Review on Bioactive Potential in Seaweeds (Marine Macroalgae): A Special Emphasis on Bioactivity of Seaweeds Against Plant Pathogens
May 27, 2010; Accepted: June 30, 2010;
Published: August 07, 2010
The term bioactive compound is an expression in common use and
includes compounds, which at low concentrations, may be either beneficial or
harmful to living organisms. Generally, the term refers to secondary metabolites
that have attracted the attention of both scientists and industrialists. Seaweeds
have been identified as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Seaweeds constituting
an important renewable marine resource occur generally on the rocky substratum
in the intertidal and sub tidal regions of the coastal waters. They are the
only source for the production of agar, algin and carrageenan. Ocean has been
recognized as a store house of fine chemicals. Besides their traditional use
as phycocolloids and liquid fertilizer, seaweeds also known to possesses compounds
exhibiting antimicrobial potential against the pathogenic microbes of medical,
agricultural and environmental importance. Pharmacologists, physiologists and
chemists have been paying increasing attention to the marine organisms particularly
on seaweeds for screening bioactive substances. Several works have been undertaken
on crude and purified compounds obtained from seaweeds for evaluating their
bioactive potential (Faulkner, 1992).
Works done for the last 3 decades were mainly on screening biologically active
compounds in different seaweeds against various human pathogenic viruses, bacteria
and fungi (Rao and Parekh, 1981; Glombitza
and Klapperich, 1985; De Campos-Takaki et al.,
1988; Rao, 1990; Vidyavathi
and Sridhar, 1991; Premnathan et al., 1992;
Kamat et al., 1992; Robles-Centeno
et al., 1996; Sastry and Rao, 1994). In the
present review, potential of crude and purified compounds obtained from the
seaweeds tested against pathogens causing diseases in human and plant pathogens
are compiled. Besides, a special emphasis on bioactive potential of seaweeds
against the plant pathogen is addressed in order to exploit this renewable resource
for crop protection in agriculture.
BIOACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS
Hornsey and Hide (1974) screened 151 species of seaweed
for the production of antibiotics. Of these, Asparagopsis armata, Bonnemaisonia
asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Chondrus crispus, Dilsea
carnosa, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Sphondylothamnion multifidum,
Desmaretia aculeata, Desmaretia liqulata, Laminaria digitata,
Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotoma, Halidrys siliquosa
and most members of the family Rhodomelaceae exhibited high antibacterial potential
against the test bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Proteus
morganii. The crude extracts obtained from the green alga Chloroccocum
humicoum (Chlorophyceae) showed bioactivity against the pathogenic bacteria
such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Bacillus pumillus, Escherichia
coli, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus
aureus (Pande and Gupta, 1977). Caccamese
et al. (1979) reported the antibacterial potential of Hypnea musciformis
against Bacillus subtilis. Rao and Parekh (1981)
found that the crude extracts obtained from the green seaweeds such as Caulerpa
taxifolia, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Enteromorpha
intestinalis; brown seaweeds such as Padina gymnospora and Dictyota
dichotoma and red seaweeds such as Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria
corticata, Chondria armata, Acanthophora delile, Laurencia papillosa
and Coralline officinalis showed considerable bioactive potential.
Rao and Parekh (1981) reported that the crude extracts
of brown seaweeds such as Dictyota dichotoma and Dictyota sp.
were active against the Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus megatherium
and Staphylococcus aureus but not active against Gram negative bacteria
tested. The crude extracts of Zanardinia prototypus and Cystoseira
balearica exhibited the best antimicrobial and antiviral activities among
the seaweeds tested, while extract obtained from Lophocladia lallemandii
did not active against the test bacteria but had high antiviral potential.
Reichelt and Borowitzka (1984) found that majority of
the algal extracts showing antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria.
The crude extracts obtained from the red seaweeds such as Falkenbergia rufolanosa
and Laurencea obtusa possessed strong inhibitory effect against several
pathogenic bacteria tested whereas the extract of Hypnea musciformis
showed a very weak activity against the test bacteria (Pesando
and Carm, 1984). Some fractions obtained from the crude extracts of red,
brown and green seaweeds showed optimum antibacterial activity against the test
bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris.
Unsaponifiable part of the lipid extracted in diethyl ether and saponifiable
part of the lipid obtained in benzene from the brown alga Sargassum johnstonii
exhibited more antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative
bacteria tested (Parekh et al., 1984). Different
concentration of the fractions isolated from the seaweeds showed antibacterial
activity against the test bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia
coli (Parekh,1985). The distribution of bioactive
potential in seaweeds was evaluated against some human pathogenic Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria (Ballantine et al., 1987).
Among the seaweeds evaluated 63% of Rhodophyta, 71% Phaeophyta and
66% Chlorophyta showed antibacterial activity and 83% of species within
the order Dictyotales showed bioactivity (Ballantine
et al., 1987). Extracts of 12 different species of Sargassum
were separated into two fractions and tested against 9 human pathogenic bacteria.
