The Issue of Feed-Food Competition and Chicken Production for the Demands of Foods of Animal Origin
This study reviews all attributes of feed-food competition and enforced-demands of foods of animal origin with the aim of delivering synthesized information for beneficiaries. Population, urbanization and rising incomes are expected to double the demands for livestock products in the developing countries. Based on the demands, there has been a rise in the production of livestock products in the world; however, this overall increase isnt occurring in the poorer African countries, rather declining. With increased production of animal products, there will be also increased demands for feeds. Moreover, increased mono-gastric populations and intensive feeding systems with improved genotypes resulted in a greater demand for concentrate feeds. Since, most production cost of poultry is based on concentrated feeds; this sector has been facing a problem of feed-food competition for those non grain self-sufficient countries. Thus, major poultry feed ingredients have been facing market competition with human food demands of poor countries like Ethiopia. To cope up with this feed-food competition, those poor feeds needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional values and moreover, institutional collaborations and support is demanding in order to facilitate for alternative feed utilizations. Use of biotechnology in animal production also improves feed utilization and productivity. Moreover, advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from outside the animals. It is conclude that responsible institutions should gear their program and responsibility towards to solving a problem of feed-food competition and dependency for importing improved chicken breeds.
Received: February 24, 2012;
Accepted: April 09, 2012;
Published: May 17, 2012
Human population growth, urbanization and income improvements are causes of
increased demands for foods of animal origin in the developing countries (Abdullah
et al., 2011; Steinfeld, 2003). It is reviewed
that shortages of animal protein availability is a problem in Africa (Mengesha,
2011). Based on this demands, there has been a rise in the production of
foods of animal origin, particularly from poultry and pigs in the world. In
this regard, FAO (2010) reported that contribution of
poultry meat is around 33% of the total global meat production. However, this
phenomena is not true for undeveloped countries in Africa, rather declining
(FAO, 2011b; Kearney, 2010; Speedy,
2003; Delgado and Narrod, 2002).
Ethiopia has the highest number of livestock populations in Africa (Solomon
et al., 2003). Out of which, poultry production plays an important
role in rural livelihoods in Ethiopia (Thomas et al.,
2009). However, rising demands for these products has led towards high prices
(Ayele and Rich, 2010) of poultry products in a country.
Poultry meat and egg production is the most environmentally efficient animal
protein production systems (Mengesha, 2011; Van
der Sluis, 2007) in the world. However, consumption of animal source food
has always been low and declining as a result of the low production and the
continuous growing of populations (FAO, 2005; UN,
2005) for sub-Saharan countries. Ethiopias per capita consumption
is declining overtime (FAO, 2005; Solomon
et al., 2003). In contrast to this, the average worlds meat
consumption is doubled during this period (FAO, 2005).
It has been a common experience that with increased production of animal proteins,
there is also increased demands for feeds, particularly for ingredients which
have high protein and energy values. The contribution of protein and energy
source ingredients is more than 90% of all required nutrients for poultry rations.
Most ingredients of the poultry feeds are also used for human nutrition (Mengesha,
2011; John and Njenga, 1992) in east Africa that
led for competition. These major poultry ingredients have been facing market
competition with human food demands in Ethiopia. Similarly, Gura
(2008) reported that the competition between food, feed and agro-fuels is
expected to aggravate prices of poultry feeds that enforce producers to look
for alternative and locally available feed sources.
According to FAO (1995) reports, increment of mono-gastric
animal production and the more intensive feeding systems with improved genotypes
resulted in relatively greater demand for higher quality concentrate feeds.
Moreover, mass production of pigs and poultry needs a larger proportion of the
production of feed crops (Madan, 2005). As cereal products
are increasingly used as feeds for animals, its share is projected to reach
nearly 45-50% by 2050 in the world (FAO, 2003).
Since, feed is the main cost items in any system of poultry production, the
beneficiaries of poultry development have been few in undeveloped countries
(Reddy and Qudratullah, 1996). However, UNEP
(2011) reported that chicken production is among the most energy-efficient
sector in the world.
Information gap is clearly seen between issues of feed-food competition and the driving demands of foods of animal origin. Therefore, reviewing the essentials of feed-food competition and poultry production, in relation to producing animal-source foods for the driving demands is a prioritized issue that will help to look for alternative technologies. Moreover, reviewing the experiences of chicken production and its feed resource and thereby delivering summarized and synthesized information for beneficiaries is also another milestone to improve the production of poultry in the country. Based on this outlined background, the Objectives of this paper were:
||Review the attributes and influences of demands for animal-source
||Review chicken production scenarios and the feed-food competition
||Avail the essentials of socio-economical limits and opportunities of chicken
productions for the beneficiaries
Most of the research findings which focus on attributing factors and influences of demands for animal-source foods, were reviewed. Research findings that were focusing on the social and economical impacts of poultry production were reviewed. Effects of food-feed competitions on chicken production were also reviewed, depicted and sourced. Trends of production, trade and consumption of poultry were reviewed. All available technologies that would improve food-feed competition and alternative food and feed resources were also reviewed. Moreover, the impacts of climate change on poultry production were also reviewed and synthesized.
