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Review on Quality Enhancement of Bamboo Utilization: Preservation, Modification and Applications



Aminudin Sulaeman, Rudi Dungani, Nuruddin Nurudin, Sri Hartati, Tati Karliati, Pingkan Aditiawati, Anne Hadiyane, Yoyo Suhaya and Sulistyono
 
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ABSTRACT

The properties of bamboo are unique compared to solid wood and other ligno- and non-lignocellulosic materials especially for manufacturing, designing and construction usages. Recent technological advancements for bamboo processing has proven the positive advantages of bamboo for various interior and exterior applications including furniture, bio-composites, packaging, transport, building and so on. The variability in size, length and diameter of bamboo, its growth and production is a big challenge for their applications as bio-based material along with durability. Since bamboo has a low durability, protection against biotic and abiotic degradation. Since it has vital importance for its longer service life. Preservation and modification treatment of bamboo are therefore regarded as a necessity. Those preservation and modification techniques would ensure the quality and durability of bamboo resulting sustainability and advanced engineering utilization of bamboo. This article reviews the preservation and modification techniques of bamboo which are crucial for advanced products manufacturing and utilization. The article also summarizes the importance of preservation and modification process, its principles and the challenges in quality and durability enhancement of bamboo products. At the end of the article, applications specially the modern one has also been discussed along with its further advancement.

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Aminudin Sulaeman, Rudi Dungani, Nuruddin Nurudin, Sri Hartati, Tati Karliati, Pingkan Aditiawati, Anne Hadiyane, Yoyo Suhaya and Sulistyono , 2018. Review on Quality Enhancement of Bamboo Utilization: Preservation, Modification and Applications. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 17: 1-18.

DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2018.1.18

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2018.1.18
 
Received: July 15, 2017; Accepted: October 23, 2017; Published: December 15, 2017


Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Bamboo as the great potential as solid wood substitute materials, their has 1575 species which each particular species has different properties and qualities. Its rapid growth is acknowledged as one of the eco-products on the environment1. The bamboo is generally thought to be a plant more associated with growing in subtropical and tropical regions like Southeast Asia2. The unique nature of bamboo has attracted researchers to investigate and explore, especially in the field of quality and durability enhancement of bamboo products.

Bamboo is a plant with many advantages and is used for many purposes from cradle to grave and is found in vast areas throughout the world. Because of its fast growing nature, it is an easily renewable raw material which has attractive and unique appearance and toughness2. The bamboo dependency could directly reduce the deforestation or degradation of forest because of its short rotation. The woody plants simply take a long time up to 20 years to reach their maturity, while bamboo only takes less than 4 years to reach their maturity. The use of bamboo in some of the tropical countries like Indonesia and Malaysia is still at the minimum level, while in the other countries (China and Japan), it is a source which contributes to the growth of the economy. According to Maoyi and Xiaosheng3, value of world trade of bamboo has reached 4 billion U.S. dollars and is monopolized by China. Bamboo properties of being lightweight and high-strength are recognized as the source of raw materials that can be processed and shaped into the form of a number of commodities. Advancement in science and technology, has led in terms of its value of diversity in the production of bamboo bio-composite products4.

In recent years, bamboo use as raw material for various products. This invention had showed the great potential and bright future by using bamboo as raw materials. The laminated products, structural boards, trusses, concrete reinforcement and ply-bamboo has been explored5-9. The suitability of bamboo for crushed ply-bamboo for form work (C-Bam for form work) and compressed parallel-orientated bamboo skewer that bound and glued together to form a structurally wood V-Bam was studied by Wahab et al.10. This raw material has been used for particle board, fiberboard, pulp and paper11,12.

Research in material processes such as bamboo contributes to various products because it is concerned with factors such as safety, aesthetics, functionality, consumer acceptance and the potential impact on the environment. Many researchers have already shown that modern furniture using material such as bamboo can create something unique, outstanding and biodegradable such laminated, veneer, ply-bamboo, bamboo flooring, bio-composites bamboo, chopstick, tooths ticanel and handicraft13, etc. (Fig. 1).

Bamboo is a multi-use biological raw material, it is easy to work and in the tropics, is often inexpensive. Its natural durability is however not to be compared with that of materials such as concrete or metal.