Both fractions of Sargassum vulgare showed good antibacterial activity
against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (Rao et
al., 1988). Of the 35 seaweeds collected along the coast of Sri Lanka
and screened against the human pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcous aureus
and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Cladosporium cladosporoides
and Candida albicans), 26 species exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal
activity (Bandara et al., 1988). Crude extracts
obtained in the diethyl ether from various parts, viz., fronds, stems
and air bladders of Sargassum johnstonii screened for their
antibacterial potential and found that the extracts of the frond portion showed
more bioactivity than the stem and air bladders (Rao, 1990).
Studies conducted on 30 species of seaweeds collected along the coast of Mandapam,
Tamil Nadu for their hemolytic and antimicrobial potential. Results indicated
that extracts obtained from the seaweeds such as Enteromorpha compressa,
Cladophoropsis zoolingeri, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum wightii
and Gracilaria corticata showed antibacterial activity against the Gram
negative bacteria and Gram positive cultures of Bacillus. A strong hemolytic
activity was shown by the extract of Cladophoropsi zoolingeri and Grateloupia
lithophila (Rao et al., 1991). Ethanolic extracts
of Indian marine macro algae belonging to the Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and
Chlorophyceae were tested for anti-semiliki Forest (SFV), Ranikhet disease (RDV)
and vaccinia viruses (vv). In the primary screening of 31 seaweeds, 17 showed
biologically activity of which seven were anti-SFV and 10 were antivaccinia.
None of them showed any activity against RDV. The antiviral activity observed
in Codium elongatum and the two species of Hypnea was attributed
to the polysaccharides. The palmitoyl ester amide of dihydroxy sphingosine was
found to be the antiviral principle of Ulva fasciata (Kamat
et al., 1992).
Seventy one species of marine macrophytes found along the coast of Central
Mediterranean screened for the production of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,
cytotoxic and antimitotic potential. Of the 71, 65 species displayed some kind
of activity and most of them were active on more than one pathogens or cell
tested. Antifungal activity was the most widespread (70% of the plants), whilst
the incidence of antibacterial activity was extra ordinarily low (6% of the
plants). Of the plants tested, 21% showed antiviral activity, 35% were cytotoxic
and nearly 50% had antimitotic property. The maximum level of activity was found
among the Chlorophyta and some members of the Bryopsidales (Flabellia
petiolata, Caulerpa prolifera, Halimeda tuna ) were most active species.
Most of the dominant species in Mediterranean phytobenthic algae such as Corallina
elongate, Lithophyllum lichenoides, Phyllophora cripsa, Cystoseria
sp., Halopteris spp., Codium sps., Halimeda tuna,
Valonia utricularis, Posidomia oceanica, Zostera noltii and Cymodocea
nodosa exhibited strong antifungal properties (Ballesteros
et al., 1992). Extracts of Seaweeds, seagrasses and mangroves from
the Southeast coast of India have been tested in vitro for antiviral
activity against New castle disease, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, encephalomyocarditis
and hepatitis B viruses. In the preliminary test, among the 73 crude extracts
examined, 43 exhibited antiviral activity (>50%) against at least anyone
of the viruses (Premnathan et al., 1992). Antimicrobial
potential of six marine green algae found along the coast of Tanzania was screened
against three bacterial species viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus
subtilis, Escherichia coli and a yeast, Candida albicans using
a disk assay method. A brine shrimp bio-assay using newly hatched Artemia
salina larvae was used for cytotoxicity study of crude extracts from three
algal species. Of the six species tested, extract of Valonia aegrophila
was most active against all the pathogens tested and its extract was even more
active against the test bacteria than penicillin G at a concentration of 2.5
μg mol-1. The extracts of Halimeda opuntia and H.tuna
showed mild activity against all pathogens tested. The extract of Ulva pertusa
was more active against the bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and
Bacillus subtilis but less active against Escherichia coli and
was not active against the fungus Candida albicans . The extract of Caulerpa
mexicana was inactive against all the pathogens tested. Occasional development
of antimicrobial resistance colonies within the inhibition zones were observed
from the extracts of Halimeda opuntia and H. tuna when they were
assayed against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli (Mtolera
and Semesi, 1996).
Ethanolic and lipophilic extracts of 21 marine algal species (Rhodophyta-9,
Phaeophyta-2 and Chlorophyta-10) occurring along the coast of
Yucatan, Mexico were evaluated for antibacterial potential against the human
pathogenic microbes (4 Gram positive bacteria, 5 Gram negative and one fungus).
Extracts of all the seaweeds exhibited antibacterial activity. The lipid soluble
extract of Ceramium nitens exhibited the highest bioactivity among the
seaweeds screened. Bioactivity of extracts obtained from different regions of
the thallus (apical, basal and stolon) of Caulerpa sps. (C. ashmeadii,
C. paspaloides and C. prolifera) was evaluated. It was observed that
the stolon of Caulerpa has the highest antibacterial potential (Freile-Pelegrin
and Morales, 2004). Antibacterial potential of seaweeds such as Gracilaria
foloferia, Padina tetrastomatica, Caurelrpa recemosa and Ulva
lactuca was evaluated against both Gram negative and Gram positive human
pathogenic bacteria. Methanol extracts of all seaweeds test exhibited broad
spectrum of antibacterial activity. Green algal members showed higher antibacterial
activity than red. Escherchia coli alone resistant to all the seaweed
extracts except Sargassum tencerium (Kandhasamy and
EXTRACTION OF BIOACTIVITY
Methanol extracts obtained from the brown algae such as Laminaria angustata,
Undaria pinnatifida, Rhodomela larix and Sargassum gracilis
found along the coast of Japan inhibited the several kinds of pathogenic bacteria.