Outlined description of the demands of foods of animal origin: WHO/FAO
(2003) reported that the economic development of a country is normally accompanied
by improvements in a countrys food supply and the gradual elimination
of dietary deficiencies. Demands for animal sources foods, in developing countries
have been progressively growing (Thornton, 2010). As
Neumann and Harris (1999) reported, animal-source foods
supply is not only high-quality and readily digestible protein and energy but
are also a compact and efficient source of readily available micronutrients.
According to Steinfeld (2003) reports, human population,
urbanization and incomes improvements are the main causes to increase the demands
for food of animal origin.
The overall increase of supply of animal product is restricted to certain countries
and regions and is not an event for undeveloped sub-Saharan countries but is
in declining phenomena. Speedy (2003) reported that
the countries that consumes the least amount of meat per annum are found in
sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, as Jabbar et
al. (2011) reported, rising global demands for animal products may be
an offer of opportunities to the animal producers. In satisfying such enforced
demands of foods of animal origins, the greatest increase is expected from poultry
and pigs, as well as eggs and milk (FAO, 2011a; Speedy,
2003; Delgado and Narrod, 2002).
Description of the poultry production sectors: Based on its level of
bio-security and birds/products marketed, poultry production sector is classified
as industrial, commercial, medium-commercial and village chicken productions
systems (Rushton et al., 2004) in the world. Poultry
production in developing countries is possibly described as a scavenging system
(Kitalyi and Mayer, 1998). Kryger
et al. (2010) reported also that approximately 80% of rural households
in developing countries engage in smallholder poultry production (village systems).
In sub-Saharan Africa, 85% of poultry sector is managed under village production
systems (Sonaiya and Swan, 2004) and the species of chicken
is the largest constituents of poultry population (Gueye,
2003; Yami, 1995) in Africa.
Around 97.82% of chicken production is traditionally managed (FAO,
2009) in Ethiopia. In this case, it is reported that the economy effects
of shocks to this village system by HPAI outbreak in Ethiopia are hypothesized
to be small. Women and children are the most responsible groups of the households
in managing village chickens in Ethiopia (Mengesha et al.,
2008a; Mengesha and Tsega, 2011). As Ayele
and Rich (2010) reported that few intermediaries are existed in traditional
poultry productions. The value chain for the traditional poultry sector isnt
as such complex in Ethiopia. Moreover, Ayele and Rich (2010)
reported that no public institutions are involved in importing, exporting, production,
marketing and processing or in bio-security, particularly for small-scale producers
of a country. Although, modern poultry farms are existed, their share of poultry
production remains extremely small in Ethiopia (Ayele and
Rich, 2010; Thomas et al., 2009).
Annual poultry meat production in Ethiopia is increased by only 0.34%, on average
while annual egg production declined by 0.39% (ILRI, 2000).
But, Pica-Ciamarra and Otte (2009) reported that poultry
has been the fastest growing sector than any animal farming in some other developing
countries like for instance India. Of the supply and demand maps for animal-source
foods to 2030, the most dramatic change is projected for poultry meat in South
Asia (FAO, 2011b).
Socio-economics of poultry productions: Food strategies must achieve
the consumption of adequate quantities of safe and good quality foods (WHO/FAO,
2003). However, Speedy (2003) reported that wealth
is the main determinant of per capita meat consumption. Technology is favoring
the intensification of poultry production in developing countries (Mengesha,
2011), village poultry; still, is a profitable venture that contributing
to the poverty alleviation and has no market problems. Moreover, Ayele
and Rich (2010) reported from Ethiopia that most consumers are favoring
to the traditional forms of chicken over processed products.
Women and children are responsible for caretaking of chicken and they are also
beneficiaries in Ethiopia (Mengesha, 2011; Menhgesha
et al., 2008b). Chicken population as well as per capita consumption
of egg and poultry meat has been declining to the face of population growth
in a country. It is well reviewed that livestock production is likely to be
increasingly affected by climate change; however, poultry industry has a relative
advantage over the others because of its low global warming potential (Mengesha,
2011). However, Thomas et al. (2009) and Mengesha
et al. (2011) reported from Ethiopia that poultry production is much
lower than that of the fast-growing of the human population. In this case, Pica-Ciamarra
and Otte (2009) advised that a public investment in support of backyard
chicken farming development is important to enhancing nutritional status and
employment. Moreover, Heft-Neal et al. (2008)
reported from Thai that large scale industrial poultry production is one of
the economys most important sources of animal-derived food, employment
Poultry production and food-feed competition: Global poultry industries
have traditionally faced competition for feed ingredients from other animal
industries (DSouza et al., 2007; Hinrichs
and Steinfeld, 2007). In this regards, DSouza
et al. (2007) reported that the growth of poultry consumption has been
creating a huge gap of unavailability of feed grains to sustain poultry meat
production. However, Hinrichs and Steinfeld (2007) reported
that in the competition for the scarce feed resource, poultry has competitive
advantages over other livestock as it has the best feed converters.
