This study attempts to investigate male versus female intelligence among
undergraduate Iranian students at Malaysian universities. Although almost
period of one hundred years a general agreement has been reached that
there is no sex difference in overall general intelligence (Douglas and
Rushton, 2006) but several studies have been reported gender differences
in intelligence (Furnham et al., 1999). They support gender differences
in specific cognitive abilities; some support females and some support
males (Hyde, 2005; Lynn et al., 2002) but many of studies find
no sex differences in intelligence (Halpern and LaMay, 2000).
In other words, several investigators found gender differences on intelligence
(Deary et al., 2003) studied also the cognitive ability distribution
in 80,000+ students. There were no significant mean differences in cognitive
test scores between genders but there was a highly significant difference
in their standard deviations. Boys were more at the low and high extremes
of cognitive ability (Douglas and Rushton, 2006).
Douglas and Rushton (2006) found a point of biserial size of 0.12 favoring
males on the SAT, which provides a good measure of general intelligence
as manifested through school of learned abilities in high school graduating
Researchers have also examined gender differences on intelligence in
20 countries and studies from China through to Germany and Scotland have
shown males give significantly and higher estimates than females for general
overall intelligence (Adrian and Buchanan, 2005). Adrian and Buchanan
(2005) stated also this difference is consistent across countries and
populations although there are wide differences in level.
Sophie et al. (2006) investigated whether sex differences observed
on the subtests of the intelligence test were attributable to sex difference
in general intelligence. Males outperformed than females on 3 out of the
10 subtests (information, arithmetic and matrix reasoning), while females`
performance was better than males only on 1 subtest, called digit of symbol
Wendy and Johnson (2007) investigates 436 (188 males, 248 females) participants
(ages were between 18-79) from Australia, Great Britain and North America.
Their result have shown that there was a very small gender difference
in general mental ability but males clearly performed better on Visio-spatial
tasks while females performed better on tests of verbal usage and perceptual
Rammstedt and Rammsayer (2000) have been investigated on 105 German students
and concluded that male self-estimates were significantly higher for logical-mathematical
and spatial intelligences, while female estimates were significantly higher
for musical and interpersonal intelligences.
Reilly and Mulhern (1995) estimated the intelligence of 125 (45 male
and 80 female) of students at Queen`s University using the WAIS. They
found there was no gender significant difference in their measured intelligence.
However, men in the sample appeared to overestimate their intelligence,
while the women were quite accurate in estimating their intelligence.
By and large, the studies have indicated a need for further research
in gender related differences in intelligence (Wendy and Johnson, 2007).
As such, the focus of this study is to examine if gender related differences
on intelligence exist among Iranian undergraduates studying in Malaysian
Universities by Catell Culture Fair Intelligence Test. Because few researches
have been done on the basis of this instrument and previous research used
other instruments, we employ this instrument in this research.
Another reason for this study is that the previous research studied in
certain cultures and researchers stated the need of study in different
cultures and nations and populations. So, due to the lack of research
in this field on the basis of CCFIT test, in Iranian population this research
addressed this issue in overseas Iranian students by this test.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
One hundred and fifty three Iranian undergraduate students in Malaysian
Universities [N = 48 (31.4%) females and N = 105 (68.6%) males] ranging
in age from 18-27 for females and 19-27 for males participated in the
study. Mean and SD of females` age were 22.27 and 2.62 and for males were
23.28 and 2.43 (Table 1).
||There would be gender differences on the intelligence
(form A) among undergraduate students at Malaysian Universities
||There would be gender differences on the intelligence (form B) among
undergraduate students at Malaysian Universities
||There would be gender differences on the intelligence (form A, B)
among undergraduate students at Malaysian Universities
To evaluate the intelligence, every student was examined by a Catell
Culture fair Intelligence Test. Roberto Colom et al. (2002) has
been reported that this test is a well-known test on fluid intelligence
(GF) developed a Catell culture fair intelligence test.
|| Descriptive statistics age and gender
Participants completed Cattell`s culture fair intelligence test battery
to assess individual differences in fluid intelligence. The test had four
timed sets of problems (series completion, odd-one-out, matrices and topology),
each using geometric symbols as stimulus materials.
Undergraduate students participated in this study. The research questions
posed for the study required identifying and analyzing the distributions
and correlations of certain Catell culture free intelligence test best
addressed in the form of a descriptive study. Intelligence levels were
assessed by self-report instruments. They were assessed by result of administration
office of universities (described below), divided by gender and calculated
by total scores and subscales. The women samples (18-27 years) and men
(19-27 years) were selected during the regular course time.