The extract prepared from Sargassum gracilis strongly inhibited the growth
of Bacillus mesentericus (Saito and Nakamura, 1951).
Naqvi et al. (1981) tested the antimicrobial
potential of ethanolic extracts of marine algae and found the highest efficiency
in the brown seaweeds. Hornsey and Hide (1974) extracted
antimicrobial compounds using acetone from British marine alga Codium fragile.
Ethanolic extracts of eight species of seaweeds showed bioactivity against
Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria against pathogenic fungi (De
Campos-Takaki et al., 1988).Crude extracts obtained from the whole
plant, stem, leafy- portion, receptacle and vesicle of brown alga Sargassum
weightii found along the South east coast of India were tested for their
antibacterial activity. Extracts of leafy- portion and whole plant exhibited
good antibacterial activity (Rao, 1990). Three different
solvents viz., benzene, chloroform and methanol were used successively for the
extraction of bioactive substances in 5 seaweeds. These extracts were tested
against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains for their antibacterial
activity. The chloroform extract exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity
(Sastry and Rao, 1994). Eight southern African seaweeds
(Phaeophyta-5,Rhodophyta-2 and Chlorophyta-1) were evaluated
for antibacterial potential. The extracts were prepared in ethanol from the
selected portions such as meristem, stripe and blade( in the case of member
of the Laminariales ) and tested for anti bacterial activity against
10 Gram positive and Gram negative food-associated bacteria by agar diffusion
method. Extracts of the intercalary meristem of Ecklonia radiate showed
significantly greater (p<0.1) antibacterial activity than corresponding blade
and stripe extracts whereas the extracts of Laminaria pallida possessed
uniform distribution of antimicrobial activity throughout its thallus against
all the test bacteria. Those seaweeds showing apical growth, the antibacterial
activity of meristem extracts was either significantly greater (p<0.1) or
equal to that of thallus extracts. Thallus extracts never exhibited greater
antibacterial activity than meristem extracts (Vlachos et
al., 1999). Ethanol extracts obtained from 22 seaweeds (red-3, brown-13
and green-6) collected from the Karachi coast were investigated for marine shrimp
cytotoxity. Of the algal extracts, extracts of brown seaweeds such as Stoechospermum
marginatum, Sargassum swatzii, S. binderi, Spatoglossum
aspermum, Stokeyia indica and a green alga Caulerpa racemosa
showed significant bioactivity. The n-hexane soluble fractions of the ethanolic
extracts of Sargassum marginatum and S. swartzii found to be responsible
for the activity whereas methanol soluble fractions of Sargassum aspermum
and S. binderi were most active. The water extract of S. indica and
Caulerpa racemosa exhibited the most prominent bioactivity (LC50
value below 70 μg mL-1) when compared with the ethanol extracts
and their fractions. Cytotoxic activity may be due to the presence of compounds
with polarity (Ara et al., 1999).
The ethanol extracts of Sargassum asperum and S. swatzii and
methanol and chloroform soluble fractions of S. variable inhibited the
growth of all the test bacteria. However, methanol soluble fractions of
S. binderi, S. tenerrimum, S. variegatum, S. marginatum
and B. leptopoda inhibited all the test bacteria except Psedomonas
aeruginosa (Ara et al., 2002). The crude
extracts obtained in hexane, chloroform and ethanol from six seaweeds belongs
to Rhodopyta and Chlorophyta occurring along the coast of North
Ceara Coast (Northeast Brazil) were evaluated for antibacterial activity through
single disc method. Extract obtained in hexane from Amansia multifida
strongly inhibited the growth of enteric Gram negative strains such as Enterobacter
aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Salmonella typhi, S. choleraesuis, Serratia marcescens,
Vibro cholerae and the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtils and
Staphylococcus aureus (Lima-Filho et al.,
DYNAMICS OF BIOACTIVITY
Numbers of factors influenced on the bioactive potential of seaweeds are reproductive
stage (Moreau et al., 1984; Hornsey
and Hide, 1985), location (Almodovar, 1964; Moreau
et al., 1984) and seasonality (Almodovar, 1964;
Hornsey and Hide, 1974; Combaut
et al., 1981; Moreau et al., 1984).