Although, poultry production has been the fastest growing sector than any animal
farming in some developing countries (FAO, 2011a), its
applicability is not achievable for those non grain self-sufficient countries.
Moreover, Chadd (2007) reported that the feed versus
fuel debate over cereal utilization set to be continuing controversy.
John and Njenga (1992) reported from Kenya that commercial poultry production
will never be successful in Kenya until a steady supply of main feed ingredients.
Substitution of grains in animal feeding systems goes a long way in resolving
the food-feed competition. To design for sustainable feed resource utilization,
well described information is required.
Description of poultry feed resources: The available feed resources
in Ethiopia can be divided into two main categories as conventional and non-conventional
feed resources. Conventional feed sources are those traditionally used. Whereas,
those non conventional once arent commonly and traditionally used as chicken
feeds (Younas and Yaqoob, 2005). However, conventional
feed resources in Ethiopia are facing a problem of competition with human foods.
Gura (2008) stated also that the recent feed price increment
may upset many of the plans to further development of industrial livestock/poultry
Anxiety on the alternative feed sources utilization is very likely to improve
prices increments of poultry feeds. Consequently, FAO (2009)
reported that smallholders, if not protected, may be among those who will suffer
most from price increases in local feed sources. In this regard, Emam
and Hassan (2010) reported from Sudan that the feed cost is the main cost
item in different poultry-farm types and sizes.
While replacing alternative ingredients, equivalency of nutritional values, costs and side effects on birds should be assessed and considered. Gradual replacement or substitution of one type feeds or ingredients with the other is always advised to the producers that to adapting birds with such new feeds. The target of replacement of ingredients is always not to affecting the performances of birds.
Moreover, the trend of poultry production and the poultry feed source situation
analysis is required for a country. Chadd (2007) reported
that elevated levels of poultry feed availability will be required to meet feed
demands of poultry production. Moreover, Chadd (2008)
reported that if animals are part of an integrated farm production system, the
overall energy efficiency can be actually increased through better utilization
of organic wastes.
Feed resource scenarios and poultry productions: Feed is the most important
input for poultry production and the availability of low-priced, high-quality
feeds is critical for the expansion of the poultry industry and quality (FAO,
2003; Ismoyowati and Sumarmono, 2011). Moreover,
Ravindran and Blair (1992) stated that the survival of
the poultry industry in most developing countries, in the future will undoubtedly,
depend on the ability of poultry industry to compete with humans for the available
food supply. Energy market shocks will transmit into the feed market and increase
market risk for poultry production (Hinrichs and Steinfeld,
2007). As Hendy et al. (1995) suggested the
composition of livestock populations and the intensity of feeding systems determine
the mix of concentrate feeds required. Thus, increased mono-gastric animal populations
and more intensive feeding systems with improved genotypes resulted in relatively
greater demand for higher quality concentrate feeds.
Increments in poultry industry have a profound effect on the demands for feed
and raw materials. The increasing cost and decreasing supply of traditional
feedstuffs are expected to limit the future expansion of poultry production.
This situation highlights the urgent need to improved utilization of the wide
range of alternative feedstuffs available in these countries. Hendy
et al. (1995) and Nweze et al. (2011)
reported that changes in feeding systems will, however, be influenced by
the needs to make the best use of resources available that can also lead to
significant changes in demand for some feeds. According to John
and Njenga (1992) reports, from Kenya that alternative programs must be
initiated to encourage local production of main poultry feed ingredients.
There is a severe shortage of cereals and oilseed (cakes) for use in poultry
feeds (Reddy and Qudratullah, 1996). Hence, feed-food
competition gives rise to looking for alternative feeds and other utilizing
techniques to improving the nutritive values of poor ingredients (Reddy
and Qudratullah, 1996; Mengesha and Abda, 2010;
Mengesha, 2011). Haagsman et al.
(2009) reported that the energy consumption of mankind is directly or indirectly
used for food production, of which a considerable proportion is used for the
production of meat.
According to the Rosenzweig et al. (1993) reports,
the effect of climate change on crop yields is more adverse. Due to climate
change there is a consistent reduction of crop productivity, high market prices
and malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa (Thompson et al.,
2010). Chadd (2008) reported also that additional
legislation will affects most aspects of the feed sectors. Moreover, Hendy
et al. (1995) reported that the key factor that affects demands for
feed commodities are human populations and incomes. Food-feed competition can
be managed by substitution and correct pricing (Yotopoulos,
According to some reports, feed costs increments have override livestock prices
and feed grain demands has been exceeding production. Therefore, utilization
of those poor byproducts can be improved by various techniques; for instance
solid state complex enzyme fermentation systems.
Most commonly used energy-rich feed stuffs in conventional poultry diet in
Asia, Africa and Pacific nations has never been adequate for both human consumption
and industrial uses (Reddy and Qudratullah, 1996). Thus,
the higher the price of grains fed to animals the lower meat or eggs amount
produced. In addition to increasing human population, a grain yield is also
adversely affected by global warming that leads to food-feed competitions (Mengesha,
In this regard, Chadd (2008) reported that the genetic
selection emphasis of recent times linked to nutrition, that of feed conversion
efficiency and maximal growth potential. To improve the nutritional values of
the feed resources of poultry, technology is required.