Fig. 1: Potential using of bamboo culm in various application (Van der Lugt et al.14 with modification)

Fig. 2: Schematic drawing of anatomical and fiber morphological of bamboo

This has resulted in the bamboo is susceptible to microorganisms (e.g., decay fungi) and xylophaegous boring insects (e.g., termites). Under unfavourable conditions, fungi and insects can greatly curtail its service life. There are many different types which infest and deteriorate bamboo under different environment conditions and which produce various visible changes of the bamboo products attacked. All microorganisms use bamboo and its contents as their energy source, i.e., food15. Bamboo consists of 50-70% hemicellulose, 30% pentosans and 20-25% lignin16. The lignin present in bamboos is unique and undergoes changes during the growth of the culm17. According to Wang et al.18, bamboo is also known to be rich in silica (0.5-4%) but the entire silica is located in the outer layer (1 mm), with hardly any silica in the rest of the wall. Bamboos also have minor amounts of waxes, resins and tannins but none of these have enough toxicity to improve its natural durability17.

According to Chavan and Attar15, carbohydrate content of bamboo plays an important role in its durability and service life. Further they mention that, durability of bamboo against mold, fungal and borers attack is strongly associated with the chemical composition. These variations in bamboo durability strongly depend on the species19-21, the length of the culm, thickness of the wall22 but also the time of harvesting23. Because low durability of bamboo in an exposed environment, the bamboo-protection have long been employed to try and enhance its natural durability. There are various treating method for getting long time use often preservation with chemicals15,24.

This review effectively summarises the quality enhancement of bamboo utilization, including characterization, properties and its applicability towards sustainable products of bamboo. The need of modification technologies for the production and processing of bamboo as well as principles and importance in designing sustainable bamboo products are also discussed in this study.

NATURE OF BAMBOO

The stem of bamboo is known as a culm and is normally bright green in colour when young and becomes dull green when mature. The bamboo culm is normally cylindrical and smooth in shape and characterized by nodes along its length. Culms arise from underground rhizomes which can be single-stemmed (leptomorh type) or form dense clumps (pachymorph type)25. It grows in nature, which makes it a renewable material26.

Most of the bamboo species show on the transverse section outer layer is known as epidermis as shown in Fig. 2. The culm of bamboo itself is surrounded by outermost layer, the bark, consists of epidermal cells that contain a waxy layer called cutin27. The culm bamboo cells consists of parenchymatous cells forming the ground tissue and the vascular bundles are composed of vessels, sieve tubes with companion cells and fibres. There are no radial pathways in the culm tissues. The extent of conducting tissues are only 8% of the culm tissues. Finally, movement of preservative solution for penetration difficult in radial direction and time consuming process28. The thickness of the cell-wall and the ratio of cell-wall to cell-volume determines the density. A close correlation exists between density and most of the properties of bamboo like hardness, strength and mechanical properties29,30. However, two most important exceptions to this relationship are bamboo’s natural durability to resist biological attack and its treat ability, neither corresponds to its density31:

The outer zone of the culm wall is called the cortex/cutin. It consists of epidermis cell covered with cutinized waxy layer. This layer protects against physical damage and preventing loss of moisture30. After felling it inhibit rapid drying and thus prevents checks and splits. On the other hand, if bamboo is moist it may be attacked by harmful fungi. Futhermore, cortex/cutin cannot be penetrated by preservatives, thus leading to insufficient treatment32,33. On the other hand for sap-displacement methods (Boucherie treatment), the presence of cutin is essential for the process33
Vascular bundles zone are many in numbers and scattered all over any piece of bamboo34,35. It reveals that the population of the vascular bundles varies from outer to inner periphery of a piece of bamboo27. This part more resistant to attack than tissue parenchyma. At the same it is mostly not permeable for liquids, such as water, organic solvent, etc36
The parenchyma zone consists of longitudinal elongated cells interspersed with small cubical (isodiametric) cells37. Numerous small, simple pits connect parenchyma cells to each other38. Whereas, a young culm does not contain starch, (since all nutrients are immediately utilized), the parenchyma of older culms is filled with starch grains32. Parenchyma zone may be treated with chemicals to get high durability. However, it is often difficult to treat it properly, which has to be considered when using certain bamboo species in fields where attack may occur