The crude extract of most of the seaweeds showed high bioactive potential during
their fertility period (Pesando and Carm, 1984). Variation
in antimicrobial activity as well as in concentration of the active halogenated
sesquiterpenes from various collection of Laurencia obtusa were differed
(Olesen et al., 1963; Caccamese
et al., 1979, 1980). Hexane, ethyl acetate
and methanol extracts of Sargassum desfontainesii, Halopteris scoparia,
Stypopodium zonale, Codium intertextum and Ulva rigida
collected from the littoral of Tenerife during both autumn and winter) were
screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The methanol extracts
showed very high antibacterial activity, particularly against Bacillus cereus
and B. subtilis. The methanol extracts of brown and green seaweeds collected
during autumn did not exhibit antifungal activity. Whereas methanol extract
of Codium intertektum collected in winter showed inhibitory effect against
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and three species of Candida (Febles
et al., 1995). Extracts of 14 different species of seaweed were tested
against the pathogenic bacteria. The extracts of seaweed collected at one location
were more active than same species collected at another location. Extracts of
seaweeds collected from the post monsoon season were much more active than they
collected from other seasons. The antimicrobial potential of seaweeds collected
during the post monsoon season was the highest in case of green alga Chaetomorpha
antennina, whereas it was least in red alga Hypnea valentiae. Among
the bacteria tested Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive and Salmonella
paratyphi B was least sensitive. Fully-grown red seaweed Gracilaria corticata
showed maximum antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus
compared to medium and young stages of growth. The middle part of the thalli
of fully-grown alga showed maximum bioactive potential compared with the terminal
part and the basal part with hold fast (Vidyavathi and Sridhar,
1991). Seaweeds collected from the backwaters of Muttukadu possessed higher
antibacterial potential than the same species collected from coastal waters.
Significant seasonal differences in antibacterial activity of seaweeds were
found in specimens collected at seven localities along the coast of Tamil Nadu,
India (Arunkumar and Rengasamy, 2000a).
BIOACTIVITY AGAINST PLANT PATHOGEN
Fenical et al. (1973) reported two sesquiterpenes,
zonarol and isozonarol from a brown alga, Dictyopteris zonarioides. Neither
substances possessed antibacterial properties, but strongly inhibited the growth
of ten species of pathogenic fungi causing diseases in plants. Lipid extracts
of more than twenty algae found along the coast of Eastern Sicily inhibited
the growth of some plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas malvaciarum
and Tobacco Mosaic Virus under in vitro (Caccamese
et al., 1980).
Extracts obtained from seaweeds sprayed on plants reduced the incidence of
Botrytis cinerea (graymould) on straw berries, Erysiphe polygoni
(powdery mildew) on turnips and damping off of tomato seedlings (Kulik,
1995). The biological activity of ethanolic extracts of some commonly occurring
seaweed found along the coast of kwazulu-Natal, South Africa was conducted in
vitro against two phytopathogenic fungi such as Verticillium, sps.
and Rhizoctonia solani. Extracts of Caulerpa filiformis, Ulva
rigida, Zonaria toumefortii, Hypnea spicifera, Gelidium
alottiorum and Osmundaria serrata inhibited the fungal growth by
more than 50%. Whereas the extracts of red seaweeds, Spyridia cupressian
and Beckerella pinnatifida showed minimum antifungal activity (Barreto
et al., 1997).
Ethanolic extracts of seventeen species of seaweeds were tested against the
plant pathogenic root infecting fungi Marcophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia
solani, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum. Extracts of Spatoglossum
asperum and Spatoglossum inhibited the radial growth of the fungi
such as Marcophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium
solani in vitro when used at 6 mg-1 disc. Extracts obtained from
the brown alga Stoechospormum marginatum and green alga Codium iyengarii
control only the growth of F. solani at the same concentration (Ara
et al., 1998). A meroditerpenoid metabolite has been isolated from
the brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia and characterized as Methoxybifurcarenone.
Methoxy bifurcarenone posses antifungal activity against three tomato pathogenic
fungi, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysperium sp. mycopersici
and Verticillium alboatrum and antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium
tumefaciens and Escherichia coli under in vitro (Bennanmara
et al., 1999).
Eleven seaweeds were collected from seven different sites-one from the backwaters
of Muttukadu, Chennai and six regions along the coast,Tamil Nadu,India and tested
for antibacterial potential against the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas
oryzae pv.oryzae bacterial blight in rice. Unsaponified fractions of red
and green seaweeds exhibited maximum antibacterial activity followed by petroleum
ether extracts, lipophilic fractions, diethyl ether extracts, saponified fractions,
chloroform extracts and methanol extracts. However, methonal extracts of brown
seaweeds showed the highest antibacterial activity followed by lipophilic fractions,
unsaponified fractions, ethanol extracts, saponified fractions, chloroform:
methanol (2:1v/v) extracts and chloroform extracts. The antibacterial potential
of the seaweeds was in the following order: Enteromorpha flexuosa>Sargassum
wightii>Turbinaria conides>Padina boergesenii> Gracilaria
edulis>G.blodgettii>Hypnea valentiae = H.musciformis>Spyridia
insignis>Chnoospora minima> Ulva lactuca (Arunkumar
and Rengasamy, 2000a). Petroleum ether extracts and unsaponified fractions
of red and green seaweeds and methanol extracts, lipophlic fractions and unsaponified
fractions of brown seaweeds separated on TLC were tested for their efficacy
against the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae causing
bacterial blight in rice. Two active zones from red seaweeds, one to five from
brown seaweeds and two to three from green seaweeds were isolated through TLC
profiles. Among eleven seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis, Sargassum wightii
and Enteromorpha flexuosa showed high antibacterial activity. The Rf
0.30 substance obtained from unsaponified fractions of Enteromorpha flexuosa
showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the test bacterium Xanthomonas
oryzae pv. oryzae (Arunkumar and Rengasamy, 2000b).