The poor feedstuffs of poultry and the improving technologies: Some local poultry feed sources needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional values. As a result, these feedstuffs could be used as alternative feed source of poultry. Out of various techniques that have been used to improve poor feeds, some additives have nutritional values (e.g., amino acids) and others are without nutritive values (e.g., enzymes). The later group influences the nutritive value of a diet indirectly by improving the palatability of the diet, availability of ingredients, feed conversion and a healthy balance of the digestive tracts micro flora etc.
The availability of feed is the key factor that limits poultry production.
A feed problem for poultry production in Ethiopia is not only the prices and
availability but also their low quality. Therefore, the need to adapt feed additives
that improves poultry feed utilization in the world may be another hot issue.
In this regard, Chen et al. (1997) reported that
the more effective and promising approaches to solve the problem of feed deficiency
in poultry is utilization of additives.
Enzymes have several novel applications (Kumar et al.,
2011) and some of them play critical role in the metabolic activities. Hence,
feed enzyme supplementation has increased but predominantly in pig and poultry
diets (Officer, 2000; Marquardt, 2000).
Consequently, performances of egg production, egg mass and feed conversion by
egg mass and egg dozen were better for those birds fed diets added with enzymes
(Broz and Ward, 2007; Costa et
al., 2008; Brenes et al., 1993). Although,
theres a genetic variation in performances and feed utilization efficiency
in chickens (Egena et al., 2012; Ajayi,
2010; Zhang and Aggrey, 2003). Marks
(1991) stated that the feed efficiency difference between genetically diverse
stocks of chickens is small. Food-feed competition pushes to search for alternative
feed ingredients like fibrous feeds as an energy source (DSouza
et al., 2007). Moreover, Hinrichs and Steinfeld
(2007) reported that risk-mitigation strategies for capital-intensive poultry
production will become increasingly important in order to cope up with market
Opportunities of poultry production as a preferred animal-source food:
Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints,
environmental and animal welfare legislations (Thornton,
2010; Pant, 2011; Seo and Mendelsohn,
2006). However, poultry industry has a relative advantage over others due
to its little warming potential (Mengesha, 2011; FAO,
2010; Costa, 2009); whereas, ruminants, are responsible
for greenhouse gas emissions (Haagsman et al., 2009).
Moreover, ILRI (2006) reported that the genetic diversity
of indigenous chicken is much higher than other livestock species which have
a good adaptability for climate and disease. In this regard, the desire for
poultry meat and eggs without taboos and the relative ease in establishing poultry
as an industry is driving forces at the movement (FAO, 2011c;
According to FAO (2009) reports, chicken is usually
the cheapest of all domestic livestock meats, particularly for sub-Saharan African
and South Asian countries. Poultry meat and eggs are highly nutritious, cheapest,
without taboos and efficient in feed utilization (Mengesha,
2011; Farrell, 2010; FAO, 2010).
On the other hand, Costa (2009) reported that red meat
industries have been pro-active in addressing environmental concerns. Poultry
flocks; however, are also vulnerable to climate change because birds can only
tolerate narrow temperature ranges. Although, poultry has relatively less effects,
negative impact is still existed on the environment that due to employment of
various production systems-intensive systems has less effect.
Poultry production systems and the environments: having a lesser impacts
on the environment and global warming than free-range production (FAO,
2010), intensive poultry production needs to be intensified to satisfying
protein food demands (FAO, 2011c; Hinrichs
and Steinfeld, 2007). Moreover, Steinfeld (2003)
reported that livestock production and processing will become dominated by integrated
large-scale commercial operations. Generally, Mengesha (2011)
reported that upcoming animal-source food supply and demands will pose a challenge
to the environment.
Consummation of chicken products and the human health: Poultry products
are preferred by consumers that these products provide foods with high-quality
protein and a low level of fat with a desirable fatty acid profiles (FAO,
2010; Costa, 2009). It is well reviewed that there
is a positive relationship between the level of income and the consumption of
animal products (Mengesha, 2011). ILRI
(2000) reported that quality and safety considerations in foods of animal
origin provide commercial opportunities for producers, market actors and industry
participants of developing-countries. Moreover, Pisulewski
(2005) also reported that consuming poultry and fish products has no risk
of cancers. Furthermore, FAO (2003) also reported that
the by-products of poultry production are of value if managed and recycled;
however, if not managed or recycled properly are of concern.
Chicken production and the institutional supports: To stimulate the
rural economies, a proactive policy is required Steinfeld
(2003) on behalf of the private and public sectors of the livestock production.
However, there are no specific governance structures that established in Ethiopia
for domestic production and marketing (Ayele and Rich, 2010).
As to Muchenje et al. (2001) reports, poultry
systems are bio-economically complex involving several kinds of resources and
input/output flows that include crop-livestock components of the farming system.