Instructions were given written and orally for all participants and they
were ready to answer upcoming questions in the class. Since multiple significance
tests were conducted, data were analyzed by t-test. The participants replied
the tests and were free to anonymous. Students received no rewards but
they were given the results in the form of a self-referenced level of
abilities. Scores for intelligence scale`s total score, the two subtests,
were calculated by the SPSS statistical program.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
As Table 2 intelligence (form A) indicates, the males
mean score was higher than the females. The standard deviations between
females and males for intelligence were also different; the females standard
deviations were lower than the males. It ranged from a low (69 = females
and 69 = males) to a high (129 = females and 141 = males). As is shown
in the Table 2 for intelligence (form B) the males mean
score was a little more than the females for intelligence. The standard
deviations between females and males were not so high but it ranged from
a low of 61 for females and 70 for males to a high of 138 for females
and 133 for males.
Table 2 shows also a descriptive statistical intelligence
between genders total of intelligence (form A and B). It shows that males
mean score was higher than the females` on intelligence (form A, B) but
the standard deviations between females and males were a little different
(Males = 14.573 and females = 14. 094), ranging from a low (65 = females
and 71 = males) to a high (129 = females and 133 = males) for the intelligence
(form A, B). However, we had different results about the Intelligence
(form A, B) scores; the males` mean scores were more than the females
for the generally as well as the Intelligence (form A, B).
As independent sample t-test for equality of mean was used to determine
whether there was not significant difference between these scores on the
basis of gender. Table 3 shows the t ratios for males
and females on intelligence (form A). On this overall score, Iranian males
and females did not differ significantly on intelligence (form A) (p =
Table 2 also shows the independent samples t-test for
males and females on intelligence (form B). On this overall score, males
and females did not differ significantly on Intelligence (form B), (p
= 0.230). Finally, the independent samples t-test for males and females
on the intelligence (form A, B), in this respect, males and females did
not differ significantly on the intelligence (form A, B) (p = 0.443).
|| Descriptive statistics intelligence
||t-tests for equality of means intelligent
|*p < 0.05
In this study we reach the conclusion that there is no difference in
mean scores on all aspects of intelligence between the male and female
students. We found that although there were no gender differences in intelligence
(Form A and B) and the Cattell`s culture fair intelligence test between
male and female students, we got different results in mean, standard division,
minimum and maximum of intelligence between two groups.
The results in Table 3 showed that while there was
no significance difference between male and female students in intelligence
(in test CCFIT), the result of males showed a little higher than females
except in the CCFIT (form A). In form A, the mean was not different but
ranged from 69 to 141 for males and 69 to 129 for females. Thus, the deviations
for males were greater than the females (Table 2).
Table 2 has been shown that the mean for the males
(100.866) was a little higher than the females (97.541) in form B (CCFIT).
There was also gender difference in the range of scores, females (61-138)
and Males (70-133). Finally, we found gender differences in the range
of total scores (CCFIT) for male (71-133) and females (65-129), showing
a higher range for males than the females (Table 2).
The sex moderator variable which shows a few differences on the level
of the subtests of intelligence is not unusual. Although we found a few
subtle differences (not significance) in parameter estimates, we do not
expect those differences to undermine general gender invariance in the
CCFIT (Rammstedt and Rammsayer, 2000; Wendy and Johnson, 2007) have supported
it in their former studies but Sophie et al. (2006) reported that
some researchers found gender differences on the level of the subtests
of intelligence (Colom and Lynn, 2004; Lynn, 1998; Lynn et al.,
These comparisons indicate minor gender differences regarding these measures
of intelligence. Furthermore, these results may be a reflection of the
greatly different sample size. Present findings may improve our understanding
of the CCFIT factorial structure. The meaning of each CCFIT subtest composite
in this study is generally identical for males and females. Finally, factor
analyses reveal no significance differences in the conceptualization of
some of aspect of intelligence in the CCFIT.
The result of this study did not support any major gender differences
in general intelligence. Yet there seem to be a recent trend in which
the females tend to excel academically more than the male. Further studies
on gender differences by level of education, age groups and nationality
may be undertaken to examine such a trend. In addition, to explore practical
implications of these subtle gender differences in intelligence and discover
the cultural and social reasons for such difference, it may also be interesting
to examine whether such gender difference or non-difference in a nation`s
highly intelligent cohort is maintained over a number of years.
We thank administration officers at University Putra Malaysia, University
Malay, University Multimedia, University Lim KokWing and University Tenga
Malaysia for give us information about Iranian students their University.
We also thank Iranian Undergraduate student for participant this research
to collect data for Ph.D study.