Fatty acids predominant with palmitic acids obtained from the petroleum ether
extract of green alga Enteromorpha flexuosa exhibiting antibacterial
activity against the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv.
oryzae (Arunkumar et al., 2001). The sulphoglycerolipid
1-0-palmitoyl-3-0(6'-sulpho-α-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol isolated from
the methanolic extract of the brown seaweed Sargassum wightii inhibited
the growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which causes bacterial
blight of rice (Arunkumar et al., 2005). Extract
obtained from the red alga Soleria robusta amended at 0.5 or 1% w/w individually
or incombination with plant growth promoting bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa
showed significant (p<0.05) control on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi
such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium
solani infected in pepper roots. Combined use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and extract of Soleria robusta showed better control of Macrophomina
phaseolina infection than they used individually. The brown seaweed Padina
pavonia was found effective against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium
solani when used with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and against Rhizoctonia
solani either used alone or with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extract
of brown alga Stokeyia indica also reduced the infection of Rhizoctonia
solani and Fusarium solani. Combined use of compatible strain of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa with seaweed holds promising effect. Seaweeds
therefore could be used for the control of root infecting fungi affecting peppers
(Sultana et al., 2005). Antimicrobial screening
of 12 different seaweeds extracts namely Chaetomorpha antennina,
Laurencia obtusa, Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria verucosa,
Grateloupia lithophila, Padina boergesenii, Sarassum wighti,
Turbinaria conoieds, Halimeda tuna and Ulva lactuca was
carried out. The crude extracts were tested against the phytopathogenic bacterium
Pseudomonas syringae causing leaf spot disease of the medicinal plant
Gymnema sylvestre. The methanolic extracts of Sargassun wightii
showed maximum activity followed by ethyl acetate compared to that of other
organic solvent extracts (Kumar et al., 2008).
BIOACTIVITY OF FRACTIONATED COMPOUNDS
The compounds purified through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
from three distinct TLC zones obtained from the crude lipid extracts of red
alga Spyridia filamentosa were tested against five human pathogenic microorganisms.
Of these, 19 showed detectable peaks (seven HPLC peaks from TLC zone 5, five
peaks from TLC zone 9 and 7 peaks from TLC zone 12). Activities by single HPLC
peaks were generally against one or two assay microorganisms. The total number
of biologically active compounds in a given alga is shown to be substantially
greater than can be ascertained by assaying whole algal extracts (Tovar
and Ballantine, 2000). The polar and non-polar extracts obtained from the
seaweeds such as Gracilria tikvahiae, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata
and Sargassum fluitans were screened for antibacterial and antifungal
potential against seven microbial pathogens by the agar diffusion method. Non-polar
extracts of Gracilaria tikvahiae inhibited the growth of more than four
microorganisms. Extracts separated using column chromatography were tested against
the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and fungus Candida albicans.
There are eight fractions obtained in the petroleum either from the crude extract
of Sargassum fluitans exhibited high bioactivity against C.albicans
as MIC 0.16 μg mL-1 (Oranday et al.,
CHEMISTRY OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS
Acrylic acid and its related compounds: Acrylic acid is the common antibacterial
components occur in many red, brown and green seaweeds as well as in various
species of phytoplankton (Challenger et al., 1957;
Katayama, 1962; Sieburth, 1960).
Katayama (1964) isolated bioactive acrylic acid from
seaweeds. Hodgkin et al. (1966) isolated dipotassium
2,3-dibromobenzyl alcohol and 4,5-disulfate (lanosol disulfate) from the red
alga Polysiphonia lanosa.
Dimethyl sulfide, acrylic acid, CH2=CH-COOH isolated from the seaweeds such
as Polysiphonia fastigiata, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha sp.
displayed antibacterial property (Haas, 1935; Challenger
and Simpson, 1948; Bywood and Challenger, 1953;
Cantoni and Anderson, 1956; Armstrong and Boalch, 1960;
Allen and Dawson, 1960). Acrylic acid isolated from
the Gracilaria corticata and Ulva lactuca was responsible for
the antimicrobial activity (Bandara et al., 1988).
Lipids, fatty acids and their related compounds: Pratt
et al. (1944) first isolated an antibacterial fatty acid Chlorellin
from the unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgarize. Algal lipids
contain peptides, toxins, sterols, hydrocarbons, growth factors, fatty acids,
antibiotics, triglycerides (Fogg, 1962; Lefevre,
1964; Sieburth, 1969; Hellebust,
1974). Lipid extracts of brown seaweeds such as Neria filiformis
and Sporochnus pedenculatus inhibited the growth of several pathogenic
bacteria tested and no efficacy was found in the extract of green seaweeds (Pesando
and Carm, 1984). Lipid extracts of 24 red and brown seaweeds mainly from
Eastern Sicily were tested for antimicrobial activity against four microorganisms.