According to the Adebayo and Adeola (2005) reports
from Nigeria, gaps of poultry production need to be filled by the research and
extension institutions to boosting egg and meat production. Sustainable cost
effective interventions by the stakeholders are necessary to utilize local chicken
potentials in Kenya (Njue et al., 2004). Sonaiya
and Swan (2004) reported also that research and development institution
must examine the social, cultural and technical constraints of family poultry.
According to Muchenje et al. (2001) reports;
however, the economic importance of poultry is not adequately appreciated by
researchers and decision-makers. Kryger et al. (2010)
reported also that although poultry production is practiced by rural households,
researchers and outsiders feel that its contribution to livelihoods is little
nominal value. As Rodic et al. (2010) reported,
from Syria although poultry is an important sector, it has no institutional
Poultry production has been given little attention by the research and development
institutions in developing countries (Kryger et al.,
2010; Scanes, 2007).
Biotechnology and production of foods of animal origin: Biotechnology
in animal production has been advancing (FAO, 1991).
Montaldo (2006) reported also that biotechnology is
used to increase disease resistance, productivity and product quality in the
economically important animals. Moreover, Chen (2001)
reported that biotechnology will play critical role in the future in improving
animal productivity. As to Peric et al. (2009)
reports, application of alternative growth promoters in nutrition of fattening
chickens would be more efficient.
Since, adoption of animal biotechnology will results in a distinct benefits
in prosperity, food security, rural development, animal improvement and economic
returns to resource-poor farmers (Aboul-Naga and Elbeltagy,
2007; Chen, 2001), Aboul-Naga
and Elbeltagy (2007) advised to enhancing animal productivity and the sustainability
through research focused applications of animal biotechnologies and their objectives.
Advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from skeletal
muscle cells, cultured from stem cells, outside the animal in a bioreactor (Haagsman
et al., 2009).
According to some reports, biotechnology has the potential to improve the productivity
of animals via increase growth, carcass quality and reproduction, improved nutrition
and feed utilization, improved quality and safety of food. However, Aboul-Naga
and Elbeltagy (2007) reported that major constraints for applying animal
biotechnologies, in near East and North African countries were summarized as:
negligible investment in modern animal biotechnology. Thus, Aboul-Naga
and Elbeltagy (2007) reported that Adoption of animal biotechnology will
resulted in distinct benefits in prosperity, food security, rural development,
animal improvement and economic returns to resource-poor farmers.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Although, livestock is predicted to become the most important agricultural sector in terms of growing and value-added commodity, this sector couldnt satisfy the high demands of foods of animal origin. In some developing countries, chicken production has been the fastest growing sector than any animal farming that to supplying quality protein foods; however, the sector still is facing problems of feed-food competition and dependency for importation of improved breeds.
The advantage of socioeconomics of poultry productions is well documented in terms of family participation, easiness, nutritional values and environmental friendly but, development is lagging behind for sub-Saharan countries. Moreover, a main cost of poultry production is a concentrated feeds; hence, this sector has been facing a problem of feed-food competition, particularly for those non grain self-sufficient countries. Therefore, alternative feed resource should be properly utilized and the poor feeds also be improved by technologies for exclusive utilization.
Some local poultry feed resources needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional values that to be used as an alternative feed source. Therefore, modern technologies such as solid state fermentation complex enzyme systems and others must be increasingly important in order to cope up with market shocks.
To coping up with the two controversial issues of the high demands of the foods of animal origin and feed-food competition, restructured policy is required that regulates institution integrity.
Use of biotechnology in animal production has been advancing that quickly improving productivity and feed utilization. Moreover, advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from skeletal muscle-cells, cultured from stem cells, outside the animals. Therefore, policy makers need to facilitate its applicability in the future.
1: Emam, A.A. and A.M. Hassan, 2010. Economics of egg poultry production in Khartoum State with emphasis on the open-system-Sudan. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 5: 2491-2496.
Direct Link |
2: Aboul-Naga, A.M. and A.R. Elbeltagy, 2007. Animal biotechnology: Applications and implications in the near East and North Africa (NENA) countries. http://aaaid.ae/pdf/magazine5/Ani%20Biotechnology%2086-93.pdf.
3: Adebayo, O.O. and R.G. Adeola, 2005. Socio-economics factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo local government area of Osun State. J. Hum. Ecol., 18: 39-41.
Direct Link |
4: Yami, A., 1995. Poultry production in Ethiopia. World's Poult. Sci. J., 51: 197-201.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
5: Ajayi, F.O., 2010. Nigerian indigenous chicken: A valuable genetic resource for meat and egg production. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 4: 164-172.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
6: John, B.B. and M.P. Njenga, 1992. A study of poultry feed processing technology. Agricultural Technology Development and Use, pp: 80, Kenya
7: Brenes, A., W. Guenter, R.R. Marquardt and B.A. Rotter, 1993. Effect of β-glucanase-pentosanase enzyme supplementation on the performance of chickens and laying hens fed wheat, barley, naked oats and rye diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 73: 941-951.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
8: Broz, J. and N.E. Ward, 2007. The role of vitamins and feed enzymes in combating metabolic challenges and disorders. J. Applied Poult. Res., 16: 150-159.