The properties of bamboo are mainly determined by the structure of the culms anatomy. It is thus important to understand the structural variability within a culm and possible trends of the characteristics of its features, which may have significant importance on the physical, mechanical and durability properties. Most of the bamboo species have separate fibre strands on the inner or both on the inner and outer side of the vascular bundle35. It was concluded by this study that vascular bundle size is larger at the basal and gradually decreases at the top. The total number of vascular bundles decreases steadily with height, whereas their closeness increases. 50-80% of the vascular bundles are located in the outer one third of the culm wall with 10-35% in the middle third and about 10-20% in the inner third35. The vascular bundles become progressively more densely packed towards the periphery of the culms39.

The total culm comprises about 50-52% parenchyma, 40% fiber and 8-10% (cross-sectional area) conducting tissues (vessels and sieve tubes), with some variation according to species17,40.

Fig. 3:
Fine structure of internode bamboo demonstrating the cross section, radial and tangential phase (photo by Liese31)
  V: Vessel, F: Fibers

Li et al.41 investigated parenchyma cell-walls in Neosinocalamus affinis. They were found to consist of about 15 lamellae, which were arranged in broad and narrow layers. The broad lamellae were about 0.2 μm while the narrow lamellae were about 0.04 μm. The parenchyma cell-walls are therefore highly lamellated than fibers.

The vessel wall has numerous bordered pits in opposite as well as alternate arrangements17. The small metaxylem vessels at the nodes possess more perforation. The pits generally have elliptical apertures with a slightly oblique or horizontal orientation. Most of the movement of sap in the culms takes place through the vessels. However, some species produce tyloses in the vessel that might interrupt this movement. The fibre cells differ considerably in size and shape according to their position in the bundle in the culm wall and with species40. The fibers are found to be long-living and contain nuclei even after several years of age41,42. The fibers often increase in length from the periphery towards the centre of the bamboo culm wall and decrease back towards the inner portion (Fig. 3).

BAMBOO AS PART OF NATURE

Bamboo is a biological product and therefore subject to a continuous cycle of composition and decomposition. In principle, this cycle including decomposition is most important for all life in nature. Various organisms, mainly insects and fungi break down woody substance into organic matter in the soil and the resulting accumulation of nutrients again enables the growth of new plants. Studies reported that the soil biological properties plays effective role in plant growth and development, such as bamboo43-46.

Bamboo consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin as main constituents and resins, tannins, waxes and inorganic salts as minor constituents47,48. The latter being responsible for individual properties of bamboo species, such as colour or natural durability38,49. Bamboo culms do not produce any toxic substances during their lifetime, unlike the heartwood of many trees, so that the whole culm can be destroyed. In addition, the culm contains about 50% parenchyma cells, filled with starch as stored energy, which is needed for the development of new culms32,50-52. Huang et al.53 reported the starch affects the susceptibility against borers and blue-stain fungi. They also reported the bamboo culms do not produce any toxic substances during their lifetime, unlike the heartwood of many trees, so that the whole culm can be destroyed. Although bamboo is one of the strongest structural materials available, it is often vulnerable to destruction by bamboo deteriorating agents and is then called bamboo deterioration and regarded as a severe disadvantage. During post-harvested period bamboos are prone to fungal and insect attack during storage period as the moisture contents is very high. It is estimated that an average weight loss of 25-40% occurs due to biodeterioration54. The correlation of chemical composition of bamboo and damage in bamboo has been investigated in recent years. Dhawan et al.55 found that nitrogen content in bamboo was directly related to termite damage. These authors found also that quantity of lignin, ash and silica present in bamboo influenced termite damage and played a significant role in termite resistance.

As a matter of fact, bamboo deterioration causes much loss if a long-term use of bamboo products is intended and for many types of utilization, like constructional bamboo, poles or furniture, it is essential to avoid an early decomposition53. There are of treatment have been applied to long time service life for protect bamboo from deterioration process such as heat treatment56-58, preservative chemical treatment14,59-61, microwave modification62, fumigation techniques63, pressure impregnation64, traditional water leaching method and smoking65 etc.