Some of the extracts showed activity against bacteria, while none was active
against yeast and fungi (Caccamese et al., 1985).
A novel long chain fatty ester, pentyl hentriacontanoate 1 and an orange red
pigment, caulerpin 2 were isolated and characterized from a red alga Chondria
armata. The pigment, Caulerpin hitherto known to be a constituent of green
algal genus Caulerpa sps also reported here for the first time from the
red alga (Govenkar and Wahidulla, 2000). The chemical
composition of the Bery brown seaweed Cystoseira erinita collected along
the Eastern Mediterranean coast isolated 19 compounds from volatile fractions
and 15 compounds in the polar fraction and they were main lipid classes and
their fatty acids showed bioactivity (Kamenarska et al.,
Phenols and their related compounds: Mautner et
al. (1953) reported that the bromophenol from ethanol extracts of Rhodomelalerin
and Symphocladia gracilics exhibited bioactivity against several pathogenic
bacteria. The bioactive brominated phenols, polyphenols, tannins and tannic
acid were isolated from seaweeds (Ogino and Taki, 1957;
Peguy, 1964; Sieburth and Conover,
1965; Craigie and Gruenig, 1967). Volatile organic
acids called Sarganin complex was isolated from the Cympolin birbata
and Sargassum natans showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity (Martinez,
et al., 1964, 1966). Laurnin and
laurentin from red alga Laurencia glandulifera and Laurinterol
from Laurencia intermedia showed biological activity (Irie
et al., 1965). A novel brominated phenolic derivative 2, 3-dibromo benzyl
alcohol and 4, 5-disulphate potassium salt were isolated from red alga Polysiphonia
lanora exhibiting antibacterial activity (Hodgkin et
al., 1966). Phenols extracted from seaweeds posesses antibacterial properties
against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (Stoffelen
et al., 1972; Glombitza, 1974). An antiviral
halogenated acetylene and chondriol was isolated in the red alga Laurencia
sp. (Fenical et al., 1974; Fenical
and Norris, 1975). Devon and Scott (1972) identified
a similar compound as phytol constituent of Chlorophyll from the active fractions
exhibiting bioactivity from the members of Rhodophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae
and Cyanophyceae. Fusetani and Hashimoto (1975) isolated
palmitic acid from Ulva pertusa showing antibacterial property. Ohta
(1977) isolated debromolaurinterol in the calciphileus alga, Marginisporum
aberrans which inhibit the bacterial pathogen Bacillus subtilis.
Burreson et al. (1976) detected similar compounds
in the Asparagopsis taxiformis.
Organic acids and phenolic compounds, especially polyphenols and tannins have
also been shown to have antimicrobial activities (Glombitza,
1979; Chuyen et al., 1982). Volatile compounds
from seven species of brown algae wide spread in the Black sea were obtained
by distillation extraction and investigated by GC/MS Different groups of compounds
were identified: hydrocarbons alkylated benzenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes,
ketones,acids, esters, terpenes, sulfur and chlorine- containing compounds.
On the basis of their qualitative and semi-quantitative composition some conclusions
about the taxonomy and evolution of the species investigated are proposed. The
functions of some volatile compounds are discussed (Kamenarska
et al., 2002).
Terpenes and their related compounds: Seaweeds are an extensive and
prolific source of secondary metabolites, among which the diterpenoids constitute
one of the most abundant groups attendant with profound ecological and
pharmacological significance. Over 170 diterpenoids belonging to about 32 skeleted
pattern, some of which are of unprecedented and unexpected variation are known.
The bio-activities attributed to some of their metabolities include ichthyotoxicity,
phyotoxicity, antibiosis, cytotoxicity, antiviral, antifungal, insecticidal
antifeedant properties in addition to activity against the Eatumor in mice.
The logical bio-genetic derivation from acyclic precursor for some important
groups and the role of diterpenoids in chemical defense and chemotaxonomy are
noted (Bheemasankara Rao et al., 1994).
Katayama (1962) observed that terpenes isolated from
seaweeds inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia
coli. Chesters and Scott (1956) observed antibacterial
properties of ether extracts of Halidrys siliquosa, Pelvetia canaliculata,
Laminaria digitata and Polysiphonia fastigata. Fenical
et al. (1972) reported two sesquiterpenes, zonarol and isozonarol
from a brown alga, Dictyopteris zonarioides. Neither substance possessed
antibacterial activity, but strongly inhibited the growth of ten species of
pathogenic fungi causing diseases in plants. Fenical et
al. (1974) isolated a multitude of halogenated acetones and butenones
from Asparagopsis taxiformis, which strongly inhibit the growth of bacteria
Staphylococcus, Fusarium and Vibrio. Fenical
et al. (1973, 1974) found that chondriol
and cycloeudesmol isolated in Chondria oppositiclada and rhodophytin
isolated in Laurencia pacifica inhibited the growth of Staphylococus
aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Mycobacterium smegmtis and
Candita albicans. Fenical et al. (1972),
reported two sesquiterpenes, zonarol and isozonarol from a brown alga, Dictyopteris
zonarioides. Neither substances exhibited antibacterial activity, but strongly
inhibited the growth of ten species of pathogenic fungi causing diseases in
Faulkner et al. (1977) extracted diterpene,
pachidictyol as bioactive compounds. Fattorusso et al.