Direct Link |
9: Costa, N.D., 2009. Climate change: Implications for water utilization in animal agriculture and poultry, in particular. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium, February 9-11, 2009, University of Sydney, Australia -.
10: Daghir, N.J., 2009. Poultry production in hot climates: Book reviews. J. Applied. P. Res., 18: 131-134.
11: Chen, D., 2001. Biotechnologies for improving animal metabolism and growth: A review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim Sci., 14: 1794-1802.
Direct Link |
12: D'Souza, D., S. Bourne, A. Sacranie and A. Kocher, 2007. Global feed issues affecting the Asian poultry industry. Proceedings of the International Conference on Poultry in the 21st Century Avian Influenza and Beyond, November 5-7, 2007, FAO, Bangkok, Thailand, pp: 1-4.
13: Farrell, D., 2010. The role of poultry in human nutrition. Poultry development review. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp: 2. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al709e/al709e00.pdf.
14: Delgado, C.L. and C.A. Narrod, 2002. Impact of changing market forces and policies on structural change in the livestock industries of selected fast-growing developing countries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/WAIRDOCS/LEAD/X6115E/x6115e00.htm.
15: Egena, S.S.A., A.T. Ijaiya and R. Kolawole, 2012. Comparative evaluation of spurred and spurless male and female indigenous nigerian chicken in the three administrative zones of Niger state. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 6: 85-91.
16: FAO, 2011. Economic and social development department. Rome, Italy, pp: 23. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/ak542e/ak542e19.pdf.
17: FAO, 2011. The state of food and agriculture: Livestock in the balance. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://pigtrop.cirad.fr/.
18: FAO, 2011. Mapping supply and demand for animal-source foods to 2030. Animal Production and Health Working Paper No. 2, FAO, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/documents/latest_pubs/al747e00.pdf.
19: FAO., 2010. Poultry Meat and Eggs: Agribusiness Handbook. Director of Investment Centre Division, FAO., Rome, Italy, Pages: 77.
20: FAO, 2009. Report of the FAO expert meeting on how to feed the world in 2050. An Analysis of the Poultry Sector in Ethiopia, Poultry Sector Country Review. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/ak542e/ak542e19.pdf.
21: FAO, 2005. Supply Utilization Accounts and Food Balances http://faostat.fao.org/
22: FAO, 2003. Poultry nutrition and feeds. Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/themes/en/poultry/AP_nutrition.html.
23: FAO, 1995. Impact Domain: Concentrate Feed Demand. In: Feed Commodity Demand and Supply, Hend, C.R.C., U. Kleih, R. Crawshaw and M. Phillips, (Eds.). Interactions b/n Livestock Production Systems and the Environment, Rome, Pages: 141.
24: FAO, 1991. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture. www.fao.org/docrep/ U3550T/
25: Costa, F.G.P., C.F.S. Oliveira, C.C. Goulart, D.F. Figueiredo and R.C.L. Neto, 2008. Use of exogenous enzymes on laying hens feeding during the second production cycle. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 7: 333-338.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
26: Ayele, G. and K.M. Rich, 2010. Poultry value chains and HPAI in Ethiopia. Africa/Indonesia Team Working Paper No. 25, pp: 50. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/hpaiwp25_Ethiopia.pdf.
27: Gueye, E.F., 2003. Production and consumption trends in Africa. World Poult. Sci. J., 19: 12-14.
28: Haagsman, H.P., K.J. Hellingwerf and B.A.J. Roelen, 2009. Production of animal proteins by cell systems. Desk study on cultured meat (Kweekvlees). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, October 2009, Pages: 60. http://www.new-harvest.org/img/files/production_of_animal_proteins_1207.pdf.
29: Thompson, H.E., L. Berrang-Ford and J.D. Ford, 2010. Climate change and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 2: 2719-2733.
30: Heft-Neal, S., J. Otte, W. Pupphavessa, D. Roland-Holst, S. Sudsawasd and D. Zilberman, 2008. Supply chain auditing for poultry production in Thailand. PPLPI Research Report, pp: 54. http://www.fao.org/AG/againfo/programmes/en/pplpi/docarc/rep-0809_thaipoultrychain.pdf.
31: Hendy, C.R.C., U. Kleih, R. Crawshaw and M. Phillips, 1995. Livestock and the environment finding a balance: Interactions between livestock production systems and the environment impact domain: Concentrate feed demand. Natural Resources Institute, UK., Pages: 141.
32: ILRI, 2006. Functional gene discovery for disease resistance in chicken. International Livestock Research Institute. http://www.ilri.org/FunctionalGeneDiscovery.
33: ILRI, 2000. Handbook of Livestock Statistics for Developing Countries. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya, ISBN-13: 9789291460755, Pages: 289.