Time of attack: It is essential for effective bamboo preservation to know the time when bamboo may be infested by deleterious organisms. In practice the 1st signs of attack are often neglected and much bamboo is treated which is already badly infested or even deteriorated. This is not only an economical waste but it may cause danger if the strength properties are already reduced. A prophylactic treatment in due time will enhance quality.

Fig. 4: Boring tunnels by adult beetle and larva (Photo by Norhisham)76

Freshly cut stem of bamboo can be attacked within few hour of felling by certain insects and by spores of blue stain fungi66. Furthermore, the harvested and stored bamboos, if not protected adequately are often seriously infested by insect borers, termites and fungi:

The bamboo borer beetle, belongs to powder-post beetles and long-horned beetles are small family with approximately 650 species in 7 subfamilies and 80 genera67-70. They are all important insects damaging post-harvest bamboo69,71-73. Thapa et al.74 reported that a bamboo stack may be lost approximately 40 % within a period of 8-10 months due to borer attack. Muthukrishnan et al.75 considered that Dinoderus brevis, D. minutus and D. ocellaris are the serious pests of felled bamboos. Acda76 reported that infestation by D. minutus on bamboo is mainly associated with the availability of carbohydrate content. According to Garcia and Morrell77, the physical properties are mainly moisture content and density of the bamboo is an important factors that determines the rate of development of D. minutus in bamboo. Study by Norhisham et al.78 shown the beetles will deposit their eggs into the bark/cutin and the larvae penetrate into the bamboo of moisture contents between 12 and 30% (Fig. 4)
Termites are the most aggressive insect enemy of bamboo and are therefore of considerable economic significance54. The main food of most termite species is bamboo, wood and other plant material. They are among the few insects capable of utilizing cellulose as a source of food79. Bamboo susceptibility towards biodegradation agents, particularly termite has been studied by many researcher. Hapukotuwa and Grace80 conducted laboratory evaluations of the natural resistance of different bamboo species using Coptotermes formosanus and Coptotermes gestroi. They report that none of them were highly resistant to termite attack. Mishra and Rana81 and Mishra and Thakur82 has been carry out on studies of bamboo natural resistance against termites. They reported that natural resistance of bamboos was more or less comparable to that of some of the moderately durable commercially important timber species. Furthermore, they also observed that the outer layer of bamboo is highly resistant and that termites normally invade bamboo from the cut end portion only. The mechanism of termite attack on bamboo is described by Dungani et al.83 using scanning electron microscope. They investigated that termites began by attacking the samples from the middle and then progressed to attacking the bamboo meal, which was the bamboo culm. Termite attacked the center of the culm by making a hole, thereby penetrating inside of the culm (Fig. 5)
Fungi are the microbial decomposition of biomaterial. Attack fungi in bamboo have found that the initial fungal pathways for penetration are via the vascular bundles. Furthermore, based on Fig. 6, the mycelium spreads characteristically in an axial direction in the parenchyma adjacent to the vessel elements. The development of decay cavities caused by growth of the soft rot fungus. According to the many studies of natural decay resistant of bamboo on several fungi were belonged to little decay resistance18,48,85,86. Liese54 have been reported that the bamboo is considered as susceptible to fungi. However, in the further study, Norul-Hisham et al.87 found that the resistance of bamboo related by the bamboo age. Suprapti19 suggested that, the resistance of Indonesian bamboo decayed by fungi was not significantly different by the culm portions but studied by Schmidt et al.20 found that the bamboo culm aged 6 months decayed more than the older. Schmidt88 investigated bamboo degradation by white-rot fungi and Kim et al.89 by soft-rot fungi. They provided morphological changes of the cell wall structure during decay using TEM (Fig. 6)

Fig. 5(a-b):
SEM micrograph showing termite attack on bamboo culm (a) Before termite attack (Photo by Amada and Untao82), (b) After termite attack

Fig. 6(a-b):
TEM image of decay in Bamboo fibers (a) Decay soft-rot by Chaetomium globosum, (b) Decay white-rot by Pleurotus ostreatus (Photo by Wahab et al.88)

The hyphae of white rot penetrated into the metaxylem vessel. Furthermore, from the lumen, the hyphae further penetrated into the parenchyma cell, where starch was mostly deposited86.

