level. The light, washing and perspiration fastness properties
indicated that the bamboo fibers can be dyed with indigo that have high stability
to water, acidic and basic conditions. The obtained bamboo fibers dyed with
indigo can be used as material for various kind of fabrics production. All of
products showed the unique characteristics and should be developed to standard
models of Thai fabrics for commercial level.
This study was financial support from Mahasarakham University for new knowledge
creation of lecturers and researchers, 2010. The author would like to thanks
the Weaving Textile Dyed Natural Indigo Group, Ban Khambong, Tambol Khambong,
Amphoe Huaipeung, Kalasin, Thailand as well as other person who involved in
this research. Finance support from the Center of Excellence for Innovation
in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education
is gratefully acknowledged.