34: Ismoyowati and J. Sumarmono, 2011. Fat and cholesterol contents of local duck (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) meat fed mash, paste and crumble feeds. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 5: 150-154.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
35: Hinrichs, J. and H. Steinfeld, 2007. Feed availability inducing structural change in the poultry sector. Proceedings of the International Conference on Poultry in the 21st Century Avian Influenza and Beyond, November 5-7, 2007, FAO, Bangkok, Thailand -.
36: Chen, J., T. Lu and Z. Han, 1997. Poultry production in China and thepotential for using enzyme preparations. Proceedings of the 1st Chinese Symposium on Feed Enzymes, May 6-8, 1996, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing, China, pp: 1-5.
37: Kearney, J., 2010. Food consumption trends and drivers. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Biol. Sci., 365: 2793-2807.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
38: Rushton, J., R. Viscarra, E.G. Bleich and A. McLeod, 2004. Impact of avian influenza outbreaks in the poultry sectors of five South East Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam) outbreak costs, responses and potential long term control. FAO, Rome, Italy, pp: 1-25. http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/214194/rushton-comp.pdf.
39: Kitalyi, A.J. and A. Mayer, 1998. Village chicken production systems in rural Africa. Household Food Security and Gender Issues,FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 142, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp: 1-81.
40: Pant, K.P., 2011. Economics of climate change for small holder farmers in Nepal: A review. J. Agric. Environ., 12: 113-126.
Direct Link |
41: Kryger, K.N., K.A. Thomsen, M.A. Whyte and M. Dissing, 2010. Smallholder poultry production-livelihoods, food security and sociocultural significance. Smallholder Poultry Production, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp: 76. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al674e/al674e00.pdf.
42: Kumar, L., G. Awasthi and B. Singh, 2011. Extremophiles: A novel source of industrially important enzymes. Biotechnology, 10: 121-135.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
43: Madan, M.L., 2005. Animal biotechnology: Applications and economic implications in developing countries. Rev. Sci. Technol., 24: 127-139.
PubMed | Direct Link |
44: Mengesha, M., 2011. Climate change and the preference of rearing poultry for the demands of protein foods. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 5: 135-143.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
45: Mengesha, M. and W. Tsega, 2011. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of indigenous chickens in Ethiopia: A review. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 6: 5398-5404.
46: Mengesha, M., B. Tamir and T. Dessie, 2011. Village chicken constraints and traditional management practices in Jamma District, South Wollo, Ethiopia. J. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 23.
47: Mengesha, M. and S. Abda, 2010. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed selected energy source feeds. Res. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 54-57.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
48: Menhgesha, M., B. Tamir and T. Dessie, 2008. Socio-economical contribution and labor allocation of village chicken production of Jamma district, South Wollo, Ethiopia. J. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 20.
49: Mengesha, M., B. Tamir and T. Dessie, 2008. Village chicken characteristics and their seasonal production situation in Jamma District, South Wollo, Ethiopia. J. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 20.
50: Thomas, M., X. Diao and D. Roy, 2009. Impact of a potential avian flu outbreak in Ethiopia: A multimarket model analysis. Controlling Avian Flu and Protecting People's Livelihoods in Africa and Indonesia, HPAI Research Brief No. 13. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/hpairb13.pdf.
51: Marks, H.L., 1991. Feed efficiency changes accompanying selection for body weight in chickens and quails. World Poult. Sci. J., 47: 197-212.
52: Jabbar, M., D. Baker and M. Fadiga, 2011. Animal-source foods in the developing world: Demand for quality and safety. Livestock Exchange Issue Brief 16, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), pp: 4.
53: Montaldo, H.H., 2006. Genetic engineering applications in animal breeding. Electron. J. Biotechnol., 9: 157-170.
Direct Link |
54: Muchenje, V., M.M. Manzini, S. Sibanda and S.M. Makuza, 2001. Socio-economic and biological issues to consider in smallholder poultry development and research in Southern Africa in the new millennium. Proceedings of the Regional Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture and Crisis Mitigation in Livestock-Dependent Systems in Southern Africa, October 30-November 1, 2000, Malawi Institute of Management, Lilongwe, Malawi -.
55: Neumann, C. and D.M. Harris, 1999. Contribution of animal source foods in improving diet quality for children in the developing world. The World Bank, Washington, DC., USA. http://ilri.org/InfoServ/Webpub/fulldocs/InvestingInDairy/DOX/World%20Bank%20report%20-%20ContributionofAnimalSourceFoods.pdf.
56: Njue, S.W., J.L. Kasiiti, S.G. Gacheru, 2004. Assessing the economic impact of commercial poultry feeds supplementation and vaccination against newcastle disease in local chickens in Kenya. Proceedings of a Final Research Coordination Meeting, May 24-28, 2004, Joint FAO/IAEA, Vienna, Austria, pp: 116-124.
57: Nweze, B.O., A.E. Nwankwegu and O.O. Ekwe, 2011. The performance of the broilers chickens on African porridge fruit (Tetrapleura tetraptera) pod under different feeding regimes. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 5: 144-149.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
58: Officer, D.I., 2000. Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. In: Feed Enzymes, D'Mello, J.P.F. (Ed.). NSW Agriculture, Agricultural Research and Advisory Station, CAB International, Grafton, Australia, pp: 405-425.