Natural durability of bamboo: The ability of bamboo species to resist biological deterioration is called natural durability or natural resistance91. This property varies depends on bamboo species, the inner part, outer part and among the butt end and the top of culm and also climatic condition.

Low durability of bamboo against bio-deterioration ranges between 1-36 months91-93 investigated that untreated bamboo has a service life of only 2-5 years. They reported that fungi, bacteria and subterranean termite as well as one or more of these organisms attacking the bamboo culms in succession. Material of bamboo (quantity) gets degraded during transportation, storage in the depots as well as in mill yards due to stain fungi and insects. Dhawan and Mishra23 did study on natural durability of bamboos against termites based the felling season and moon phase. They found bamboos felled during moon phase were less durability to termites than those felled in dark phase.

Most countries have started to establish research and development-based bamboo products such as in rural community to substitute wood for housing material. Bamboo products is susceptible to termite and powder post beetle. Consequently, bamboo and its derivative products have relatively short service life. Many researcher have been observe and report that natural durability of bamboos against Coptotermes cynocephalus and Anobium sp.94 and white rot fungus95 were resistant to poor. They also observed effect of the starch content of the bamboo and concluded that the higher starch content of bamboo species reduce the degree of caused by insects and fungi attacks.

In India, found 13 bamboo species have the termite resistance was more or less comparable to that of some of the moderately durable commercially important timber species81,82. In addition, Hapukotuwa and Grace80 analyzed the resistance levels of 6 bamboo species in Hawaii by Coptotermes formosanus and C. gestroi. They provide evidence none of them were highly resistant to termite attack and most should be considered perishable. The durability of bamboo against fungi also have been studied. Wei et al.21 investigate 5 bamboo species against brown rot, white rot and soft-rot fungi. They found Guadua angustifolia was rather resistant to Trametes versicolor and Dendrocalamus asper against Chaetomium globosum. Previous study by Kim et al.96 found the major fungi causing serious damage on bamboo are Trametes versicolor and Arthrinium arundinis, which caused the largest weight losses of approximately 21.6 and 17.9%, respectively. Furthermore, this investigation confirms that the natural durability of bamboo in outdoor utilization is low.

PRESERVATION VERSUS MODIFICATION

In order to overcome the natural defects, there have been many attempts in research on the bamboo modification. As well, there have been many studies on preservation of bamboo against termite and fungal attack and weathering, with increasing needs for structures and products. Based on a review of the literature, the modification of chemical into bamboo has been studies starting in 193697. On the other hand, modification by non-chemical was reported in the early 1950s98.

To protect the lignocellulosic of bamboo material from biodegradation and enhance its service life. Protection method of treating bamboo material has been using various preservation such as mineral oil, coal tar and preservative other99-101. Studies were also carried out to improve other performance properties of bamboo through modification treatment, such as steam treatment56,102,103, smoking65,56, treating with various etherifying and esterifying agents104,105, acetals, alkylene oxide and alkoxysilane-coupling agents106. Several treatments methods have been developed to prolong bamboo’s usefulness using irradiation into bamboo surface. The irradiation is treatment by hydrogen ions, He+ and Ar+ for improve wettability of outer surface of bamboo107. They reported that hydrogen ion bombardment, vascular bundles were etched faster than parenchyma lignin.

Fig. 7:
Schematic drawing of presence of preservatives within the bamboo lumina after preservation process

The dipping modification was studied to improve the tensile performance of bamboo fiber by sulfate process. Wang et al.108 considered that sulfate isolated fiber surface cause increase of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break.