(1976) extracted the bioactive diterpenes, Dictyol A and Dictyol B from
the red alga Dictyota dichotoma var. implexa. Caccamese
et al. (1980) isolated bioactive non-isoprenoid cyclic ether, Laurencyenine
from Laurencea obtusa. Caccamese et al. (1980)
identified the antibacterial compounds in the red alga Laurencia decidua.
Obtusadiol isolated from Laurencia obtusa found to be active against
Bacillus subtilis (Howard and Fenical, 1978).
Caulerpenyne, a sesquiterpene was active only against Gram positive bacteria
was isolated from the green alga Caulerpa prolifera (Amico
et al., 1978). Oligoanyl ether, diphlorethol and oligoaryls often
substituted with aryl ether (Fucophlorethols) have all been isolated by Glombitza
(1979) in Fucaceae. Pullaiah et al. (1985)
isolated Dictyoxetane, a novel diterpene from the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma
found in the Indian Ocean. Parekh (1985) reported
that extracts of fraction A obtained from the crude extract of green alga Caulerpa
taxifolia and Enteromorpha intestinalis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus
Seven new diterpenes and one already known diterpene were isolated from the
brown alga, Dictyota divaricata, found along the Great Barrier Reef region
of northern Australia. Of the seven new diterpenes, five are xenicane derivatives
and two are hydroazulenoid diterpenes (Konig et al.,
1991). The bioactive deoxylapachol was isolated from the New Zealand brown
alga, Landsburgia quercifolia (Perry et al.,
1991). Amentadione-1-methyl ether and a new meroterpenoid identified
as 11- hydroxyamentadione were isolated from the chloroform - methanol extract
of Cystoseira usneoides (Urones et al., 1993).
A new xenicane-type diterpene called dipopholide and four known diterpenoids
such as acetoxyerenulide, acetylcoriacenone, isoacetylcoriacenone and hydroxyacetyldictyolal
were isolated from the brown alga Dilophus ligulatus (syn. spiralis
(Montagne) Hamel). They exhibit cytotoxic activity against several types of
mammalian cells: human nasopharynse carcinoma cells (KB), human ling carcinoma
cells (NSCLC-N6 ), murine leukemia cells (P-388) and murine leukemia cells expressing
the multi-drug- resistance gene, mdr (P-388/Dox) (Noureddine
and Pauel, 1993).
Bioactive three terpenoids were isolated from the methanol extract of the brown
alga Padina tetrastromatica (Parameswaran et al.,
1996). Two new monoterpenes called usneiodones E and usneiodones Z isolated
from the brown seaweed Cystoseria usneoides compounds exhibited antitumoural
and antiviral activities (Urones et al., 1992).
1-dimethyl cystalgerone and a new monoterpene, identified as Cyclo-1-dimethyl
cystalgerone isolated from the brown alga Cystoseria baccata showed bioactivity.
The bioactive amentadione-1-methyl ether and 6-cisamentadione-1-methyl
ether were isolated from the brown alga Cystoseria abies- marina (Basabe
et al., 1992).
A diterpenoid showing antimicrobial property was isolated from the brown seaweed
Dictyota baratayresii (Norris and Fenical, 1982).
De Silva et al. (1982) found that the antibacterial activity of methanolic
extract of the brown seaweed Stoechospermum marginatum was active against
Staphylococcous aureus. The active constituents were spatane, diterpenoids,
19-acetoxy, 5, 15, 18-trihydroxyspata-13, 16-diene. Amico
et al. (1982) isolated (2E, 6E) -2 -(10, 11
-Dihydroxy geranial geranial)-6 Methylquinol and (2E, 6E)-2-(10,
11- dihydroxy-geranyl geranyl)-6-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone from the brown
alga Cystoseira stricta. Enoki et al. (1983)
identified four new diterpines with 9-membered ring named as dictytriene A and
B, dictyone and dictyriol reported from the brown seaweed Dicyota dichotoma.
Caulerpenyne was very active against KB as well as against the Gram-positive
test bacteria (Hodgson, 1984). A high bioactivity was
found in the extracts of red alga Chondrococcous hornemanni and the active
component identified in the extract was dihalogenated monoterpenes (Bandara
et al, 1988).