59: Pisulewski, P.M., 2005. Nutritional potential for improving meat quality in poultry. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 23: 303-315.
Direct Link |
60: Peric, L., D. Zikic and M. Lukic, 2009. Aplication of alternative growth promoters in broiler production. Biotechnol. Anim. Husb., 25: 387-397.
61: Thornton, P.K., 2010. Livestock production: Recent trends, future prospects. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci., 365: 2853-2867.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
62: Pica-Ciamarra, U. and J. Otte, 2009. Poultry, food security and poverty in India: Looking beyond the farm-gate. PPLPI Research Report, pp: 14. http://www.fao.org/AG/againfo/programmes/en/pplpi/docarc/rep-0902_indiapoultry.pdf.
63: Abdullah, R.B., W.K. Wan Embong and H.H. Soh, 2011. Biotechnology in animal production in developing countries. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Agricultural and Animal Science, November 25-27, 2011, Singapore, pp: 88-91.
64: Ravindran, V. and R. Blair, 1992. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. II. Plant protein sources. World's Poult. Sci. J., 48: 205-231.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
65: Reddy, C.V. and S. Qudratullah, 1996. Strategic feeding supplementation through locally available resources. Proceedings of the 20th World's Poultry Congress, September 2-5, 1996, FAO, New Delhi, India, pp: 70-.
66: Rodic, V., L. Peric, Z. Pavlovski and N. Milosevic, 2010. Improving the poultry sector in Serbia: Major economic constraints and opportunities. World's Poult. Sci. J., 66: 241-250.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
67: Marquardt, R.R., 2000. Recommendations for Future Research on the Use of Enzymes in Animal Feeds. In: Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition, Marquardt, R.R., Z. Han and Z. Han (Eds.). International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, ISBN-13: 9780889368217, pp: 129-138.
68: Rosenzweig, C., M.L. Parry, G. Fischer and K. Frohberg, 1993. Climate change and world food supply. Research Report No. 3, University of Oxford, Environmental Change Unit, Oxford, UK., pp: 133-138. http://www.ciesin.org/docs/004-046/004-046.html.
69: Scanes, C.G., 2007. Contribution of poultry to quality of life and economic development in the developing world. Poult. Sci., 86: 2289-2290.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
70: Speedy, A.W., 2003. Global production and consumption of animal source foods. J. Nutr., 133: 4048S-4053S.
Direct Link |
71: Solomon, A., A. Workalemahu, M.A. Jabbar, M.M. Ahmed and B. Hurissa, 2003. Livestock marketing in Ethiopia: A review of structure, performance and development initiatives. Socio-Economics and Policy Research Working Paper 52. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
72: Sonaiya, E.B. and S.E.J. Swan, 2004. FAO Animal Production and Health: Small Scale Poultry Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Itly, ISBN: 92-5-105082-1.
73: Chadd, S., 2008. Future trends and developments in poultry nutrition. Proceedings of the International Conference of Poultry in the 21st Century Avian Influenza and Beyond, November 5-7, 2007, FAO, Bangkok -.
74: Steinfeld, H., 2003. Economic constraints on production and consumption of animal source foods for nutrition in developing countries. J. Nutr., 133: 4054S-4061S.
Direct Link |
75: Chadd, S., 2007. Future trends and developments in poultry nutrition. Proceedings of the International Conference Poultry in the 21st Century, November 5-7, 2007, FAO, Bangkok, Rome, Italy -.
76: Seo, S.N. and R.O. Mendelsohn, 2006. The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Management in Africa: A Structural Ricardian Analysis. World Bank Publications, USA., Pages: 48.
77: Gura, S., 2008. Industrial livestock production and its impact on smallholders in developing countries. Consultancy Report to the League for Pastoral Peoples and Endogenous Livestock Development, Germany, pp: 65. http://www.pastoralpeoples.org/docs/gura_ind_livestock_prod.pdf.
78: UN, 2005. World population prospect. http://esa.un.org/unpp/
79: UNEP, 2011. The environmental food crisis. World Food Demand and Need. http://www.grida.no/publications/rr/food-crisis/.
80: WHO/FAO, 2003. Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends: Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: WHO Technical Report Series 916. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consu., Geneva, 28-Jan-1-February 2002
81: Van der Sluis, W., 2007. Intensive poultry production. World Poult., 23: 28-30.
82: Yotopoulos, P.A., 1987. The new food-feed competition. Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation on the Substitution of Imported Concentrate Feeds in Animal Production Systems in Developing Countries, September 9-13, 1985, FAO, Bangkok -.
83: Younas, M. and M. Yaqoob, 2005. Feed resources of livestock in the Punjab, Pakistan. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 17, No. 2.
84: Zhang, W. and S.E. Aggrey, 2003. Genetic variation in feed utilization efficiency of meat-type chickens. World's Poult. Sci. J., 59: 328-339.
Direct Link |