Preservation method to protection of bamboo: Similar to wood, bamboos have a low resistance to biological degrading organisms, therefore, need bamboo preservation techniques during storage and use. The sap-replacement pressure technique, the pressure impregnation, soak and diffusion process can be used23. Bamboo preservation is the process by which bamboo is preserved. Proper preservative treatment will enable to enhance durability of bamboo. Therefore, it is very essential to use bamboo after proper preservative treatments. Preservation method with boraks is the other way to improve quality of bamboo betung (Dendrocalamus asper). Its influence on the mechanical properties indicate that bamboo was preserved has a higher strength than the strength of bamboo without preservatives109. Optimum increasing of tensile strength of bamboo betung (Dendrocalamus asper) acquired at borax and 60% boric acid preservative. Immersion time increase the tensile strength of bamboo betung and optimum increasing of tensile strength acquired at 24 h of immersion time110. The effects of preservative treatment on the durability properties of bamboo strips have been studied by Hanim et al.111. They observed that the water borne preservative gave the best protection against termite.

Once harvested the bamboo turn yellow and the color starts to decay cause their degrade their performance. The protection based preservatives, is also an effective method of fresh bamboo for green-color conservation112. Chang and Wu104 protected fresh bamboo under treated with chromated copper phosphate (CCP) or chromated phosphate (CP). They reported that appropriate chemical reagents were CrO3 and H3PO4. They reported that, treated with 1% CrO3, 1% H3PO4 had the best green color conservation. Chang and Yeh105 and Zhang et al.113 considered that an alkali pretreatment was required removed the waxes and silica on bamboo surface. They suggested that pretreatment was caused by a penetration and reaction with the green color protector in the cellulose bamboo.

The main purpose of bamboo preservation was applied to protect culm tissue against biological agents of deterioration. Based on a review of the literature, starting in 1957/58, Dr. Ashtakala Purushotham had already begun to use chemical preservative for preservation bamboo24. The preservation by chemical treatment must considered of characteristics of bamboo as described by Liese and Kumar24 and Jansen114 are: (i) The outer skin is high in silica and waxy layer content, (ii) The absence of ray cells, (iii) The refractory nature of bamboo culms and (iv) Thin culms. They reported that the flow of preservative was restricted into the culm. They also reported that the flow of preservative on longitudinal direction will be constrained. Meanwhile, radial flow of the preservative is hindered due to the refractory (Fig. 7).

Disadvantages of many these preservatives are the toxic effects on environment and human hearth, researcher are attempting to develop botanical extract-based preservatives. Several studies of these preservatives have been such as neem oil63,115,116, oil nut of kukui plant117, cashew nut shell oil118, cedar oil119,120, oil camphor93,121 and resin from Guayule122.

Meanwhile, many attempts have been made to protection bamboo by non-chemical method. Magel et al.123 and Othman et al.124 investigated the lowering starch and sugar in bamboo culms by harvesting of bamboo during the low-sugar content season. Sulthoni125 and Nguyen126, protected fresh bamboo using submersion in running or stagnant water for 1-3 months.

Modification of bamboo: The modifications in bamboo can use many kinds of the wood modification techniques, such as thermal modification127,128, chemical modification129, surface modification130 and impregnation modification131.

Fig. 8:
Schematic principle of acetylation reaction in the bamboo cell wall

The chemical modification using acetylation method is a chemical treatment which depends on the amount of compounds in the bamboo which can be extracted during the treatment. The bamboo modification using chemicals that produce formation of chemical bonds between the acetyl groups of the chemical reagent with hydroxyl groups of bamboo constituents132. The chemical modification of bamboo using acetylation reaction can be represented in Fig. 8.

Sugiyanto133, bamboo acetylated using acetic anhydride on species Dendrocalamus asper. He reported that the bamboo strip in acetic anhydride improving the liquid uptake. The study has been previously conducted on bamboo modification through acetylation reaction without a catalyst using supercritical carbon dioxide134. Other research has been conducted by Chang and Wu104, Wu et al.135 and Chang and Yeh105 on modification of green bamboo culms with chemical reagents without arsenic. They reported that treated chromated phosphate (1% CrO3, 1% H3PO4) had the best green color conservation on the bamboo. Wu et al.136,137 investigated the appropriate method and process treatment to achieve the green colour protection of bamboo culms. They showed that green colour protection was obtained treated with methanol-borne copper chloride (CuCl2), copper phosphorous salt and under 60°C condition in water bath for 2 h.