The ethyl acetate extract of Caulerpa racemosa yielded two new red pigments
which are Cauleripin analogues and a new sesquiterpenoid was also identified
as 10-keto -3, 7, 11-trimethyldodecanoic acid (Anjaneyulu
et al., 1991). Three new diterpenes and 14 known brominated and non-brominated
diterpenes have been isolated from the red alga Laurenicia saitoi collected
along the Isoyake areas of Japan coast. Some of these diterpenes showed significant
inhibitory activity against young abalone (Haliotis discuss hannai) and
young sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus nudus and S.intermedius),
thus suggesting that these metabolites provide a chemical defense against marine
herbivorous animals in Isoyake areas (Kurata et al.,
1998). Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a re-
arranged carbon skeleton were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria
armata. The structure was characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in
particular ID and 2D- NMR. (Ciavatta et al.,
2001). As like previously known elatol and iso-obtusol, 2 halogenated C15
acctogenins, named as lembyne-A and lembyne-B isolated from an unrecorded Laurencia
sps. collected along the coast of Malaysian showed bioactivity against some
marine bacteria (Vairappan et al., 2001).
Sterols and its related compounds: Irie et al.
(1966, 1970) isolated laurinterol and debromolaurinterol
from red alga Laurencia intermedia, which inhibited the growth of Bacillus
subtilis. Sims et al. (1971, 1973)
isolated pacifenol, johnstonol and prepacifenol from the red alga Laurencia
sp. which inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium
segmantis. Glomnbitza et al. (1973) reported the presence of phloroglucinol
in the brown algal genera such as Cladostephus, Dictyota, Fucus,
Chorada, Laminaria and Saccorhiza. Glombitza
et al. (1973, 1975) isolated trifuhalol (in
Halidrys siliquosa), diphlorethol, bifuhalol (in Cystoseira tamariscifolia),
difucol, trifucol and tetrafucol (in Fucus vesiculosus). Hirschfeld
et al. (1973) isolated the bioactive substance Pachydictyol A from
Pachydictyon coriacerum. Hager et al. (1966)
isolated halogenated and brominated organic compounds exhibiting antimicrobial
activity against human pathogenic Gram positive bacteria from the red alga Laurencia
species. Rao and Pullaiah (1982) isolated 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-pentadecan-2-one
(I), trans-Phytol (II), Fucosterol (III) and digiprolactone or loliolide, (1,3-dihydroxy-3,5,5-trimethyl
cyclohexylidene -4 acetic acid lactone, (IV) from the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica.
They also isolated 6,10,14-trimethyl Pentadecane -2-one (O), Plytol (II) and
Clinasterol (III) from the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia.
Three new sterols named as decortinol, isodecortinol and decortinone have been
isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble portion of the extract of a green alga
Codium decorticatum. Clerosterol and 3-0-β-D-galacto- Pyranosyl
clenrosterol were also extracted for the first time from this alga (Ahmad
et al., 1993). The chemical composition of the brown alga Cystoseira
erinita Bery from the Eastern Mediterranean was investigated. Fourteen sterols
have been identified, five of them for the first time in algae. The structure
of one new sterol was established. The origin of seven sterols with short side
chains was discussed (Kamenarska et al., 2002).
Alkaloids and other compounds: Martinez et al.
(1964) isolated an antibacterial principle termed Sarganin complex
from the ether extract of a brown alga, Sargassum natans and red alga
Chondria lithoralis which exerted a wide range of bioactivity against
human pathogenic bacteria, fungi and KB tumor cells. Aguilar-Santos
and Doty (1968) isolated Caulerpicin and Caulerpin as toxic
components from green algae such as C. racemosa var. clarifera, C.sertularioides
and C. serrulata.
The water soluble chlorophyll derivatives, terpenes, phenols of seaweeds inhibited
the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Blaauw-Jansen, 1954;
Jorgensen, 1962; Aubert et al.,
1966; Sieburth and Conover, 1965) showed that tannin
found in the brown alga Sargassum natan inhibited the growth of Psendomonas
and Vibrio but not the Sarganis complex. They also pointed out that tannic
acid extracted from the brown alga Sargassum natan inhibited the growth
of pathogenic bacteria at concentration greater than 0.01%. Martinez
et al. (1963) reported that benzene and ethyl- ether were suitable
solvents for extracting the antibiotic principle from the fresh and dry Sargasasum
natans (L) J. Meyen and Chondria littoralis Harvey to obtain the
bioactive Sarganin and Chonalgin. Wratten
and Faulkner (1976) isolated a mixture of cyclic polysulfides and their
oxidation products showing bioactivity from the red algae Chondria californica.
Shelat (1979) found methanol and dimethyl-formamide extracts
of Sargassum plagiophyllum (Mert) C.Ag. active against Gram positive
bacteria while acetone extract of Sargassum tenerriaum J.Ag. showed activity
against all the strains tested. Shelat (1979) reported
highest content of fatty acid in red algae Hypnea muciformis and lowest
in Cystoseira indica. The peptide known as aurantiamide acetate and a
new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (di-aurantiamide acetate) was identified
from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera showing bioactivity (Wahidulla
et al., 1991). The fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid
identified as fucoxanthin was isolated from a brown alga Scytosiphon lomentaria
(Mori et al., 2004).
In conclusion, Seaweeds occurring along the coast of the world would be a potential and promising source of bioactive compounds. This renewable resources could also be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control the pathogens causing diseases in crops.
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