Furthermore, the chemical other using such as, acetic acid and propionic acid inhibited mould growth on Buddleja stenostachya and Thorea siamensis. The bamboo species Bambusa procera and D. asper can full protection with 10% propionic acid60. Silviana138 investigated the chemical modification of bamboo using acetic anhydride and silicone oil assisted by supercritical CO2 as medium. They showed that the acetylated bamboo can be categorized as a durable material with hydrophobic. They also reported that the silicone oil-modified bamboo is still degrading during the assessment.

Many studies on thermal modification results in several physical and mechanical changes and chemical composition to the bamboo56,139,142. They reported that correlation between chemical and physical properties after thermal modification produce increased dimensional stability, reduced hygroscopic characteristics and improved decay resistance. Starke et al.143 investigated the thermal modification of African alpine bamboo by heat treatment under temperature 160-220°C. This study shown that, thermally modified bamboo reflected the decomposition of hemicelluloses and correlated with the deterioration of impact resistance. They also observed the treatment temperatures had a stronger effect than the time of modi cation.

Bremer et al.57 investigated effect of thermal modification on the properties of 2 Vietnamese bamboo species (Dendrocalamus barbatus and Dendrocalamus asper). From their studied considered that in thermal modification process depending on the treatment parameter like atmosphere, temperature and duration. They reported that treatment at 130°C cause only slight changes and significant changes occur by modification above 180°C. Meanwhile, the thermally-modified Dendrocalamus asper on the termite resistance were investigated by Manalo and Gracia144. The results showed that heating bamboo under heat conditions at high temperature (140°C) is effective method for improved bamboo’s resistance to termites.

ADVANCEMENT IN UTILIZATION

Bamboo as a sustainable material has been well-accepted in the global market for its many applications as an alternative to traditional timber resources. Recent advancements in bamboo technology has proven the positive advantages of bamboo for innovative design and product in various applications for interior and exterior, which include in furniture, bio-composite products, automotive, building and construction and so forth. The utilization of bamboo is on as materials renewable fiber based products, that is particularly in building and construction, furniture, reinforcement material, automotive and so forth.

Furniture design: Bamboo furthermore, is a material that replaces the wood used in furniture manufacturing. Bamboo furniture have to integrate technology, science, art, and humanism to create more possibilities for the future products145. Many countries have started to establish technique combining-based furniture such as Malaysia, China and Taiwan to produce of bamboo furniture. Bamboo-based furniture products have been produced using bamboo bio-composite. Nowadays, application of ceramic furniture and material in furniture design have been studied by Huang et al.146. The combination between bamboo and ceramics complements each other to bring about the new modern furniture designs. Furthermore, they suggested that this technique combination needs understanding of ceramic and bamboo culture and rational innovations on superiority of two kinds of material.

Bamboo based furniture uses round or split bamboo and glue-laminated bamboo panels. The new design as ‘pack-flat,’ ‘knockdown’ furniture can improving the various characteristics bamboo such as physical, mechanical and aesthetic13,147. In recent years, recombinant bamboo developed with makes use of bamboo waste as raw materials. This technology of recombinant bamboo through compressed bamboo ties or bamboo slices into a mold148. They reported that the application of recombinant bamboo in furniture industry is still in the initial stage of exploration.

Automotive components: In the past decade, the use of natural fibers in composite plastics is gaining popularity, particularly the automotive industry. The natural fibers such as flax, jute, bamboo, kenaf, hemp, roselle, banana and sisal offer such benefits as natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices. The use of these composites as automotive parts production such as the interior of the car, rear seats, door panels, dashboards, headliners and package trays149,150. Davoodi et al.151 reported that fiber bamboo materials has several advantage, such as high strength and stability, sound insulation, resistance to dampness, pressure resistance and flexibility.

Earlier studies by Ismail et al.152 and Cobonpue and Birkner153, shown that bamboo has been used to build boats, aircraft and zeppelins. They suggested that natural fiber bamboo materials have highly potential to be used in automotive parts. They also reported that, the aircraft bamboo were built in Philippines and Chinese.

Application of bamboo based products in housing: In Asian countries, bamboo is extremely important material for Traditional houses. The various applications of bamboo utilization, such as traditional bamboo houses using a bamboo frame and prefabricated houses made of bamboo laminated boards is easy to find in China, India, Thailand and other Asia areas154.

There are many uses of culms of bamboo for housing and construction purpose such as glue-laminated bamboo, laminated woven bamboo mat panel, bamboo pole, woven bamboo mat and flattened bamboo155-159. In several countries have been application of these materials integrated into engineered constructive systems160,161.

Towards consumer product, bamboo fibers based composites play the most important role in enhancement of product. The composites of polymer and bamboo fiber are expected will many applications. They are used for girder, purlin, post, rafter, ceiling, flooring, roofing, partitions, doors and window frames162-166. Further applications of bamboo products include its use as scaffolding, water piping and as shuttering, reinforcement for concrete and concrete formwork167-171.

Further, hybrid bamboo-based products have been used as the home decorative accessories was studied by Suhaily et al.172. Based on the studies by Abdul Khalil et al.29, it was proved that hybrid bamboo material have aspects aesthetic as well as physical and mechanical. With the treatment such as heating and clamping, the bamboo can be bent or straightened. This is further proving that hybrid bamboo material can overcome other types of materials. One of more example of applications on the industry for interior decoration was Madrid Barajas International Airport, Spain. This international airport was built using laminated bamboo laths from all walks of bamboo veneer173.

Others applications: Bamboo has been widely recognized for excellent production of fiber and has great potential in the bio-composite industries. Bamboo fiber is longer than wood fiber, these fibers are approximately 12.91-42.32 μm in diameter15 with length of the fibers is 2.98-5.63 mm and cell wall thickness were 2.41-13.32 μm174-175. The extraction of fiber from bamboo is done in 3-4 years old bamboo. Several of studies have reported bamboo fiber is produced through sulphuric acid hydrolysis176-179, autohydrolysis180, alkaline treatment181, phosphoric acid182 and oxalic acid183.

Over the past 2 decades, numerous studies have been performed to application bamboo fiber as a reinforcement material in polymer composites. These cellulose fibers are an interesting alternative to synthetic fibers because of its clean emissions and biodegradability184-186. Several investigators have producing the polymer composites from bamboo fibers, such as medium density fiberboard101,187, bamboo fibers in combination with wood veneer as bamboo mat veneer composites product188,189, bamboo-glass fibres composites190,191, bamboo fibres as reinforcement material, such as in thermoplastic polypropylene162,191, polyester192, vinyl ester193, epoxy194-196, elastomer polymer matrix197,198 and rubber matrix199 to be used in many applications. Meanwhile, utilization of bamboo fibers as cement replacement also become a new approach in bamboo development progress200.

However, few studies shown that bamboo fiber is brittle compared with other natural fibers49,199-204. They investigated that, the bamboo fibers are covered with lignin. Therefore, fiber surface modifications via various chemical treatments to improve the fiber-matrix interface adhesion on mechanical has become crucial for the development and design products153.

CONCLUSION

The utilization of bamboo as a resolution to the problem of resources reduction of natural forests and also can generate new economic resources for future generations. Bamboo as a sustainable material has been well-accepted for its many applications as an alternative to traditional timber resources. Recent advancements in bamboo technology has proven the positive advantages of bamboo for innovative design and product in various applications for particularly in building and construction, furniture, bio-composite products, automotive and so forth. Bamboo requires innovative processing technology to realize the quality product development. Many attempts have been made to quality enhancement of bamboo by preservation. Chemical or physical modification is another effective method of the advancements in the technology. However, various in properties from bamboo require treatments and application of bamboo products in various categories. Furthermore, chemical and physical treatment resulted products are with high performance.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTS

This study discovers the preservation and modification techniques of bamboo that can be beneficial for advance products manufacturing and utilization. This study will help the researcher to uncover the critical areas of quality and durability enhancement of bamboo products that many researchers were not able to explore. Thus a new theory on Preservation, modification and applications of bamboo may be arrived at.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank Institute Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia (ITB), for providing Research Grants of Increase Citation for ITB World Class University Ranking No. 1355/SK/11.B03.2/KU/2016. The authors would also like to thank Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA) Indonesia, for providing the necessary facilities.

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